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Centre For Foundation Studies

Department of Sciences and Engineering

FHMM1014 Mathematics I

Chapter 2
Polynomial
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Content
2.1 The Polynomial
2.2 The Remainder Theorem and Factor
Theorem
2.3 Partial Fractions
2.4 Quadratic and Cubic Equations
2.5 Inequalities

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2.1 The Polynomials

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Polynomials
A polynomial function of degree n is a function of
the form
P(x) = anxn + an-1xn 1 + + a1x + a0
where:
n is a positive integer (the degree of the polynomial)
an 0.
a0 , a1, a2 , , an are constants (coefficients of the
polynomial)

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Polynomials
Examples of Polynomials of different degrees.
P ( x) 10 Degree 0

Q( x) 3 x 8 Degree 1

R( x) 2 x 2 x 1 Degree 2

P( x) 3x 6 2 x 3 1 Degree 6
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Example 1
If P( x) 2 x 6 x x 3 and Q( x) 3x 2 x 2 , find:
3 2 2

(i) P( x) Q( x)

(ii) P( x) Q( x)

(iii) P( x) Q( x)

Note : If P (x ) is of degree m and Q (x ) is of degree n,


then P( x) Q( x) is a polynomial with degree
(m + n).
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Example 1 Solution

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Factors of a Polynomial
Consider the following :
P( x) x 7 x 6 ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
3

P(x) is expressed as the product of three linear


polynomials.
These linear polynomials are known as the factors
of P(x).
The process of finding the linear polynomials is
known as factorization.

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Zeros of a Polynomial
A number a is known as a zero of a polynomial P(x)
if P(a) 0 .

If (x a) is a factor of polynomial P(x), then a is


a zero of P(x).

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The Rational Zeroes Theorem
Given a polynomial P(x) with integer coefficients,
p
and a rational number in lowest terms, the rational
q
p
zeroes of P(x), if they exist, must be of the form ,
q
where p is a factor of the constant term, and q is a factor

of the leading coefficient.

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Example 2
Find all rational zeros of 6 x 4 x 3 4 x 2 x 2 .

If rational zeroes exist then


factors of the constant term 2 : p 1 , 2
factors of the coefficient of x4 :
q 1 , 2, 3 , 6

Possible rational zeroes are:


2 1 1 1
2 , 1, , , ,
3 2 3 6
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Example 3
Find all rational zeros of

P( x) 3x 4 x3 14 x 2 4 x 8

Factorize P(x) completely.

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Example 3 Solution

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2.2 The Remainder and
Factor Theorem

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The Remainder Theorem
In general, if P(x), a polynomial of degree n, is
divided by (x a) :

The quotient, Q(x), is a polynomial of degree


(n 1), and

The remainder, R, is a constant.

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The Remainder Theorem

P( x) Q( x) ( x a ) R

When x = a , note that P(a) = R .

This means :
When a polynomial P(x) is divided by (x a),
the remainder is P(a).

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Long Division
Find 5x 4 3x 2 6 3x 2 1
5 14
x 2
Quotient
3 9
3x 1
2
5x 4 3x 2 6
5
5x x
4 2

Divisor 3
The Polynomial
14 2
x 6
3
14 14
x2
3 9
Remainder
68
9
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Long Division
The long division process ends when the last line is of
lesser degree than the divisor.

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Example 4
Using long division, find the quotient and remainder
when 2 x3 9 x 2 15 is divided by 2 x 5.

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Example 4 Solution

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Example 5
Using long division, find the quotient and remainder
when 3x 4 x 5 is divided by x 1.
3 2

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Example 5 Solution

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Example 6
Find the remainder when the polynomial

P( x) 2 x 6 x 3x 4
3 2

is divided by ( x 3) .
Use the remainder Theorem to find P(3) .

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Example 6 Solution

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The Factor Theorem
In general, if P(x) is divided by (x a) :

The remainder, R = P(a), is a constant.

If (x a) is a factor of P(x), then the


remainder is zero, i.e. R = P(a) = 0 .

(x a) is a factor of P(x) if and only if P(a) = 0.

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Example 7
The polynomial 2 x 3
3ax 2
ax b has a factor
(x 1), and when divided by (x + 2), its
remainder is 54. Find the values of a and b
and then factorize the polynomial.

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Example 7 Solution

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Example 8
(a) Let P(x) = x3 6x + 5.
(i) Show that P(1) = 0.
(ii) Use this fact to factorize P(x) completely.

(b) Factorize the polynomial :


P( x) 3x 2 x 12 x 8
3 2

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Example 8 Solution

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Example 9
The polynomial f(x) = 2x4 x3 ax2 bx 30
has factors (x 5) and (x + 2).
(a) Find the values of a and b.
(b) Solve the equation f(x) = 0.

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Example 9 Solution

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Fractional Functions
If f (x) is a polynomial of degree m, and g(x) is a
polynomial of degree n, where m < n , then
f ( x)
h( x ) is a proper fractional function.
g ( x)

However, if m n , then
f ( x)
h( x ) is an improper fractional function.
g ( x)
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2.3 Partial Fractions

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Partial Fractions
In some applications (e.g integration in Calculus),

we may be required to expressed a fraction (with a

common denominator) into partial fractions. We will

learn how to find partial fractions in this section.

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Partial Fractions
A partial fraction of polynomials is defined as :
constant or polynomial (numerator)
polynomial (denominator)
where

(1) The numerator is of smaller degree than the


denominator.

(2) The denominator cannot be factorized (or


reduced) further.
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Partial Fractions
Case1: Denominator with linear factors only

For each linear factor (ax + b) in the


denominator of a proper fractional function,
A
there exists a partial fraction in form .
ax b
P( x) A A A
1
2
... 3

Q( x) a x b a x b a x b
1 1 2 2 3 3

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Example 10
2x 3
Express in partial fractions.
( x 1)( x 2)

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Example 10 Solution

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With product of factors
Case 2: The denominator is a product of linear
factors, some of which are repeated.

For each repeated linear factor such as (ax b) 2

in the denominator, there exists two partial


A B
fractions in the form .
ax b (ax b) 2

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Example 11
x 14
2

Express in partial fractions.


( x 2) ( x 3)
2

Note:factor (x 2) is repeated 2 times.

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Example 11 Solution

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Quadratic factors
Case 3:The denominator has product of linear
factors and irreducible quadratic factors,
some or all repeated.

For each quadratic factor in the denominator of a


proper fractional function, there exists a partial
fraction in the form Ax B
.
ax bx c
2

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Example 12
x 6
2

Express in partial fractions.


x( x 3)( x 4)
2

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Example 12 Solution

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Improper Fractional Functions

If f (x) is a polynomial of degree m, and g(x) is a


polynomial of degree n, where m < n , then
f ( x)
h( x ) is a proper fractional function.
g ( x)

However, if m n , then
f ( x)
h( x ) is an improper fractional function.
g ( x)
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Improper Fractional Functions

Improper Fraction Functions :


[ Degree of numerator f(x) greater than or
equal to denominator g(x) ]

f ( x) a polynomial a proper

g ( x) OR a constant fractional function

[can then be expressed in partial fractions]

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Example 13
Find the partial fraction decomposition of:

x 4x
2

x 42

Note: The degree of the numerator is same


than that of the denominator.

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Example 13 Solution

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Example 14
Find the partial fraction decomposition of:
x 2 4

x( x 3) 2

Note: The degree of the numerator is larger than that of the


denominator.

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Example 14 Solution

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2.4 Quadratic and Cubic
Equations

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Quadratic Equations
In general form :

ax 2 bx c 0 , a, b, c , a 0

the roots are givens by:

b b 2 4ac
x
2a

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Quadratic Equations
If b 2 4ac 0 2 different real roots.
Cuts the x-axis at 2 distinct points.
If b 4ac 0 2 equal real roots.
2

Touches the x-axis at one point only.


If b 4ac 0 2 complex roots.
2

Does not cut the x-axis.

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Example 15
Find the roots of 2 x 6 x 10 0 by using formula
2

or by completing the square method.

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Example 15 Solution

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Cubic Equations
In general form :

ax bx cx d 0 , a, b, c, d , a 0
3 2

Three cases for the roots of a cubic equation :


1. Three real roots .
2. Two real roots.
3. One real root.

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Example 16
Solve the following cubic equations, giving your
answers in the surd form.

(i) x 3x x 1 0
3 2

(ii) 2 x 5x 5x 2 0
3 2

Note : surd form is in notation.

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Example 16 Solution

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2.5 Inequalities

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Inequalities
The relations such as x > 2, 3x 1 < 1 and
2 x 2 1 are known as inequalities.
2

means less than

means less than or equal to

means greater than

means greater than or equal to

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Basic Rules
For any a , b with a b:
(i) ac bc
(ii) ac bc , c 0

(iii) ac bc , c 0
a b
(iv ) , c0
c c
a b
(v) , c0
c c
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Method to Solve Inequality
An inequality may be solved according to the type of
the function given, by using :
(a) analytical or graphical method OR
(b) drawing the real number line.
xa 0 + xa 0
x
a
xa 0
Note : The coefficient of x is positive here.
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Example 17
Find the set of values of x which satisfy the
inequalities x 7x 8
2

Solution: ( x 8)( x 1) 0
8 x 1
+ +
x 8
+ x 1
8 1 + 8 1 +

x 8 0 x 1 0
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Example 18
Find the set of values of x which satisfy the
x 1
inequalities 1 .
2 x
Solution:
+ +
x 1 2x 1
1 0
2 x + x2
2x 1
0 1
2 x + 2
2 +
2x 1
0 2 x 1 0 x2 0
x2
1
x or x2
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Example 19
Find the set of values of x such that
6
(a) x 1
x
2 1
(b)
x x2
x 1
(c)
x 8 x 1

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Example 19 Solution

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Example 20

Solve the inequalities:

8 2 x 4 16

Note: The above represents a pair of simultaneous inequalities.

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Example 20 Solution

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Example 21

Solve this absolute-value inequality | 2 x 5 | 3.

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Example 21 Solution

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Example 22
Solve this cubic inequality
( x 2)( x 2)( x 6) 0

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Example 22 Solution

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Example 23
Find the values of x such that
x
(a) 2
x4
(b) 3 x2 x6

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Example 23 Solution

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The End
Of
Chapter 2

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