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By - Kirtan .V
Roll MO7049
What are
additives ?
Materials dispersed polymer
matrix without affecting
significantly the molecular structure
of the polymer to attend certain
desirable properties
Why to use additives in
plastics ?
Improve processing conditions
Increase resins stability to oxidation
Obtain better impact resistance
Increase or decrease hardness
Control surface tension
Facilitate extrusion moulding
Control blocking
Reduce cost
Increase flame resistance.
Types of additives
Heat stabilizers
UV stabilizers
Flame/fire retardants
Cross-linking agents
Blowing agents
Impact modifiers
Processing aids
What are fillers?
Mostly needed by thermosets,
sometimes also needed by

Added to reduce cost.

Classification of fillers
Mineral fillers : e.g. CaCO3 , kaolin, feldspar, talc etc.

Metallic, conductive & magnetic fillers : iron, copper,

zinc & lead

Fire retarding fillers : Sb2O3

Organic and special purpose fillers : carbon black, wood

flour, walnut flour

Flake reinforcement : mica

Continuous filament reinforcement : fibre glass,

carbon graphite filaments etc.

Short fibre reinforcement : asbestos

Heat stabilizers
To prevent degradation that occur during high
temp processing/fabrication.

PVC largest consumer.

e.g.- family of lead salts, complex barium cadmium
solids, non toxic Ca & Zn salts
Type: Ba / Cd - Clear calendered products, Injection
moulded flexible products, blown film

Type: Ba / Cd / Zn Clear calendered products, blown film,

flexible products, plastisol processing

Type: Ba / Zn Flexible calendered products, unsupported

films for garments, artificial leather for automotive

Type: Ca / Zn (Non-Toxic) Childrens toys, packaging films,

base coat for artificial leather, top coat for floor coverings,
conveyor belts, sealing compounds

Type: Ba / Cd / Pb Calendered, injection moulded

products, extreme high temp, and application.

Type: Lead Complex Rigid PVC pipes, casing capping,

electric wires.
UV light 280-400nm polymers unstable

To overcome this UV stabilizers are used.

1)UV absorbers: Hydroxy benzophenones
2)UV quenchers: Piperidines
3)Pigment: carbon black

Applications -:
1) carpenting outdoor/seatings
2) Acrylic coating used on outdoor sign boards
3) Light diffusers
4) Used in outer liners of HMHDPE
Polymers when subjected to oxygen attack & if
1)there exists high concentration of unsaturated c-c bonds
2)residual polymerisation catalyst
3)it is subjected to highly oxidising conditions,then it undergo

-to overcome this problems long service life, antioxidants

are used.

Classification -:
1)primary: hindered phenolics acryl amines
2)secondary: phosphurous &
sulphur containing compounds


Pigments (forms dispersion)

Dyes (completely soluble)

properties :
1) hiding power
2) particle distribution
3) fastness to light,heat,chem.
e.g. Benzidine yellow, red 2B pigments,
Alumina hydrate, iron oxide .

Packaging, domestic articles, space research ,
m/c switches, transportation
Antistatic agent
Due to low surface conductivity have poor
conductivity accumulation of static charge.
Which is undesirable because

1) attracts dust particles wear & abrasion &

unsightly look.

2) charged metals results into powdering.

3) it can generate spark, which can become

e.g. butyl stearate, tri -ethanol-amine
Fire retardants
Polymers being organic compounds burn or
decompose on exposure to fire, generates toxic
fumes, smoke.

Two techniques: 1)use fire retardant raw material.

2)use fire retardant additives.
e.g. inorganic :zinc borate
halogenated :chlorinate paraffins

applicable to polymers to be used in mines,

automobiles, air vehicles, railways, etc.

consumed by - polyesters, polycarbon

Cross-linking agents
Thermosets cure either on application of heat or cross
linking/curing/ hardening agents.

In some cases agent triggers off the reaction & therefore

linking the resin molecules or

It enters into the parts between molecules and completes

the chain.

Classification :

1)free radical intiator : Isobutyl nitrile, Alkyl peroxide .

2)non free radical agents : Isocynate with polyol

Used : Manufacture of Thermosets like polyurethane,

Urea Formaldehyde, etc
Blowing agent
Polymeric foams preparation(2 ways)
1) mechanical
2) chemically
substances called blowing agents, which on heating
decompose giving N & CO2
Rigid PVC,ABS,Polystyrene, polyolefins being chief

mattresses, pillows, insulation, foam pipes
for non-p conditions.
e.g.para toluene sulphonyl hydrazide.
Hot processing of polymers need lubricants either internally
or externally.

Internal lubricants decreasing normal cohesive forces

between polymer moleculesgood flow conditions by
lowering viscosity.

External lubricant dont let melt to stick to hot surface of

processing. By forming a thin layer at melt-solid interface.

e.g. butyl stearate, octyl stearate, stearic acid

Impact modifiers
To upgrade physical properties of polymer to the extent
prescribed by consumer, the additives added to polymers
are called as strength (impact) modifiers.

They impart breakage resistance, rigidity, ease of post

fabrication, strength to sheets

The strength imparted depends on time & temp conditions

of processing .

Rigid PVC for prolonged outdoor exposure needs I.m.,

similarly epoxy & polyester thermosets require impact
Additives : Packaging
Enhances barrier properties
Better transparency/Gloss
Better printing/sealing properties
Anti microbials
Thank you ;)