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involving heat,

mechanical work, and

other aspect of energy

and energy transfer.

CHAPTER 16:

Thermodynamics

(5 Hours)

Thermodynamic system is any

collection of objects that is

convenient to regard as a unit,

and it is refers to a definite

quantity of matter enclosed by

boundaries or surfaces such as

gas in cylinder. 1

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Distinguish between thermodynamic work done on the

system and work done by the system.

Derive expression for work,

W PdV

and determine work from the area under the p-V graph.

State and use first law of thermodynamics,

Q U W

2

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.1 First law of thermodynamics

16.1.1 Signs for heat, Q and work, W

Sign convention for heat, Q :

Q = negative value Heat flow out of the system

Sign convention for work, W:

W = negative value Work done on the system

Figures 16.1 show a thermodynamic system may exchange

energy with its surroundings (environment).

(a) Surroundings (b) Surroundings

(environment) (environment)

System System

Q0 W 0 Q0 W 3 0

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

(c) Surroundings (d) Surroundings

(environment) (environment)

System System

Q0 W 0 Q0 W 0

(environment) (environment)

System System

Q0 W 0 Q0 W 0

Figure 16.1

4

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example for work done by the system and work done on the

system are shown in Figure 16.2.

Motion of

Motion of piston

piston

Air

Air

Air

Initially Expansion Compression

Figure 16.2

When the air is expanded, the molecule loses kinetic

energy and does positive work on piston.

When the air is compressed, the molecule gains kinetic

energy and does negative work on piston. 5

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.1.2 Work done in the thermodynamics system

Consider the infinitesimal work done by the gas (system) during

the small expansion, dx in a cylinder with a movable piston as

shown in Figure 16.3.

A

Initial Gas

dx

A

Final F

Figure 16.3

Suppose that the cylinder has a cross sectional area, A and the

pressure exerted by the gas (system) at the piston face is P.

6

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

The work, dW done by the gas is given by

dW Fdx cos where 0 and F PA

dW PAdx and Adx dV

dW PdV

In a finite change of volume from V1 to V2,

V2

dW V1

PdV

V2

W PdV (16.1)

V1

where W : work done

P : gas pressure

V1 : initial volume of the gas

V2 : final volume of the gas

7

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

For a change in volume at constant pressure, P

W PV

W PV2 V1 Work done at constant

pressure

For any process in the system which the volume is constant (no

change in volume), the work done is

volume

Figures 16.4 show the pressure, P against volume, V graph

(PV diagram) where

8

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

(a) P (b) P

Stimulation 16.1

P1 1 P2 2

P2 2 P1 1

W 0 W 0

0 V1 V2 V 0 V2 V1 V

(c) P (d) P

P2 2

1 2

P1

W 0

Figure 16.4 W P1 V2 V1 0

P1 1

0 V1 V2 V 0 V1 9

V

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.1.3 First law of thermodynamics

states : The heat (Q) supplied to a system is equal to the

plus the work done (W) by the system on its

surroundings.

OR

(16.2) Q U W U U 2 U1

and

W : work done

U : change in the internal energy

U1 : initial internal energy

U 2 : final internal energy

For infinitesimal change in the energy,

dQ dU dW

10

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

The first law of thermodynamics is a generalization of the

principle of conservation of energy to include energy transfer

through heat as well as mechanical work.

The change in the internal energy (U) of a system during any

thermodynamic process is independent of path. For example a

thermodynamics system goes from state 1 to state 2 as shown in

Figure 16.5. P

P1 1 3

P2 2

4

Figure 16.5 0 V1 V2 V

U12 U142 U132

11

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

The internal energy depends only on temperature of the

system. If the initial and final temperature (state) of the system

is the same, hence

U U 2 U1 0

f

because U nRT

2

thus U 2 U1

The change in the internal energy also zero in the cyclic

thermodynamic process (repeated process) because the

initial and final state of the system is the same.

The internal energy is not depend on the volume of the

system.

12

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example 1 :

A vessel contains an ideal gas at pressure 150 kPa. When the gas

is heated it expands at constant pressure until the temperature

increases by 100 K. The amount of heat absorbed by the gas is

4.36 kJ. However, if the gas at its initial condition is heated at

constant volume until the temperature increases by 100 K, the

amount of heat absorbed is 3.11 kJ. Determine

a. the value of ,

b. the work done by the gas when it expands at constant

pressure,

c. the change in volume of the gas when the gas is heated at

constant pressure and the temperature rises by 100 K.

13

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : PP PV 150 10 3

Pa; TP TV 100 K;

QP 4.36 103 J; QV 3.11103 J;

a. By applying the equation for molar heat capacities,

For constant pressure: QP nCP TP

QP nCP 100 (1)

QV nCV 100 (2)

QP C P

(2) (1):

QV CV

CP 4.36 10 3

CV 3.11103

1.40

14

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P

P PV 150 10 3

Pa; TP TV 100 K;

QP 4.36 103 J; QV 3.11103 J;

b. By using the 1st law of thermodynamics,

For constant pressure: QP U WP

U QP WP (1)

For constant volume: Q U W and W 0

V V V

U QV (2)

(2) = (1): Q Q W

V P P

3.11103 4.36 103 WP

WP 1.25 10 J3

WP PP VP

1.25 103 150 103 VP

VP 8.33 103 m3 15

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

P(kPa )

Example 2 :

300 D C

150 B

Figure 16.6

A

0 2.0 4.0 V (102 m3 )

A vessel contains an ideal gas in condition A, as shown in Figure

16.6. When the condition of the gas changes from A to that of B,

the gas system undergoes a heat transfer of 10.5 kJ. When the gas

in condition B changes to condition C, there is a heat transfer of

3.2 kJ. Calculate

a. the work done in the process ABC,

b. the change in the internal energy of the gas in the process ABC,

c. the work done in the process ADC,

d. the total amount of heat transferred in the process ADC. 16

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :PA PB 150 103 Pa; PC PD 300 103 Pa;

VA VD 2.0 102 m3 ;VB VC 4.0 102 m3

QAB 10.5 103 J; QBC 3.2 103 J

a. The work done in the process ABC is given by

W W W but W

ABC AB BC BC 0

WABC PA VB VA

2

WABC 150 10 4.0 10 2.0 10

3 2

WABC 3000 J

b. By applying the 1st law of thermodynamics for ABC, thus

QABC U ABC WABC

U ABC QAB QBC WABC

U ABC 10.5 10 3.2 10 3000

3 3

U ABC 1.07 104 J

17

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :PA PB 150 103 Pa; PC PD 300 103 Pa;

VA VD 2.0 102 m3 ;VB VC 4.0 102 m3

QAB 10.5 103 J; QBC 3.2 103 J

c. The work done in the process ADC is given by

W W W but W 0

ADC AD DC AD

WADC PD VC VD

2

WADC 300 10 4.0 10 2.0 10

3 2

WADC 6000 J

d. By applying the 1st law of thermodynamics for ADC, thus

Q U W and U

ADC ADC ADC ADC U ABC

QADC U ABC WADC

QADC 1.07 104 6000

QADC 1.67 10 J

4

18

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Exercise 16.1 :

Given R = 8.31 J mol1 K1

1. The density of nitrogen gas at STP is 1.25 kg m3. Determine

the specific heat capacity at constant pressure of nitrogen gas

if the specific heat capacity at constant volume is

743 J kg1 K1. (Given 1 atm = 1.01105 Pa)

ANS. : 1040 J kg1 K1

2. Gas within a chamber passes through the cycle shown in

Figure 16.7. Determine the energy transferred by the

system as heat during process CA if the

energy added as heat QAB during process

AB is 20.0 J, no energy is transferred as

heat during process BC, and the nett work

done during the cycle is 15.0 J.

ANS. : 5.0 J

Figure 16.7

19

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

State and explain thermodynamics processes:

Isothermal, U= 0

Adiabatic, Q = 0

Isovolumetric, W = 0

Isobaric, P = 0

Sketch PV graph to distinguish between isothermal

process and adiabatic process.

Determine the initial and final state of thermodynamic

processes by using the following formula:

20

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.2 Thermodynamics processes

There are four specific kinds of thermodynamic processes. It is

Isothermal process

Adiabatic process

Isochoric (isovolumetric) process

Isobaric process

is defined as a process that occurs at constant temperature.

i.e.

U 0

Thus Q U W Q W

Isothermal changes

When a gas expands or compresses isothermally (constant

temperature) thus

PV constant (16.3)

21

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Equation (16.3) can be expressed as

If the gas compress isothermally, thus V2<V1 W = negative

16.2.2 Adiabatic process

is defined as a process that occurs without heat transfer into

or out of a system i.e.

Q0 thus Q U W

U U 2 U1 W

For example, the compression stroke in an internal combustion

engine is an approximately adiabatic process.

22

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Note :

For Adiabatic expansion (V2>V1), W = positive value but

U =negative value hence the internal energy of the

system decreases.

For Adiabatic compression (V2<V1), W = negative value but

U =positive value hence the internal energy of the

system increases.

Adiabatic changes

Consider the 1st law of thermodynamics written in differential

(infinitesimal) form:

dQ dU dW (16.4)

Since that the internal energy is independent of the volume

and is related to the temperature by the molar heat capacity

at constant volume, therefore

dU dQV nCV dT

23

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Then equation (16.4) can be expressed as

dQ nCV dT dW where dW PdVand dQ 0

nCV dT PdV 0 (16.5)

Equation of adiabatic changes in temperature and volume

From the equation of state for an ideal gas,

nRT

PV nRT then P substitute in eq. (16.5)

Therefore V

nRT

nCV dT dV 0

V RT

CV dT dV

V

dT R dV

0 and R CP CV

T CV V

24

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

dT CP CV dV

0

T CV V

dT CP dV C

1 0 and P

T CV V CV

1

dT dV

0 (16.6)

T V

For finite changes in temperature and volume, integrate eq.

(16.6), hence dT

T 1 V

dV

0

ln T 1ln V constant

ln T ln V constant

1

ln TV 1 constant

25

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

TV 1 constant (16.7)

OR

1 1

TV

1 1 T2V2

where V1 : initial volume

V2 : final volume

T1 : initial absolute temperatu re

T2 : final absolute temperatu re

Note :

Adiabatic expansion (dV > 0) always occurs with a

drop in temperature (dT < 0).

Adiabatic compression (dV < 0) always occurs with a

rise in temperature (dT > 0).

26

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Equation of adiabatic changes in pressure and volume

Rearrange the equation of state for an ideal gas,

PV

PV nRT then T substitute in eq. (16.7)

Therefore nR

PV 1

V constant

nR

PV constant (16.8)

OR

P1V1 P2V2

where P1 : initial pressure

P2 : final pressure 27

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.2.3 Isochoric (Isovolumetric)

is defined as a process that occurs at constant volume i.e.

W 0 thus Q U W

Animation 16.2 Q U U 2 U1

In an isochoric process, all the energy added as heat remains

in the system as an increase in the internal energy thus the

temperature of the system increases.

For example, heating a gas in a closed constant volume

container is an isochoric process.

16.2.4 Isobaric

is defined as a process that occurs at constant pressure i.e.

P 0 and W PV thus Q U W

Animation 16.3 Q U PV

For example, boiling water at constant pressure is an isobaric

process. 28

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.2.4 Pressure-Volume diagram (graph) for

thermodynamic processes

Figure 16.8 shows a PV diagram for each thermodynamic

process for a constant amount of an ideal gas.

Path AB Isothermal process (TB=TA)

Path AC Adiabatic process (TC<TA)

P Path AD Isochoric process (TD<TA)

Path AE Isobaric process (TE>TA)

P1

A E T4 T3 T2 T1

T4

P2 B T3

D C T2

P3

T1

0 V1 V2 V3 V

Figure 16.8

29

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

From the Figure 16.8,

For comparison between the isothermal (AB) and adiabatic

expansions (AC):

The temperature fall (TC<TB) which accompanies the

adiabatic expansion results in a lower final pressure

than that produced by the isothermal expansion

(PC<PB).

The area under the isothermal is greater than that

under the adiabatic, i.e. more work is done by the

isothermal expansion than by the adiabatic expansion.

The adiabatic through any point is steeper than the

isothermal through that point.

30

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example 3 :

Air is contained in a cylinder by a frictionless gas-tight piston.

a. Calculate the work done by the air as it expands from a volume of

0.015 m3 to a volume of 0.027 m3 at a constant pressure of

2.0 105 Pa.

b. Determine the final pressure of the air if it starts from the same

initial conditions as in (a) and expanding by the same amount, the

change occurs

i. isothermally,

ii. adiabatically.

(Given for air is 1.40)

31

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :

a. Given V1 0.015 m ; V2 0.027 m3 ; P1 2.0 105 Pa

3

W P1 V2 V1

W 2.0 105 0.027 0.015

W 2400 J

b. i. The final pressure for the isothermal process is

P1V1 P2V2

2.0 10 0.015 P2 0.027

5

P2 1.11105 Pa

ii. The final pressure for the adiabatic process is given by

PV P2V2

1 1

5 1.40 1.40

P2 8.78 104 Pa

32

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example 4 :

A vessel contains an ideal gas of volume 2.0 cm3 at pressure

100 kPa and temperature 25 C. The gas expands adiabatically

until the volume becomes 4.0 cm3. After that, it is compressed

isothermally until the volume becomes 3.0 cm3.

a. Calculate

i. the pressure and

ii. the temperature of the gas in the final condition.

b. Sketch and label a graph of gas pressure (P) against gas volume

(V) to show how the pressure and volume changes when the

condition of the gas changes from the initial condition to final

condition.

(Given for gas is 1.67)

33

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : V1 2.0 106 m3 ; P1 100 103 Pa; T1 298.15 K

V2 4.0 106 m3 ; V3 3.0 106 m3 ; 1.67

P1 V1 P2 V2 P3 V3

T1 Adiabatic T2 Isothermal T3 T2

Initial expansion compression Final

a. i. For the adiabatic expansion,

PV P2V2

100 10 2.0 10 P2 4.0 104

1 1

3 6 1.67 6 1.67

P2 3.14 10 Pa

For the isothermal compression,

P2V2 P3V3

3.14 104 4.0 106 P3 3.0 106

P3 4.19 104 Pa 34

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : V1 2.0 106 m3 ; P1 100 103 Pa; T1 298.15 K

V2 4.0 106 m3 ; V3 3.0 106 m3 ; 1.67

a. ii. For the adiabatic expansion,

1 1

T2V2

T1V1

298.152.0 10 T2 4.0 10

6 1.671 6 1.671

T2 187 K

For the isothermal compression, the temperature along the

process remains unchanged hence

T3 T2 187 K

35

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : V1 2.0 106 m3 ; P1 100 103 Pa; T1 298.15 K

V2 4.0 106 m3 ; V3 3.0 106 m3 ; 1.67

b. The graph of gas pressure (P) against gas volume (V) is shown

in Figure 16.9.

P(104 Pa)

1

10.00

4.19 3 T1

3.14 2

T2

0 2.0 3.0 4.0 V (106 m3 )

Figure 16.9

36

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Derive the equation of work done in isothermal,

isovolumetric and isobaric processes.

Calculate work done in

isothermal process and use

V2 P1

W nRT ln nRT ln

V1 P2

isobaric process, use

W PdV PV2 V1

isovolumetric process, use

W PdV 0

37

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

16.3 Thermodynamics work

16.3.1 Work done in Isothermal process

From the equation of state for an ideal gas,

nRT

PV nRT then P

V

Therefore the work done in the isothermal process which

change of volume from V1 to V2, is given by

V2

W PdV

V1

nRT

V2

W dV

V1

V

V2 1

W nRT dV

V1 V

38

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

W nRT ln V

V2

V1

W nRT ln V2 ln V1

V2

W nRT ln (16.9)

V1

For isothermal process, the temperature of the system remains

unchanged, thus

V2 P1

P1V1 P2V2

V1 P2

The equation (16.9) can be expressed as

P1

W nRT ln (16.10)

P2

39

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

By applying the 1st law of thermodynamics, thus

Q U W and U 0

Q W

V2 P1

Q nRT ln nRT ln

V1 P2

16.3.2 Work done in isobaric process

The work done during the isobaric process which change of

volume from V1 to V2 is given by

V2

W PdV and P constant

V1

V2

W P dV

V1 40

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

W PV2 V1

OR

W PV (16.10)

Since the volume of the system in isovolumetric process remains

unchanged, thus

dV 0

Therefore the work done in the isovolumetric process is

W PdV 0 (16.11)

41

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example 5 :

A quantity of ideal gas whose ratio of molar heat capacities is 5/3

has a temperature of 300 K, volume of 64 103 m3 and pressure of

243 kPa. It is made to undergo the following three changes in order:

1 : adiabatic compression to a volume 27 103 m3,

2 : isothermal expansion to 64 103 m3 ,

3 : a return to its original state.

a. Calculate

i. the pressure on completion of process 1,

ii. the temperature at which the process 2 occurs.

b. Describe the process 3.

c. Sketch and label a graph of pressure against volume for the

changes described.

42

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P1 243 103 Pa; T1 300 K;V1 64 103 m3 ;

5

V2 27 10 m ;

3 3

Initial 3

P1 V1 P2 V2 P3 V3 V1

T1 Adiabatic T2 Isothermal

T3 T2

Final compression expansion

(Process 1) (Process 2)

(Process 3)

a. i. The pressure on completion of the adiabatic compression is

PV P V

1 1 2 2

24310 64 10

5 5

3 3

3 3

P2 27 10 3

P2 1.02 10 Pa 6

43

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P1 243 103 Pa; T1 300 K;V1 64 103 m3 ;

5

V2 27 10 m ;

3 3

3

a. ii. By applying the equation of adiabatic changes in temperature

and volume for process 1,

1 1

TV T V

30064 10 T 27 10

1 15 2 2

3 3 1 3 3 1

5

2

T2 533 K

b. Process 3 is a process at constant volume known as

isovolumetric (isochoric).

44

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P1 243 103 Pa; T1 300 K;V1 64 103 m3 ;

5

V2 27 10 m ;

3 3

3

c. The graph of gas pressure (P) against gas volume (V) for the

changes described is shown in Figure 16.10.

P(104 Pa)

102 2

Process 2

P3 Process 1 3

Process 3

533 K

24.3

1 300 K

0 27 64 V (103 m3 )

Figure 16.10 45

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example 6 :

A vessel of volume 8.00 103 m3 contains an ideal gas at a

pressure of 1.14 105 Pa. A stopcock in the vessel is opened and

the gas expands adiabatically, expelling some of its original mass

until its pressure is equal to that outside the vessel (1.01 105 Pa).

The stopcock is then closed and the vessel is allowed to stand until

the temperature returns to its original value. In this equilibrium state,

the pressure is 1.06 105 Pa.

a. Explain why there was a temperature change as a result of the

adiabatic expansion?

b. Calculate the volume which the mass of the gas finally left in the

vessel occupied under the original conditions.

c. What is the value of ?

d. What can you deduce about the molecules of the gas?

46

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

3

Solution : P

1 1.14 10 5

Pa; V1 8.00 10 m 3

;

P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa

Initial Final

P1 V1 P2 V2 P3 V3 V2

T1 Adiabatic T2 Isochoric

T3 T1

expansion process

Thus Q U W and Q 0

U W

The internal energy of the gas is reduced to provide the

necessary energy to do work. Since the internal energy is

proportional to the absolute temperature hence the

temperature decreases and resulting a temperature change.

47

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P1 1.14 105 Pa;V1 8.00 103 m3 ;

P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa

b. From the adiabatic expansion:

P2 V1

PV P2V2

1 1

(1)

P1 V2

1

1 1 T2 V1

TV1 1 T2V2 (2)

T1 V2

From the isochoric (constant volume) process:

P2 P3 T2 P2

and T3 T1 (3)

T2 T3 T1 P3

By substituting eq. (3) into eq. (2), 1

P2 V1

(4)

P3 V2 48

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P1 1.14 105 Pa;V1 8.00 103 m3 ;

P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa

b. (1) (4) :

P2 V1

P1 V2 P3 V1

1

P2 V P1 V2

1

P V

3 2 1.06 10 5

8.00 10 3

1.14 10 5

V2

3

V2 8.60 10 m 3

49

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution : P1 1.14 105 Pa;V1 8.00 103 m3 ;

P2 1.01105 Pa; P3 1.06 105 Pa

c. By substituting the value of V2 into the eq. (1), therefore the

value is P2 V1

ln ln

P1 V2

P2 1.01 10 5

ln ln

5

P1 1.14 10

V1 8.00 10 3

ln ln 3

V2 8.60 10

1.67

d. The gas is monatomic.

50

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Example 7 :

a. Write an expression representing

i. the 1st law of thermodynamics and state the meaning of all the

symbols.

ii. the work done by an ideal gas at variable pressure. [3 marks]

b. Sketch a graph of pressure P versus volume V of 1 mole of ideal

gas. Label and show clearly the four thermodynamics process.

[5 marks]

c. A monatomic ideal gas at pressure P and volume V is compressed

isothermally until its new pressure is 3P. The gas is then allowed

to expand adiabatically until its new volume is 9V. If P, V and for

the gas is 1.2 105 Pa,1.0 102 m3 and 5/3 respectively, calculate

i. the final pressure of the gas.

ii. the work done on the gas during isothermal compression.

(Exam_Ques_intake 2003/2004) [7 marks]

51

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :

a. i. 1st law of thermodynamics:

Q U W

where U : change in internal energy

Q : quantity of heat trans ferred

W : work done

ii. Work done at variable pressure:

V2 V2

W PdV OR W nRT ln

V1

V1

b. PV diagram below represents four thermodynamic processes:

P

Isobaric process

A E Isothermal process

PA

Isochoric process T4

D B T3

adiabatic process C T2

T1

0 VA V 52

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :

5

c. Given P 1.2 105 Pa;V 1.0 10 m ; 1.67

2 3

Initial 3 Final

P V P1 3P P2 V2 9V

V1

T Isothermal T1 T Adiabatic T2

compression expansion

From the isothermal compression process:

PV P1V1

PV 3P V1

V

V1

3

i. By using the equation of adiabatic changes in pressure and

volume, hence

PV P V

1 1 2 2

V1

P2 P1

V2 53

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Solution :

V

c. i. 1.67

P2 3P 3 1

P2 3 1.2 10 5

9V 3

27

P2 1.47 10 Pa

ii. The work done during the isothermal compression is

V1 and

W nRT ln nRT PV

V

V

W 1.2 10 1.0 10 ln

3 1

W PV ln 5 2

V 3

W 1.32 10 J 3

54

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

Exercise 16.2 :

Given R = 8.31 J mol1 K1

1. A vessel contains 1.20 moles of an ideal gas of volume

4.0 102 m3 at pressure 100 kPa. The gas is compressed

adiabatically until the gas temperature becomes 450 K. Determine

a. the new volume of the gas,

b. the new pressure of the gas,

(CP/CV for gas is 1.40)

ANS. : 3.00102 m3;150 kPa

2. a. An ideal gas at 400 K is expanded adiabatically to 4.2 times its

original volume. Determine its resulting temperature if the gas is

i. monatomic,

ii. diatomic.

b. An ideal monatomic gas, consisting of 2.6 moles of volume

0.084 m3, expands adiabatically. The initial and final temperatures

are 25 C and 68 C. Calculate the final volume of the gas.

ANS. : 153 K, 225 K; 0.147 m3 55

PHYSICS CHAPTER 16

THE END

Good luck

For

1st semester examination

56

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