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Mathematics

Introduction to Cartesian System


Session 3
Session Opener

A government program allows


people to collect empty milk
bottles and exchange them for
bottles full of milk.
Four empty bottles may be exchanged for one full
bottle. How many bottles of milk can a family drink if it
has collected 24 empty bottles?

(a) 7 (b) 6 ( c) 9 (d) 8


Session Opener

(a) 7 (b) 6 ( c) 9 (d) 8

24 empty bottles 6 Milk bottles

2 empty 4 empty 1 Milk bottles


bottles bottles

3 empty bottles
1 Milk bottles
1 bottle (borrow)
Session Objectives

1. Transformation of one form


of line to other Form

2. Intersection of lines

3. Concurrency of three lines

4. Shortest distance of a point from a given line

5. Distance between two parallel lines

6. Position of a point w.r.t a given line


General Form - Equation of Line

ax by c = 0

This form can be


transformed to other
standard forms to simplify
problems
General to Slope- Intercept Form

General form of equation of a line


ax+by+c = 0

On rearranging, a c
y = x
b b

a coeff. of x
slope = =
b coeff of y c cons tan t term
Intercept = =
b coeff of y
Illustrative Problem :

Find the slope and y-intercept for line


given by 2x + 4y +10 = 0.

Solution :
On rearranging, 4y = 2x 10

2 10 1 5
y= x y= x
4 4 2 2
Comparing
with
1 5 y = mx + c
Slope = ; y axis int ercept =
2 2
General to Intercepts Form

General form of equation of a line


ax+by+c = 0

x y
On rearranging, =1
c c

a b

c
Intercept on x axis = c
a Intercept on y axis =
b

Put y = 0 in general
equation , Solve for x
Illustrative Problem :
Find the x-intercept and y-intercept for
line given by 2x + 4y +10 = 0.
Find the area formed by this line and
the coordinate axis.

Solution : 2x 4y = 10

2x 4y x y A O
=1 =1
10 10 5 5

2
5
x int ercept = 5 ; y int ercept = B
2
1 5 25
Area of OAB = . 5 . =
2 2 4
General to Normal Form

General form ax+by+c = 0

Normal form : xcos + ysin - p = 0

P
OP = p

O
General to Normal Form

General form ax+by+c = 0

Normal form : xcos + ysin - p = 0


a b c
= = ap bp
cos sin p cos = ; sin =
c c

2 2 a2p2 b2p2
As cos sin = 1 =1
2 2
c c
c a b
p = cos = ; sin =
a2 b2 a2 b2 a2 b2

a b c
x = c is +ve
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b a b a b
Illustrative Problem

Show that the origin is equidistant


from the lines 4x+3y+10 = 0,
5x-12y+26 = 0and 7x+24y = 50
Illustrative Problem
Show that the origin is equidistant from
the lines 4x+3y+10 = 0, 5x-12y+26 = 0
and 7x+24y = 50

Solution :

Transforming the equations to normal form, we have,


4 3
4x 3y = 10 x y = 2;
5 5 Length from
5 12 origin = 2 units
5x 12y = 26 x y = 2;
13 13
7 24
7x 24y = 50 x y=2
25 25
Class Exercise - I (8 Min.)
1. Find the slope of line L : 5x+12y26 =
0. Convert the given equation in to
normal form.
Find length of perpendicular and the
slope of the perpendicular.

2. The area of triangles made by the lines L1 : 2x + 3y k = 0, L2


: x = 0, L3 : y = 0 is 48 sq. units. The values of k could be
(a) 48 (b) 24 (c) 24 (d) None of these

3. The straight line passing through the point of intersection of the


lines L1 : x 3y +1 = 0 and 2x + 5y 9 = 0 and having infinite
slope is
(a) y = 1 (b) 3x + y 1 = 0 (c) x = 4 (d) None of
these
Solution 1-Class Exercise - I
Find the slope of line L : 5x+12y26 = 0.
Convert the given equation in to normal
form.Find length of perpendicular from
origin and the slope of the perpendicular.

Solution :
Rearranging the given equation,
5x +12y = 26
5 12 26
x y= Divide by 5 2 122 = 13
13 13 13
5 12 5 12
x y=2 cos = , sin =
13 13 13 13
Length of perpendicular from origin = 2 units

12
tan = (Slope of perp.)
5
Solution 2 - Class Exercise - I
The area of triangles made by the lines
L1 : 2x + 3y k = 0, L2 : x = 0, L3 : y = 0
is 48 sq. units. The values of k could be
(a) 48 (b) 24 (c) 24 (d) None of these

Solution :
Y
L2
L2 and L3 are Y-axis and X-axis,
triangle is as
1 A
Area of ABC = AC BC L1
2
x y k
L1 : =1

k k 3 X
2 3

C k B
L3
1 k k 2
= 48 k = 24
2 3 2
Solution 3 - Class Exercise - I
The straight line passing through the point of
intersection of the lines L1 : x 3y +1 = 0 and
2x + 5y 9 = 0 and having infinite slope is
(a) y = 1 (b) 3x + y 1 = 0
(c) x = 4 (d) None of these

Solution :

Slope is infinite, equation of line will be x = k

Point of intersection of L1 and L2 : (2,1)

Equation of required line is x = 2


Intersection of Two Lines

Consider two lines


a1x+b1y+c1 = 0 and
a2x+b2y+c2 = 0

Point of intersection will lie on both lines.

Let the point of intersection be P (x 1, y1)


a1x1+b1y1+c1 = 0
No need to
a2x1+b2y1+c2 = 0 memorise
Solving by cross-multiplication,
b1c2 b2c1 c1a2 c2a1 Solve two
P , simultaneou
a b
1 2 a b
2 1 a b
1 2 a b
2 1
s equations
Illustrative Problem

Find the point of intersection


of lines x + 2y = 9 and
2x y 3 = 0.

Solution : Solve two


simultaneous
equations
x+2y = 9
x=3,y=3
4x2y = 6
Concurrency of Three Lines

Three concurrent lines pass


through a common point.

Let the three lines be


L1 a1x+b1y+c1 = 0, b1c2 b2c1 c1a2 c2a1
P.O.I. ,
L2 a2x+b2y+c2 = 0, a b
1 2 a b
2 1 a b
1 2 a b
2 1

L3 a3x+b3y+c3 = 0 P.O.I will satisfy L3


b1c2 b2c1 c a c2a1
a3 b3 1 2 c3 = 0
a1b2 a2b1 a1b2 a2b1

a3 b1c2 b2c1 b3 c1a2 c2a1 c3 a1b2 a2b1 = 0


Concurrency of Three Lines
L1 a1x+b1y+c1 = 0,
L2 a2x+b2y+c2 = 0,
L3 a3x+b3y+c3 = 0

a3 b1c2 b2c1 b3 c1a2 c2a1 c3 a1b2 a2b1 = 0

a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2 = 0
a3 b3 c3
Illustrative Problem :

If the three lines x + y 1 = 0, y = 5


and 2x + 3y = k are concurrent, the
value of k is
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) None of these

Solution :
1 1 1
If the lines are concurrent 0 1 5 = 0
2 3 k

1 k 15 1 10 1 2 = 0

k 15 10 2 = 0 k=7
Family of Lines Passing through
Intersection of two lines

Let the to intersecting lines be


L1 a1x+b1y+c1 = 0,
L2 a2x+b2y+c2 = 0,

Family of lines passing through point of intersection of


L1 and L2 is :
Why ?
L1+k L2 = 0

Problem from booklet


Concurrency of Three Lines

Alternate condition for


concurrency of three lines :
Let the three lines be
L1 a1x+b1y+c1 = 0,
L2 a2x+b2y+c2 = 0,
L3 a3x+b3y+c3 = 0
Iff there exist three non-zero constants p, q, r such that
pL1+qL2+rL3 = 0.
Illustrative Problem

If the three lines x + y 1 = 0, y = 5


and 2x + 3y = k are concurrent, the
value of k is
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 7 (d) None of these

Solution : p(x+y-1) + q(y-5) + r(2x+3y-k) = 0

x(p+2r) + y(p+q+3r) - (p+5q+rk) = 0

p = -2r , p+q = -3r , p+5q = - r k

p = -2r , q = -r -7r = -rk

7=k
Class Exercise - II ( 5 Min.)

1. The point through which the family of


lines
(a + 2b)x + (a + 3b)y (a + b) = 0
passes for all values of a and b is

(a) (2, 1) (b) (1, 2) (c) (2, 1) (d) (2, 1)

2. Prove that all lines represented by the equation:


(2cosA+3sinA)x + (3cosA 5sinA )y = ( 5 cosA 2 sinA) pass
through a fixed point for all values of A .
Find the coordinates of fixed point.
Solution 1 - Class Exercise - II
The point through which the family of lines
(a + 2b)x + (a + 3b)y (a + b) = 0 passes
for all values of a and b is

(a) (2,1) (b) (1,2) (c) (2,1) (d) (2,1)

Solution :
Rearranging the given equation
a(x + y 1) + b(2x + 3y 1) = 0
The above lines passe through the p.o.i. of the lines
x + y 1 = 0 ...(i) and
2x + 3y 1 = 0 ...(ii)
Solving (i) and (ii), we get x = 2 and y = 1
Solution 2 - Class Exercise - II
Prove that all lines represented by the
equation: (2cosA+3sinA)x + (3cosA
5sinA )y = ( 5 cosA 2 sinA) pass
through a fixed point for all values of A .
Find the coordinates of fixed point.

Solution :
Rearranging the given equation
cosA(2x + 3y 5) + sinA(3x 5y + 2) = 0
The above lines passe through the p.o.i. of the lines
2x + 3y 5 = 0...(i) and
3x 5y + 2 = 0 ...(ii)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get x = 1, y = 1


Distance of a point from a line
Consider line L, xcos+ysin = p
and point P (x1, y1).

Draw a Line L1 passing


through P but parallel
to L
B D
L1 : xcos+ysin = p1 P (x1, y1)
C
p1= x1cos+y1sin
Q
O A
PQ = CD = OD OC L1
= p1 - p L

PQ = x1cos+y1sin - p
Distance of a point from a line
Consider line L, xcos+ysin = p
and point P (x1, y1).
PQ = x1cos+y1sin - p
a b
cos = ; sin =
a2 b2 a2 b2
c
p =
a2 b2 D
B
P (x1, y1)
a b c C
PQ = x1 y1
a 2 b2 a2 b2 a2 b2 Q
O A
L1
ax1 by1 c L
PQ =
a2 b 2
Distance of a point from a line

Algorithm

Step I : Convert given equation to


ax+by+c = 0

Step II : Put cordinates of the given


point (x1,y1) in place of x and y.
ax1+by1+c

Step III : ax1 by1 c Note : Absolute value


a2 b 2

Problem from booklet


Distance between Two
Parallel Lines
L 1 : a1 x + b 1 y + c 1 = 0
L 2 : a2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0

Distance between L1 and L 2


Y
= OM ON L2
L1
c2 c1
MN =
M
a 22 b 22 a12 b12 B
N
X
Make coefficient of x as +ve.
O A
Illustrative Problem

Find the distance between the


parallel lines 3x-4y+9 = 0 and
6x-8y-15 = 0

Solution :

9 15
Dis tance =
3 2 4 2 6 2 8 2

9 15
Dis tance = = 3.3 units
5 10
Position of points relative
to a line

Let the given line be L ax+by+c = 0


Let the given points be P1 (x1, y1)
and P2 (x2, y2)
Let a point Q (x3, y3) divide line segment P1P2 in ratio m:n

mx2 nx1 my2 ny1


Q ,
m n mn

If Q lies on L,

mx nx1 my2 ny1


a 2 b c =0
mn mn
Positions of Points Relative to
a Line
m ax2 by2 c n ax1 by1 c = 0
m ax by1 c
= 1
n ax2 by2 c

Ratio positive P1
ax1+by1+c and Q
ax2+by2+c have
opposite signs P2
L
points are on
opposite sides of the line
Positions of Points Relative to a
Line
m ax2 by2 c n ax1 by1 c = 0
m ax by1 c
= 1
n ax2 by2 c

Ratio negative P1
ax1+by1+c and P2 Q
ax2+by2+c have same
sign L
points are on same
side of the line
Positions of Points Relative to
a Line
Algorithm

Step I : Write the line in general form


ax+by+c = 0
Step II : Determine sign of E1 = ax1+by1+c
and E2= ax2+by2+c

If E1 and E2 are of same sign, the point lie on the same side of
the line
If E1 and E2 are of opposite sign, the point lie on the opposite
sides of the line
Illustrative Problem

Are the points (3, -4) and (2, 6)


on the same or opposite sides of
the line 3x-4y=8?

Solution :

Given equation in general form, 3x4y8 = 0

E1 = 3(3) 4(4)8 = 14

E2 = 3(2) 4(6)8 = -26

Opposite side
Class Exercise - III ( 8 Min.)

1. Find the distance between


lines y = mx + c and 2y =
2mx + d

2. Check whether the origin and (2, 3)


lies on the same side of 2x + 5y = 10
or not.

3. If p and p1 are the two perpendiculars from origin on the


line: x sec + y cosec = a and x cos - y sin = a cos
2 respectively. Prove that 4p2 + p12 = a2.
Solution 1 -Class Exercise - III
Find the distance between lines y = mx + c
and 2y = 2mx + d

Solution :
The equation of lines can be written as

mx y + c = 0 ...(i) and
mx y + d/2 = 0 ...(ii)
d
c
Distance between parallel lines = 2
1 m2
Solution 2 -Class Exercise - III
Check whether the origin and (2, 3) lies on
the same side of 2x + 5y = 10 or not.

Solution :
Equation of line is 2x + 5y 10 = 0

E(0, 0) = 2(0) +5(0) 10 = 10

E(2, 3) = 2(2) +5(3) - 10 = 9

Opposite Side
Solution 3 -Class Exercise - III
If p and p1 are the two perpendiculars from
origin on the line: x sec + y cosec = a and
x cos - y sin = a cos 2 respectively. Prove
that 4p2 + p12 = a2.

Solution :
a a
p= = a sin cos = sin2
sec 2 cos ec 2 2

acos 2
p1 = = a cos 2
2 2
sin cos

2 a2
LHS = 4p p12 = 4 sin2 2 a2 cos2 2 = 4 a2
4
Thank you