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# Design of Bending Members in Timber

## An Example of Timber Beams

What can go wrong ?
TIMBER BEAMS:

Bending failure

Lateral torsional
buckling

Shear failure

Notch failure

Bearing failure

Excessive deflections
Bending Strength
Linear elastic stresses My M
max
I S
M max S
y
M for rectangula r sections
bh 2
S
6
Design Equation:
M r Fb S
Where Fb is the characteristic bending strength
For timber it is Fb = fb (KDKHKSbKT)
Bending failure in
compression
Only likely for very high grade material
Benign failure mode
Logging bridge
near Pemberton, BC

Glulam I-beam
Bending failure in tension
Most likely failure mode
Brittle
Combination of tension and shear,
although tension fracture is the
initiating mode
Bending capacity

Lateral
Mr = Fb S KZb KL torsional
where = 0.9 buckling
and Fb = fb (KD KH KSb KT )
Glulam beams in a Gerber system
Glued-laminated beams

better laminations

Glued-laminated beams

better
laminations

Lateral torsional buckling of
timber beams
Elastic buckling:
Mcr = / Le (G J E Iy )

Torsional Lateral
stiffness bending
stiffness
y
y

Le x
x
y
x
x

## Note: The warping stiffness for y

rectangular shapes is small compared to
y
the torsional and bending stiffness
Lateral torsional
buckling of
deep I-joists
Capacity of a timber beam subject
to lateral torsional buckling
Mu
Mr = Fb S KZb

## material failure Mr = Fb S KZb KL

Mr
combination of
material failure and
elastic lateral
lateral torsional
torsional buckling
buckling

Le
Lateral torsional
KL
1.0
buckling factor KL
KL = 1
KL = 1 1/3 (CB / CK)4

0.67
practical limit

0.5

## CK = ( 0.97 E KSE KT / Fb )0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 CB

Deep glulam beam
Lateral support
Prevention d/b d
at spacing:
b
of lateral
<4 no support
torsional
buckling <5
purlins
or tie rods

## KL = 1.0 < 610 mm compression

when lateral < 6.5 edge held by
decking or joists
support is < 610 mm
provided as < 7.5
top edge
< 8d
shown plus bridging

## <9 both edges

Bridging for floor joists
Shear stress in a beam
A

y

d

N.A.
max
= V(0.5A)(d/4)
(bd3/12)b
=1.5 V/A
b

VAy VQ

Ib Ib
Shear in a timber beam

As
v(max)
Vr = Fv 2/3 A KZv
where = 0.9 v(avg)

## and Fv = fv (KD KH KSv KT )

v(max) = 1.5 v(avg)
= 1.5 V / A
UNBC
Prince George, BC
Shear failures
One of the very weak properties of wood
Shrinkage cracks often occur at the ends of
beams in the zone of maximum shear stress
This part of the

## Direct compression load transferred in

direct
compression
the end zones
reduces the total
shear force to be 45o
carried.
critical
section
Shear design of glulam beams
A simple approach for beams where the
volume < 2.0 m3:
Vr = Fv 2/3 A KN
where = 0.9
and Fv = fv (KD KH KSv KT )
KN = notch factor (see next section)

## For larger beams this is usually quite

conservative and a more sophisticated
approach is used (see clause 6.5.7.3)
Notch factor for Glulam beams
dn
d

dn
e

## KN = ( 1 dn/d )2 For e > d :

KN = ( 1 dn/d )

For e < d :
KN = 1 dne/[d(d dn)]
For notches on Notch effect in
the tension side sawn lumber
of supports
(sawn lumber)
In new code:
Reaction
calculation NEW !!

Fr = Ft A KN
= 0.9 Area A
Ft = ft (KD KH KSt KT)
where ft = specified reaction force strength = 0.5 MPa for sawn lumber
KSt = 1.0 for dry and 0.7 for wet service conditions
A = gross cross-section area
KN = notch factor
Notch factor d1
e d
KN
dn
Based on Fracture
Mechanics theory

0.5
1 2 1
K N 0.0061.6 1 3 1

1 d n d and e d
Bearing failure in a timber beam
The soft property of wood
Often governs
Not only compression perpendicular to
grain but also tension of the fibres
along edges

compression
perpendicular
to grain

tension of fibres
along the edges
Bearing resistance
Ab

no high
bending
stress

Bearing factor

Qr = Fcp Ab KZcp KB
= 0.8
Fcp = fcp (KScp KT)
Critical bearing areas in woodframe construction
Bearing resistance
(double bearing)
Ab2

but 1.5 Ab1
Ab1
45 deg

## Qr = (2/3) Fcp Abavg KZcp KB

= 0.8
Fcp = fcp (KD KScp KT)
Bearing factor KB
Bearing length or
Bearing factor KB
diameter (mm)
< 12.5 1.75
25 1.38
38 1.25
50 1.19
75 1.13
100 1.10
> 150 1.0
Deflections
A serviceability criterion
Avoid damage to cladding etc. ( L/180)
Avoid vibrations ( L/360)
Aesthetics ( L/240)