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Chapter 9

Rizal in Peninsular Spain

Rizals Secret
At the peoples minds, Rizals
departure was simply because of his
passion to complete his medical
studies in Europe.
The three secret reasons
To make a name for himself in
To observe and study the European
To prepare himself in liberating the
Filipinos from Spanish tyranny
He left Calamba
on May 1, 1882
for Manila and
rode Salvadora,
bound for

His brother Panciano helped him with his

secret departure by changing his name to
Jose Mercado in his passport.
First Stop:
He was able to document his
trip by drawing sketches and
writing in his journal.
Second Stop:
June 12, 1882 - He was amused with the impressive
buildings and the courtesy of the Frenchmen. He
felt enchanted with the countrys amenities.
Next Stop: Barcelona,
June 16, 1882 -Rizal first had a negative impression
at Spain. He came to like Barcelona due to its
liberalism and the peoples hospitality and courage.
The effects of his trip

He changed his religious outlook through his

interactions with the people in the ship; he lost
interest in saints and patron saints anymore
he prayed directly to God. In fact, he attended
a Protestant worship service in Singapore.
The melting down of his social complex
through his numerous interactions with other
Rizal in Barcelona

He was welcomed by his former schoolmates and he

wasnt able to forget writing to his family and achieving
his first secret goal: having a name in journalism.
El Amor Patrio (Love of Country)
Love for the country is the most powerful force that can
bind the countrymen into one nation
The love for country is selfless; it is intense and sacred.
Others have sacrificed a lot for their countries but still the
others dont develop their nationalism.

Here, he encourages the people to love the county

and become more nationalistic because its for their
own good.
El Amor Patrio (Love of Country)

First article written in Spain

He wrote this when he was still 21yro.
He used Laong Laan as his pseudonym
Published in the Philippines, 1882
(Diariong Tagalog)
He used Tierra Extranjera (Foreign Land)
in referring to Spain
Love of Country

It has been said that love has

always been the most powerful
force behind the most sublime
actions. Well then, of all loves,
that of country is the greatest,
the most heroic and the most
Love of Country

The motherland is in danger! Soldier and

leaders as if by charm, spring from the
ground. The father leaves his children,
the sons leave their parents and all rush
to defend their common mother. They bid
farewell to the quiet pleasures of the
home and hide under the helmets the
tears that tenderness draws. They all
leave and die.
For Liberty and Glory

From this essay, Rizal made clear that

for the love of ones country, Filipinos
have to sacrifice their youth, pleasures,
splendor of genius and even their life.
Filipinos should not fear losing their
lives for liberty and glory.
After a while, he stopped his writing
career due to 3 factors:
His mother opposed him
He had a difficulty pursuing his career
success being in a foreign country
He wanted to finish his studies first
Rizal in Madrid Capital of Spain
He was more patient and industrious in his studies at
Madrid. He was able to attend different classes:
philosophy and letters; painting and sculpture; language
and fencing lessons. He licentiate medicine at
Universidad Central de Madrid.
Rizals Schooling in Madrid
- Rizal was awared the degree of
Licentiate in Medicine for passing
the medical examination for the
- Continued the doctorate degree in
medicine but was not conferred the
Doctors diploma due to his failure
to pay the fee for the presentation
and defense of his thesis
- Completed the degree of Licentiate
in Philosophy and Letters
Rizal and the Filipino Expatriates in Madrid

He made friends with the Filipinos in Madrid: Pedro

Paterno, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Gregorio Sanciano, Juan
Luna, Marcelo del Pilar, etc.
He became close with Jaena and del Pilar
The trio was called the Triumvirate of the Propaganda
Movement later on.
He also learned that his fellow expatriates had formed
Circulo-Hispano Filipino wherein he contributed the
poem, Mi Piden Versos.
Circulo-Hispano Filipino

Rizal told his father later on that the society disintegrated

because of the differences between the young members and
the retired colonials.
At this time, he is already feeling the hardship in Calamba
(financial difficulties in his family due to crop failures and
worsened by increase in hacienda rentals of the Dominicans.
Because of this, he would often attend classes on an empty
Rizal Joins the Masonry

Two main reasons:

The abuses committed by the friars against the Filipinos
The possible assistance he can get from the masons
Master Mason in Lodge Solidaridad attained at Nov.
15 1980
Rizals Toast to Luna and Hidalgo

Luna ~ got a gold medal with his painting Spolarium

Hidalgo ~ silver medallist Christian Virgins
Exposed to the Populace
Rizal delivered a speech Brindis

*** To be delivered by Joseph


Doa Teodoras reaction

She warned Rizal not to continue his studies since it might
cause him death.
Rizals reaction
He will still have enemies
His conscience tells his mind to follow what he wants
Conscience can accept only what is compatible with reason
implying that there are things that should and should
NOT be done.
End of Chapter 9
Lets go on with the next chapter!