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PASSIVE HEATING & PASSIVE

COOLING TECHNIQUES
Why do we Use Energy @ Homes? Percentage of Energy Distribution

Fetching
Water
Non Renewable 18%
Renewable
Sources
Cooking
Coal Solar Water 7%

Natural Gas Heater Refrigeration


12% Comfort
Living
60%

97% 3% Hot Water


3%

Comfort Fetching
Hot Water Refrigeration Cooking
Living Water

CCTV Outdoor Water


Fire fighting BMS
Surveillance Lighting Treatment
Why do we Use Energy @ Offices/ Percentage of Energy Distribution
Malls? Power
backup
5%
Fetching
Non Renewable Water
Renewable
Sources Cooking
15%
3%
Coal Solar Water Comfort
Natural Gas Heater Living
Plug loads 50%
22%

87% 13%
Hot Water
5%

Comfort Living Hot Water Plug loads Cooking Fetching Water Power backup

Vertical
Fire fighting BMS CCTV Surveillance Outdoor Lighting Water Treatment
transportation
Indoor Environmental
Internal Heat Gain
conditions
Geographic Location Absence of Cross Ventilation

Site topography Heat Conduction through Wall


Heat transfer from Windows
Outdoor conditions
Heat dissapted from roof
Building typology
Metabolic activity
Occupancy patterns Artificial Lighting
Building design Appliances

Office Classrooms House

Artificial lighting Metabolic heat Cooking


Appliances Laptops Domestic
appliances
Location

Site
Time
conditions

Spatial
Incidence of Solar
Arrangement
solar rays Heat gain - design

Internal Solar Rise indoor


Heat Gain radiation temperature
Outdoor Retain Solar
Humans needs
temperature radiation & Internal
Heating
Below comfort Level Heat Gains

Outdoor
Needs to dissapte
temperature Humans needs
heat gains & Arrest
higher than comfort Cooling
Solar Radiation
Level

Division of Climate 3 categories - Cool Period, Warm Period, Neutral Period

Building Characteristics Cool Period HEAT LOSS CONTROL


Needs to rise the internal temperature . PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING
The rise in temperature by solar radiation and Basic Design Startegy
Internal heat gains are not efficient
The heat is supplied by means of Non renewable TO ACHIEVE ENERGY FREE
BUILDING
resources

Thermal
Specification Geometry Solar Optics Properties
(Building Material)
Building Characteristics Warm Period HEAT GAIN CONTROL PASSIVE
Needs to lower the temperature COOLING, EXCESS HEAT DISSIPATION
Cooling can be attained by Mechanical cooling Basic Design Startegy

Building Characteristics Neutral Period


Indoor Temperature remains constant without heating of cooling needs
A comfort level can be obtained only by the geometry & thermal properties
Cooling and heating up of space are totally dependent upon manipulation of
building form and design parameters

Heat Loss Control


Air flow away Permanent
Indoor from the building Means
Outdoor

-- +++ --
Outdoor
Temporal
Means
Through External
Envelope Insulated
Air Exchange
Buildings
Passive Solar Heating

It is a spontaneous warming effect resulting from the absorptionof solar


radiation

PASS TO NON
WINDOW / HEATED HEATED INCREASE AIR
SOLAR HEAT
WALL SURFACE SURFACE TEMPERATURE
(CONVECTION)

Direct Indirect Isolated

Windows Glazed wall Transition


Clerestories Trombe Wall space
Rooflights Glazed Atrium
Sunspace
Main Aspects of Passive Solar Heating

Aperature: The set of windows


and overhangs that
determine how much sun
enters the building.
Absorber: The material that
the suns ray come into
contact with.
Thermal Mass: The material
that stores the suns thermal
energy for re-release after
sundown.
Distribution: The means by
which the thermal energy is
released to the
living/working spaces.
Control: The techniques used
to control the collection and
distribution of the sun's
thermal energy.
Windows
Aim: To trap the Heat
Principles Convection (Air) & Shading

Procedure:
Step 1 - Solar Radiation to flow inside the Building
Step 2 Provision by Window or Glazing
Step 3 Protection from heat escape from the interiors
Step 4 Favourable Options Southern Orientation of windows
Step 5 Unobstrcuted View of sun & heat storage
Step 6 Proper Frame and material detailing Cold air infiltration
Step 7 Provide the Supplymentary provisions of heating away
from the sources of heat.

WILL THE HEAT GAIN INCREASES BY INCREASING THE WINDOW


AREA? Imagine a situation where we have larger windows in a cold
region. Analyse the scenario in Colder and warmer climate.
Window size is a critical condition
Night insulation is required for around the clock occupancy
During cool climates the sunshine should be maximum allowed and can be taken care
by shading devices to avoid the escape of heat
Glazed Walls

Aim: To trap the Heat


Principles Convection (Air) & Conduction (Wall Mass)
Procedure:
Step 1 Provision of Glazing outside the Outer Wall
Step 2 This Will Reduce the Convection and Radiative heat
loss Wall Surface temperature is Increased
Step 3 Air cavity is Formulated (Between wall and Glass)
Step 4 Heated air rises upwards and goes into the room
through the openings
Step 5 - Cool air is drawn into the cavity and it replaces the
hot air
Step 6 - The heat absorbed is transferred from the wall mass
to the interiors
Step 7 - To improve the Performance low emissivity glass
needs to adopted
Step 8 During extreme Summers openings in the glazing is
required
TROMBE MICHEL WALL

Glazing
Openings in Uninsulated Masonry wall
Uninsulated Masonry Wall
Thermosiphon Air Panel TAP Transparent Insulation Material

Daytime occupation buildings Round the Clock


Schools Residential buildings
Metallic sheet fixed on the wall Kept inside the cavity
Insulation to wall Convection dependent
Convection dependent
Roofspace Collectors

Aim: To trap the Heat


Principles Convection (Air) & Fan

Procedure:
Step 1 Roof portion on the southern side of the Pitch is replaced by glazing
Step 2 - Solar radiation penetrates inside Heats up the air in the Loft
Step 3 Heated air is circulated through the fans and viaducts

Advantages over the Glazed


Better exposure to sun More Energy
No interference with the building
elevation
Lower capital and Maintenance cost
Better for Night occupancy buildings
Transitional Spaces
Aim: To trap the Heat
Principles Traditional Balcony conservatory
(Northern Europe )

Procedure:

Step 1 - Enclosed Space Central portion or


at the periphery Not permanent
Occupation
Step 2 Conservatory space is an
Architectural part/ Space (Verandah)
Step 3 A well designed conservatory will
provide the heat around the year
Step 4 It can also act as a good space for the
Summer peaks
Glazed Atrium

Aim: To trap the Heat


Principles Using Courtyard Northern
climatic regions
Procedure:
Step 1 Usually open courtyard located
at the central portion glazed covering
is highly recommended
Step 2 Glazing protects the rain
Step 3 It is not like a Conservatory
space
Large areas of glazing can allow more
heat, but the same time at nights the
heat dissipates back If, Poor Glazing

In such spaces, the Heat Storage is


essential , for accomodating
temperature fluctuations

Thermal Sunspace Overheated


Buffer phase phase Phase
3 Distinctive Phases

Outdoor temperature is lower


THERMAL BUFFER Conservatory temperature is lower than the interiors
PHASE Most Familiar Situation
Windows & doors needs to be kept closed

Conservatory temperature is higher than indoor space but


SUNSPACE PHASE within the comfort range
Doors and windows can be kept open

Conservatory temperature is higher than indoor space but


higher than the comfort range
OVERHEATED PHASE Effective shading of glazed surface
Provision for temperature dissipation needs to be provided
Heat storage needs to planned