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Plasma membrane bounds the cell

Separate ICF from ECF


Nucleus contains the DNA
The functions of DNA:
Directing protein synthesis
Genetic blueprint during cell replication
Cytoplasm

Organelles Cytoskeleton Cytosol

Non
Membranous
membranous
Rough ER
Most abundant in
cells specialized for protein secretion (e.g. cells
that secrete digestive enzymes)
cells that require extensive membrane synthesis
(e.g. rapidly growing cells such as immature egg
cells)
Smooth ER
Abundant in
cells that specialize in lipid metabolism (e.g. cells
that secrete lipid-derived steroid hormones)
liver cells for detoxifying harmful substances
produced within the body
Muscle cells, known as the sarcoplasmic
reticulum, which stores calcium used in the
process of muscle contraction
Golgi complex & Exocytosis
Processing the raw materials from ER into
finished products
Sorting and directing the finished products to
their final destinations
Lysosomes & Endocytosis
Function:
Hydrolyse extracellular material (brought into cell
by phagocytosis) using hydrolytic enzymes
Remove worn-out organelles by autophagy
Nonselective

Cholesterol, vit.
B12, Fe, insulin

Flu virus, HIV


Peroxisomes & Detoxification
Contain oxidative enzymes (mainly catalase)
Mitochondria & ATP Production
Double membrane
Have their own DNA
Have cristae & matrix
Form networks in some cells (Mitochondrial
reticulum)
Also plays a role in apoptosis
Cellular Respiration
Intracellular reactions in which energy-rich
molecules are broken down to form ATP, using
O2 and producing CO2 in the process 3
stages:
glycolysis in the cytosol
the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix
oxidative phosphorylation at the mitochondrial
inner membrane
Cytosol
Enzymatic regulation of intermediary
metabolism
Ribosomal protein synthesis
Storage of fat, glycogen, and secretory vesicles
Cytoskeleton
Microtubule
Microfilament
Intermediate filament
Microtubules
Position organelles
Maintaining the shape of asymmetric cells
(nerve cells)
Secretory vesicle transport e.g. axonal
transport (kinesin) and reverse axonal
transport (dynein)
Movement of specialized cell projections e.g.
cilia and flagella
Mitotic spindle
Microfilaments
Cell contractile system
Actin-myosin
Cytokinesis
Amoeboid movement
Mechanical stiffener (microvilli)
Small intestine
Kidney tubules
Intermediate filaments
Neurofilaments
Keratin