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PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

The study of relationships


involving heat,
mechanical work, and
other aspect of energy
and energy transfer.

CHAPTER 16:
Thermodynamics
(5 Hours)
Thermodynamic system is any
collection of objects that is
convenient to regard as a unit,
and it is refers to a definite
quantity of matter enclosed by
boundaries or surfaces such as
gas in cylinder. 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Learning Outcome:
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

16.1 First law of thermodynamics (1 hour)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Distinguish between thermodynamic work done on the
system and work done by the system.
Derive expression for work,

W PdV
and determine work from the area under the p-V graph.
State and use first law of thermodynamics,

Q U W

2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.1 First law of thermodynamics
16.1.1 Signs for heat, Q and work, W
Sign convention for heat, Q :

Q = positive value Heat flow into the system


Q = negative value Heat flow out of the system
Sign convention for work, W:

W = positive value Work done by the system


W = negative value Work done on the system
Figures 16.1 show a thermodynamic system may exchange
energy with its surroundings (environment).
(a) Surroundings (b) Surroundings
(environment) (environment)

System System
Q0 W 0 Q0 W 3 0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
(c) Surroundings (d) Surroundings
(environment) (environment)

System System
Q0 W 0 Q0 W 0

(e) Surroundings (f) Surroundings


(environment) (environment)

System System
Q0 W 0 Q0 W 0
Figure 16.1
4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example for work done by the system and work done on the
system are shown in Figure 16.2.
Motion of
Motion of piston
piston

Air
Air
Air
Initially Expansion Compression
Figure 16.2
When the air is expanded, the molecule loses kinetic
energy and does positive work on piston.
When the air is compressed, the molecule gains kinetic
energy and does negative work on piston. 5
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.1.2 Work done in the thermodynamics system
Consider the infinitesimal work done by the gas (system) during
the small expansion, dx in a cylinder with a movable piston as
shown in Figure 16.3.

A
Initial Gas

dx
A
Final F

Figure 16.3
Suppose that the cylinder has a cross sectional area, A and the
pressure exerted by the gas (system) at the piston face is P.
6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
The work, dW done by the gas is given by
dW Fdx cos where 0 and F PA
dW PAdx and Adx dV
dW PdV
In a finite change of volume from V1 to V2,
V2
dW V1
PdV
V2
W PdV (16.1)
V1
where W : work done
P : gas pressure
V1 : initial volume of the gas
V2 : final volume of the gas
7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
For a change in volume at constant pressure, P
W PV
W PV2 V1 Work done at constant
pressure
For any process in the system which the volume is constant (no
change in volume), the work done is

W 0 Work done at constant


volume
Figures 16.4 show the pressure, P against volume, V graph
(PV diagram) where

Area under the PV graph = Work done

8
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
(a) P (b) P
Stimulation 16.1
P1 1 P2 2

P2 2 P1 1
W 0 W 0
0 V1 V2 V 0 V2 V1 V
(c) P (d) P
P2 2
1 2
P1
W 0
Figure 16.4 W P1 V2 V1 0
P1 1
0 V1 V2 V 0 V1 9
V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.1.3 First law of thermodynamics
states : The heat (Q) supplied to a system is equal to the

increase in the internal energy (U) of the system


plus the work done (W) by the system on its
surroundings.
OR
(16.2) Q U W U U 2 U1
and

where Q : quantity of heat supplied


W : work done
U : change in the internal energy
U1 : initial internal energy
U 2 : final internal energy
For infinitesimal change in the energy,

dQ dU dW
10
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
The first law of thermodynamics is a generalization of the
principle of conservation of energy to include energy transfer
through heat as well as mechanical work.
The change in the internal energy (U) of a system during any
thermodynamic process is independent of path. For example a
thermodynamics system goes from state 1 to state 2 as shown in
Figure 16.5. P

P1 1 3

P2 2
4
Figure 16.5 0 V1 V2 V
U12 U142 U132
11
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
The internal energy depends only on temperature of the
system. If the initial and final temperature (state) of the system
is the same, hence

U U 2 U1 0
f
because U nRT
2
thus U 2 U1
The change in the internal energy also zero in the cyclic
thermodynamic process (repeated process) because the
initial and final state of the system is the same.
The internal energy is not depend on the volume of the
system.

12
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example 1 :
A vessel contains an ideal gas at pressure 150 kPa. When the gas
is heated it expands at constant pressure until the temperature
increases by 100 K. The amount of heat absorbed by the gas is
4.36 kJ. However, if the gas at its initial condition is heated at
constant volume until the temperature increases by 100 K, the
amount of heat absorbed is 3.11 kJ. Determine
a. the value of ,
b. the work done by the gas when it expands at constant
pressure,
c. the change in volume of the gas when the gas is heated at
constant pressure and the temperature rises by 100 K.

13
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : PP PV 150 10 3
Pa; TP TV 100 K;
QP 4.36 103 J; QV 3.11103 J;
a. By applying the equation for molar heat capacities,
For constant pressure: QP nCP TP
QP nCP 100 (1)

For constant volume: QV nCV TV


QV nCV 100 (2)
QP C P
(2) (1):
QV CV
CP 4.36 10 3

CV 3.11103
1.40

14
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P
P PV 150 10 3
Pa; TP TV 100 K;
QP 4.36 103 J; QV 3.11103 J;
b. By using the 1st law of thermodynamics,
For constant pressure: QP U WP
U QP WP (1)
For constant volume: Q U W and W 0
V V V
U QV (2)
(2) = (1): Q Q W
V P P
3.11103 4.36 103 WP
WP 1.25 10 J3

c. The change in the volume of the constant pressure process is


WP PP VP
1.25 103 150 103 VP
VP 8.33 103 m3 15
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
P(kPa )
Example 2 :
300 D C

150 B
Figure 16.6
A
0 2.0 4.0 V (102 m3 )
A vessel contains an ideal gas in condition A, as shown in Figure
16.6. When the condition of the gas changes from A to that of B,
the gas system undergoes a heat transfer of 10.5 kJ. When the gas
in condition B changes to condition C, there is a heat transfer of
3.2 kJ. Calculate
a. the work done in the process ABC,
b. the change in the internal energy of the gas in the process ABC,
c. the work done in the process ADC,
d. the total amount of heat transferred in the process ADC. 16
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution :PA PB 150 103 Pa; PC PD 300 103 Pa;
VA VD 2.0 102 m3 ;VB VC 4.0 102 m3
QAB 10.5 103 J; QBC 3.2 103 J
a. The work done in the process ABC is given by
W W W but W
ABC AB BC BC 0
WABC PA VB VA
2
WABC 150 10 4.0 10 2.0 10
3 2

WABC 3000 J
b. By applying the 1st law of thermodynamics for ABC, thus
QABC U ABC WABC
U ABC QAB QBC WABC

U ABC 10.5 10 3.2 10 3000
3 3

U ABC 1.07 104 J
17
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution :PA PB 150 103 Pa; PC PD 300 103 Pa;
VA VD 2.0 102 m3 ;VB VC 4.0 102 m3
QAB 10.5 103 J; QBC 3.2 103 J
c. The work done in the process ADC is given by
W W W but W 0
ADC AD DC AD
WADC PD VC VD
2
WADC 300 10 4.0 10 2.0 10
3 2

WADC 6000 J
d. By applying the 1st law of thermodynamics for ADC, thus
Q U W and U
ADC ADC ADC ADC U ABC
QADC U ABC WADC
QADC 1.07 104 6000
QADC 1.67 10 J
4
18
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Exercise 16.1 :
Given R = 8.31 J mol1 K1
1. The density of nitrogen gas at STP is 1.25 kg m3. Determine
the specific heat capacity at constant pressure of nitrogen gas
if the specific heat capacity at constant volume is
743 J kg1 K1. (Given 1 atm = 1.01105 Pa)
ANS. : 1040 J kg1 K1
2. Gas within a chamber passes through the cycle shown in
Figure 16.7. Determine the energy transferred by the
system as heat during process CA if the
energy added as heat QAB during process
AB is 20.0 J, no energy is transferred as
heat during process BC, and the nett work
done during the cycle is 15.0 J.
ANS. : 5.0 J
Figure 16.7
19
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Learning Outcome:
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

16.2 Thermodynamics processes (2 hours)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
State and explain thermodynamics processes:
Isothermal, U= 0
Adiabatic, Q = 0
Isovolumetric, W = 0
Isobaric, P = 0
Sketch PV graph to distinguish between isothermal
process and adiabatic process.
Determine the initial and final state of thermodynamic
processes by using the following formula:

For isothermal process: PV constant

For adiabatic process : PV constant and TV 1 constant


20
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.2 Thermodynamics processes
There are four specific kinds of thermodynamic processes. It is
Isothermal process
Adiabatic process
Isochoric (isovolumetric) process
Isobaric process

16.2.1 Isothermal process


is defined as a process that occurs at constant temperature.
i.e.
U 0
Thus Q U W Q W
Isothermal changes
When a gas expands or compresses isothermally (constant
temperature) thus
PV constant (16.3)
21
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Equation (16.3) can be expressed as

P1V1 P2V2 Animation 16.1

If the gas expand isothermally, thus V2>V1 W = positive


If the gas compress isothermally, thus V2<V1 W = negative
16.2.2 Adiabatic process
is defined as a process that occurs without heat transfer into
or out of a system i.e.

Q0 thus Q U W
U U 2 U1 W
For example, the compression stroke in an internal combustion
engine is an approximately adiabatic process.

22
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Note :
For Adiabatic expansion (V2>V1), W = positive value but
U =negative value hence the internal energy of the
system decreases.
For Adiabatic compression (V2<V1), W = negative value but
U =positive value hence the internal energy of the
system increases.
Adiabatic changes
Consider the 1st law of thermodynamics written in differential
(infinitesimal) form:
dQ dU dW (16.4)
Since that the internal energy is independent of the volume
and is related to the temperature by the molar heat capacity
at constant volume, therefore
dU dQV nCV dT
23
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Then equation (16.4) can be expressed as
dQ nCV dT dW where dW PdVand dQ 0
nCV dT PdV 0 (16.5)
Equation of adiabatic changes in temperature and volume
From the equation of state for an ideal gas,
nRT
PV nRT then P substitute in eq. (16.5)
Therefore V
nRT
nCV dT dV 0
V RT
CV dT dV
V
dT R dV
0 and R CP CV
T CV V
24
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
dT CP CV dV
0
T CV V
dT CP dV C
1 0 and P
T CV V CV
1
dT dV
0 (16.6)
T V
For finite changes in temperature and volume, integrate eq.
(16.6), hence dT
T 1 V
dV
0
ln T 1ln V constant
ln T ln V constant
1

ln TV 1 constant
25
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

TV 1 constant (16.7)

OR
1 1
TV
1 1 T2V2
where V1 : initial volume
V2 : final volume
T1 : initial absolute temperatu re
T2 : final absolute temperatu re
Note :
Adiabatic expansion (dV > 0) always occurs with a
drop in temperature (dT < 0).
Adiabatic compression (dV < 0) always occurs with a
rise in temperature (dT > 0).

26
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Equation of adiabatic changes in pressure and volume
Rearrange the equation of state for an ideal gas,
PV
PV nRT then T substitute in eq. (16.7)
Therefore nR
PV 1
V constant
nR
PV constant (16.8)

OR


P1V1 P2V2
where P1 : initial pressure
P2 : final pressure 27
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.2.3 Isochoric (Isovolumetric)
is defined as a process that occurs at constant volume i.e.

W 0 thus Q U W
Animation 16.2 Q U U 2 U1
In an isochoric process, all the energy added as heat remains
in the system as an increase in the internal energy thus the
temperature of the system increases.
For example, heating a gas in a closed constant volume
container is an isochoric process.
16.2.4 Isobaric
is defined as a process that occurs at constant pressure i.e.

P 0 and W PV thus Q U W
Animation 16.3 Q U PV
For example, boiling water at constant pressure is an isobaric
process. 28
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.2.4 Pressure-Volume diagram (graph) for
thermodynamic processes
Figure 16.8 shows a PV diagram for each thermodynamic
process for a constant amount of an ideal gas.
Path AB Isothermal process (TB=TA)
Path AC Adiabatic process (TC<TA)
P Path AD Isochoric process (TD<TA)
Path AE Isobaric process (TE>TA)

P1
A E T4 T3 T2 T1
T4
P2 B T3
D C T2
P3
T1
0 V1 V2 V3 V
Figure 16.8
29
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
From the Figure 16.8,
For comparison between the isothermal (AB) and adiabatic
expansions (AC):
The temperature fall (TC<TB) which accompanies the
adiabatic expansion results in a lower final pressure
than that produced by the isothermal expansion
(PC<PB).
The area under the isothermal is greater than that
under the adiabatic, i.e. more work is done by the
isothermal expansion than by the adiabatic expansion.
The adiabatic through any point is steeper than the
isothermal through that point.

30
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example 3 :
Air is contained in a cylinder by a frictionless gas-tight piston.
a. Calculate the work done by the air as it expands from a volume of
0.015 m3 to a volume of 0.027 m3 at a constant pressure of
2.0 105 Pa.
b. Determine the final pressure of the air if it starts from the same
initial conditions as in (a) and expanding by the same amount, the
change occurs
i. isothermally,
ii. adiabatically.
(Given for air is 1.40)

31
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution :
a. Given V1 0.015 m ; V2 0.027 m3 ; P1 2.0 105 Pa
3

The work done by the air is


W P1 V2 V1
W 2.0 105 0.027 0.015
W 2400 J
b. i. The final pressure for the isothermal process is
P1V1 P2V2

2.0 10 0.015 P2 0.027
5

P2 1.11105 Pa
ii. The final pressure for the adiabatic process is given by

PV P2V2

1 1

2.0 10 0.015 P2 0.027


5 1.40 1.40

P2 8.78 104 Pa
32
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example 4 :
A vessel contains an ideal gas of volume 2.0 cm3 at pressure
100 kPa and temperature 25 C. The gas expands adiabatically
until the volume becomes 4.0 cm3. After that, it is compressed
isothermally until the volume becomes 3.0 cm3.
a. Calculate
i. the pressure and
ii. the temperature of the gas in the final condition.
b. Sketch and label a graph of gas pressure (P) against gas volume
(V) to show how the pressure and volume changes when the
condition of the gas changes from the initial condition to final
condition.
(Given for gas is 1.67)

33
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : V1 2.0 106 m3 ; P1 100 103 Pa; T1 298.15 K
V2 4.0 106 m3 ; V3 3.0 106 m3 ; 1.67
P1 V1 P2 V2 P3 V3
T1 Adiabatic T2 Isothermal T3 T2
Initial expansion compression Final
a. i. For the adiabatic expansion,

PV P2V2
100 10 2.0 10 P2 4.0 104
1 1
3 6 1.67 6 1.67

P2 3.14 10 Pa
For the isothermal compression,
P2V2 P3V3
3.14 104 4.0 106 P3 3.0 106
P3 4.19 104 Pa 34
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : V1 2.0 106 m3 ; P1 100 103 Pa; T1 298.15 K
V2 4.0 106 m3 ; V3 3.0 106 m3 ; 1.67
a. ii. For the adiabatic expansion,
1 1
T2V2
T1V1
298.152.0 10 T2 4.0 10
6 1.671 6 1.671

T2 187 K
For the isothermal compression, the temperature along the
process remains unchanged hence
T3 T2 187 K

35
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : V1 2.0 106 m3 ; P1 100 103 Pa; T1 298.15 K
V2 4.0 106 m3 ; V3 3.0 106 m3 ; 1.67
b. The graph of gas pressure (P) against gas volume (V) is shown
in Figure 16.9.
P(104 Pa)
1
10.00

4.19 3 T1
3.14 2
T2
0 2.0 3.0 4.0 V (106 m3 )
Figure 16.9
36
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Learning Outcome:
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

16.3 Thermodynamics work (2 hours)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Derive the equation of work done in isothermal,
isovolumetric and isobaric processes.
Calculate work done in
isothermal process and use
V2 P1
W nRT ln nRT ln
V1 P2
isobaric process, use

W PdV PV2 V1
isovolumetric process, use

W PdV 0
37
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
16.3 Thermodynamics work
16.3.1 Work done in Isothermal process
From the equation of state for an ideal gas,
nRT
PV nRT then P
V
Therefore the work done in the isothermal process which
change of volume from V1 to V2, is given by
V2
W PdV
V1
nRT
V2
W dV
V1
V
V2 1
W nRT dV
V1 V

38
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
W nRT ln V
V2
V1

W nRT ln V2 ln V1
V2
W nRT ln (16.9)
V1
For isothermal process, the temperature of the system remains
unchanged, thus
V2 P1
P1V1 P2V2
V1 P2
The equation (16.9) can be expressed as

P1
W nRT ln (16.10)
P2
39
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
By applying the 1st law of thermodynamics, thus

Q U W and U 0
Q W
V2 P1
Q nRT ln nRT ln
V1 P2
16.3.2 Work done in isobaric process
The work done during the isobaric process which change of
volume from V1 to V2 is given by
V2
W PdV and P constant
V1
V2
W P dV
V1 40
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

W PV2 V1
OR

W PV (16.10)

16.3.3 Work done in Isovolumetric process


Since the volume of the system in isovolumetric process remains
unchanged, thus
dV 0
Therefore the work done in the isovolumetric process is

W PdV 0 (16.11)

41
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example 5 :
A quantity of ideal gas whose ratio of molar heat capacities is 5/3
has a temperature of 300 K, volume of 64 103 m3 and pressure of
243 kPa. It is made to undergo the following three changes in order:
1 : adiabatic compression to a volume 27 103 m3,
2 : isothermal expansion to 64 103 m3 ,
3 : a return to its original state.
a. Calculate
i. the pressure on completion of process 1,
ii. the temperature at which the process 2 occurs.
b. Describe the process 3.
c. Sketch and label a graph of pressure against volume for the
changes described.

42
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P1 243 103 Pa; T1 300 K;V1 64 103 m3 ;
5
V2 27 10 m ;
3 3

Initial 3
P1 V1 P2 V2 P3 V3 V1
T1 Adiabatic T2 Isothermal
T3 T2
Final compression expansion
(Process 1) (Process 2)

(Process 3)
a. i. The pressure on completion of the adiabatic compression is

PV P V
1 1 2 2

24310 64 10
5 5
3 3
3 3
P2 27 10 3

P2 1.02 10 Pa 6

43
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P1 243 103 Pa; T1 300 K;V1 64 103 m3 ;
5
V2 27 10 m ;
3 3

3
a. ii. By applying the equation of adiabatic changes in temperature
and volume for process 1,
1 1
TV T V
30064 10 T 27 10
1 15 2 2
3 3 1 3 3 1
5

2
T2 533 K
b. Process 3 is a process at constant volume known as
isovolumetric (isochoric).

44
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P1 243 103 Pa; T1 300 K;V1 64 103 m3 ;
5
V2 27 10 m ;
3 3

3
c. The graph of gas pressure (P) against gas volume (V) for the
changes described is shown in Figure 16.10.
P(104 Pa)

102 2
Process 2

P3 Process 1 3
Process 3
533 K
24.3
1 300 K
0 27 64 V (103 m3 )
Figure 16.10 45
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example 6 :
A vessel of volume 8.00 103 m3 contains an ideal gas at a
pressure of 1.14 105 Pa. A stopcock in the vessel is opened and
the gas expands adiabatically, expelling some of its original mass
until its pressure is equal to that outside the vessel (1.01 105 Pa).
The stopcock is then closed and the vessel is allowed to stand until
the temperature returns to its original value. In this equilibrium state,
the pressure is 1.06 105 Pa.
a. Explain why there was a temperature change as a result of the
adiabatic expansion?
b. Calculate the volume which the mass of the gas finally left in the
vessel occupied under the original conditions.
c. What is the value of ?
d. What can you deduce about the molecules of the gas?

46
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
3
Solution : P
1 1.14 10 5
Pa; V1 8.00 10 m 3
;
P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa
Initial Final
P1 V1 P2 V2 P3 V3 V2
T1 Adiabatic T2 Isochoric
T3 T1
expansion process

a. When the gas expands adiabatically, it does positive work.


Thus Q U W and Q 0
U W
The internal energy of the gas is reduced to provide the
necessary energy to do work. Since the internal energy is
proportional to the absolute temperature hence the
temperature decreases and resulting a temperature change.

47
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P1 1.14 105 Pa;V1 8.00 103 m3 ;
P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa
b. From the adiabatic expansion:
P2 V1
PV P2V2
1 1
(1)
P1 V2
1
1 1 T2 V1
TV1 1 T2V2 (2)
T1 V2
From the isochoric (constant volume) process:
P2 P3 T2 P2
and T3 T1 (3)
T2 T3 T1 P3
By substituting eq. (3) into eq. (2), 1
P2 V1
(4)
P3 V2 48
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P1 1.14 105 Pa;V1 8.00 103 m3 ;
P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa
b. (1) (4) :

P2 V1

P1 V2 P3 V1

1
P2 V P1 V2
1
P V
3 2 1.06 10 5
8.00 10 3

1.14 10 5
V2
3
V2 8.60 10 m 3

49
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution : P1 1.14 105 Pa;V1 8.00 103 m3 ;
P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa
c. By substituting the value of V2 into the eq. (1), therefore the
value is P2 V1
ln ln
P1 V2
P2 1.01 10 5

ln ln
5
P1 1.14 10

V1 8.00 10 3

ln ln 3

V2 8.60 10
1.67
d. The gas is monatomic.
50
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Example 7 :
a. Write an expression representing
i. the 1st law of thermodynamics and state the meaning of all the
symbols.
ii. the work done by an ideal gas at variable pressure. [3 marks]
b. Sketch a graph of pressure P versus volume V of 1 mole of ideal
gas. Label and show clearly the four thermodynamics process.
[5 marks]
c. A monatomic ideal gas at pressure P and volume V is compressed
isothermally until its new pressure is 3P. The gas is then allowed
to expand adiabatically until its new volume is 9V. If P, V and for
the gas is 1.2 105 Pa,1.0 102 m3 and 5/3 respectively, calculate
i. the final pressure of the gas.
ii. the work done on the gas during isothermal compression.
(Exam_Ques_intake 2003/2004) [7 marks]
51
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution :
a. i. 1st law of thermodynamics:
Q U W
where U : change in internal energy
Q : quantity of heat trans ferred
W : work done
ii. Work done at variable pressure:
V2 V2
W PdV OR W nRT ln
V1
V1
b. PV diagram below represents four thermodynamic processes:
P
Isobaric process
A E Isothermal process
PA
Isochoric process T4
D B T3
adiabatic process C T2
T1
0 VA V 52
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Solution :
5
c. Given P 1.2 105 Pa;V 1.0 10 m ; 1.67
2 3

Initial 3 Final
P V P1 3P P2 V2 9V
V1
T Isothermal T1 T Adiabatic T2
compression expansion
From the isothermal compression process:
PV P1V1
PV 3P V1
V
V1
3
i. By using the equation of adiabatic changes in pressure and

volume, hence
PV P V
1 1 2 2

V1
P2 P1
V2 53
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :
V
c. i. 1.67

P2 3P 3 1
P2 3 1.2 10 5

9V 3
27
P2 1.47 10 Pa

ii. The work done during the isothermal compression is
V1 and
W nRT ln nRT PV
V
V

W 1.2 10 1.0 10 ln
3 1
W PV ln 5 2

V 3
W 1.32 10 J 3

54
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16
Exercise 16.2 :
Given R = 8.31 J mol1 K1
1. A vessel contains 1.20 moles of an ideal gas of volume
4.0 102 m3 at pressure 100 kPa. The gas is compressed
adiabatically until the gas temperature becomes 450 K. Determine
a. the new volume of the gas,
b. the new pressure of the gas,
(CP/CV for gas is 1.40)
ANS. : 3.00102 m3;150 kPa
2. a. An ideal gas at 400 K is expanded adiabatically to 4.2 times its
original volume. Determine its resulting temperature if the gas is
i. monatomic,
ii. diatomic.
b. An ideal monatomic gas, consisting of 2.6 moles of volume
0.084 m3, expands adiabatically. The initial and final temperatures
are 25 C and 68 C. Calculate the final volume of the gas.
ANS. : 153 K, 225 K; 0.147 m3 55
PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

THE END
Good luck
For
1st semester examination

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