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HOMES AWAY

FROM HOME

The
Hospitality
Industry
LODGING
SECTOR
KINDS OF ACCOMMODATION
Accommodation a place where travelers can sleep
and find other services

There are so many kinds of hotels to pin down


Hotel synonym to lodging and accommodation
Lodging and accommodation embrace broader spectrum of
possibilities, these need kind of flexibility for us to
accommodate the diverse kind of lodging that exist
Properties often refer to specific lodging facility by people
in travel industry
Disney has many great properties in Orlando
Guest they refer to their customer
Lodging often considered a part of hospitality industry. It
also covers dining services and theme parks.
HOTELS
a structure that provides sleeping accommodations to
travelers and that usually features dining facilities and
daily housekeeping service.

Resort Hotels cater primarily to leisure travelers

generally found at beaches, near ski areas, in the


desserts and even (or even) theme parks and
attractions

usually have facilities for recreational activities (


swimming pool, tennis courts, a golf course, and
dining services)
TYPES OF RESORT HOTEL
Mega Resort a large resort hotel with very many
facilities and activities covering acres of land.

All-Inclusive Resort a resort that charges one price


that includes most or all of the cost of staying
(lodging, some or all meals, activities, etc.)

Spa Resort provides extensive facilities for


massages, facials, fitness activities, and healthy
dining.

Ski Resort provides a site and facilitates to serve the


needs on winter sports enthusiasts.
TYPES OF RESORT HOTEL
Casino Resort features extensive gaming
opportunities in a destination where gambling is legal
Themed Resort has a strong identity, often tied to
some other place in time
The Venetian recreates its legendary namesake city
(canals and gondolas)
Disneys Animal Kingdom Lodge surrounded by African-
styles savannahs

Converted Hotels (paradores) old castles,


monasteries or even commercial building configured to
accommodate tourists
Camino Real formerly a nunnery in Oaxaca, Mexico
Cairo Marriot elegant former palace
HOTELS
Business (Corporate) Hotels target the needs of
the travelers
generally features business center ( where guest can send
fax, print documents, and make photocopies, arrange
packages deliveries, a small store, and a guest-room with
spacious desk, multiple telephones, sometimes even
printer and fax machines terminals
at least one dining facility and perhaps a pool and health
club
rates in business hotels on weekends are much lower
business hotels tend to be located in city centers, near
business parks and at airports
TYPES OF BUSINESS HOTEL
Airport Hotel are used primarily by business
travelers for:
overnight layovers between two flights that they dont
connect on the same day
times when they have an early meeting and need to fly in
the night before
meetings in which travelers from distant places converge
at one geographically central hotel.
Convention and Meeting Hotel with numerous
meeting rooms and large ballrooms that can host
groups of any size.
situated in the city centers, in rural locations, or next to a
citys convention centers
also accommodate leisure travelers and tour groups,
although they are not the prime target market.
TYPES OF BUSINESS HOTEL
All-Suite Hotels where all accommodations are
suites instead of conventional rooms.
Suites are accommodations with at least two rooms (a
bed room and a living room, with a wall between them)
Junior Suites large and oversized rooms

become increasingly popular in the travel market


features kitchen elements
either leisure- or business oriented, or mix of the two
vacationers, especially families, like them because they
feature plenty spaces
corporate travelers favor them because they provide room
for work in a home-like environment
OTHER KINDS OF LODGING
Limited-service lodging a hybrid of hotel and motel,
these modesty size and economically priced properties
generally have rooms open onto an interior hallway
rather than to outside like a motel.

Extended-stay lodging not very well known to the


traveling public (but familiar to business travelers),
these properties appeal to those who need lodging for
a week or more.

Dude Ranch a unique form of lodging, these facility


convey a theme of the American West.
TERMS COMMONLY USED LODGING INDUSTRY
Amenities in-room or bathroom extras, such as
shampoo, a hair dryer, an iron/ironing board, or
mouthwash.

Rack Rate a hotels official, published rate. Travelers


usually dont pay the rack rate.

Folio the hotel bill.

Inventory the number of rooms a hotel has available


for occupancy.

Day Rate The cost of renting a room for a day, rather


than for overnight.
TERMS COMMONLY USED LODGING INDUSTRY
Concierge A person, usually stationed near the hotel
front desk, who helps guests with special requests.
floor with enhances guestrooms and facilities.

Run-of-the-house Rate (ROH) A rate guaranteeing


that the guest will receive the best room available at
check-in..

Room Service the service that provides in-room


dining.

Connecting versus Adjoining Room (adjacent room)


Connecting rooms are two rooms with a door between them
that can be opened.
Adjoining rooms are guestrooms that are near or next to
one another but that do not have a door between them
WHO OWNS LODGING FACILITIES
Wholly Owned a parent chain corporation
Hyatt, Hilton, Marriott or Fairmont.
Franchise doesnt own all, but an outside person or
company (a franchisee) owns the property.
franchisee pays a royalty, a percentage of room sales, an
advertising fee and other miscellaneous cost to chain, and
must adhere to at least minimum standards that the chain
sets
Management Contract a chain provides executive to
run the hotel.
in some cases the property will also use the chains brand
name and reservations system

Totally Independent with no chain affiliations, they


dont need to operate under the brand name.
they are so small that they dont have the resources or see
the need for brand affiliations
WHAT ROOM COSTS
The quality of the property the more luxurious it
is, the more it will cost

The facilities it offers hotels with more facilities


will probably more pricey than those with few

The service level it provides properties with high


staff ration generally charge more

The prime market its serves hotels that target


business travelers usually cost more than leisure
oriented properties because with corporate
travelers, their company is paying.

Corporate Rate
a negotiated special rate with the hotel for volume business
WHAT ROOM COSTS
Whether the hotel or chain is offering a special promotion
hotels and entire brands sometimes decide that their
booking are so soft that something should be done to
stimulate demand.

If it is prepaid, nonrefundable rate hotel may offer a


lower rate than it would normally charge if guests agree to
pay the entire cost of their stay at the time of booking, but
waiving the right to change the reserved dates.

If its a landmark because of their noted history or


architecture, can charge a premium rate.

Whether anything spectacular or unusual is going on is a


convention monopolizing city hotels, hotels space will be
hard to secure. In most cases where demand exceeds
supply, prices go up.
WHAT ROOM COSTS
If the guest is part of the conference because of the
volume purchase of room nights, hotels usually extend a
reduced conference rate to attendees.

Which day of the week it is lodging types have


predictable weekly patterns, airport and business hotels
tend to offer their best rates on weekend, conversely, resort
hotels tend to lower their rates midweek.

How inclusive the property is the more thats included in


the price, the more the room will cost, the number of meals
included especially helps determine the price.

How long the guests stay will be some hotels give a


lower rate to guest whose stay is uncommonly long, stay
can be as short as five days, but week to a month or more
is typical for such an extended stay,
WHAT ROOM COSTS
The number of people in a room rates varies according to
how many people occupy the room, a single occupancy
room may cost little less than double-occupancy, triple or
quad occupancy usually increases the price.
If theres a resort fee some resort add a mandatory daily
extra free for use of facilities (whether the guests uses then
or not).
If the guest is using frequent-stay or frequent-flyer points
like airlines, hotel chains award points to guests who
participate in their loyalty program, many hotels also
partner with airlines, frequent flyers may receive offers for
free or reduced-price nights.
How the lodging is purchased hotel chains may offer
special reduced rates to travelers who book on the internet,
like airlines, better rates can sometimes be obtained
through consolidators.
SOME FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT ROOM PRICES
Members of an association, government status and
age can obtain special rate
Rates also vary within hotels:

a room with an ocean view will cost more than one


that overlooks the parking lot
guestroom that features better amenities (like
bathrobes, complimentary breakfast and evening
hors doeuvres)
concierge level rooms usually cost 20-50 percent
more than standard rooms.
Larger rooms and suites usually cost more
Hotels may tack on extra fee, such as energy
surcharges, as well as government lodging tax,
depending on the locations, taxes and fees vary.
MEAL PLANS OFFERED BY HOTELS
American Plan (AP) a room rate that includes three
meals daily.
Bermuda Plan (BP) a room rate that includes a full
breakfast daily. In Britain this is called a bed-and-
breakfast rate.
Continental Plan (CP) a room rate that includes a
daily continental breakfast (such as rolls, toast,
muffins, pastries, and various beverages).
European Plan (EP) a room rate that doesnt include
any meals.
Modified American Plan (MAP) a room rate that
includes two meals (usually breakfast and dinner)
daily in the room rate.
common during high season in Mexico.
HOW LODGING IS SOLD
60% of all lodging is sold by hotels and their chains

25% is sold by conventional and online travel agencies

15% is sold to tour operators and cruise lines

Rest is bought by meeting planners, consolidators,


and intermediaries
HOTEL BOOKING PROCEDURE
Guest or travel agents can book accommodations through:
Phone (either reservations center or to the hotel
directly)
Website (either the hotels or a general travel websites)
Fax
Email
Or even regular mail
After giving necessary information, the person booking the
reservation is typically asked to guarantee reservation
either:
Credit card number or credit card
Actual deposit paid by check
Or money order

The room will be held, in theory, no matter what time of


the day the customer arrives
HOTEL RESERVATION/BOOKING THEORY
Hotel use yield management programs to predict hotel occupancy
(the percentage of rooms occupied) base on the patterns seen in
previous years.

They identify a certain no-show rate people who fail, for whatever
reason, to arrive at the hotel or who cancel at the last minute.
To adjust, like airlines, hotels often overbook, based on the predicted
no-show rate.

If that prediction is off, a guest arriving late in the evening may not
be able to stay at the hotel, because all rooms are already occupied.

Then the guest is then transferred to another hotel, the original


hotel pays for the room (even if its more than its own rate) and, if
necessary, a taxi to get there.

Walking the guest


a lodging language for guest transferred to another hotel due to
overbooking, because hotel personnel used to literally walk the gust to
another hotel.
CAREERS IN LODGING
Senior Executives, directors, and managers
Reservationists
Front desk staff
Food and beverage staff
Concierges
Business center staff
Maintenance staff
Bell captain/staff
Human resources/training specialist
Audio-visual coordinators
Safety/security specialist
Sales representatives
Housekeepers
Accountants/auditors
FOOD
SERVICES
SECTOR
FOOD SERVICES
Food Services the industry that provides dining and food
to people, usually outside their own home environment.

Food services represent a huge and vital part of hospitality


sector.
Food service providers not only serve the everyday needs of the
neighborhood locals, they also cross path with travel and tourism
at all times.
Meals represent a significant aspect a significant aspect of the
travel experience and often shape ones satisfaction with a trip; it
is a reason of some people travel.
Food service industry provides growing wealth opportunities.
Many well-known brands in travel and tourism began in food
services
Marriot Hotel-began as an A&W Root Beer
Howard Johnson-started as an ice cream shop
Knotts Berry Farm-a theme park initially famous in serving chicken
dinners and boysenberry pies)
FOOD SERVICE CONCEPT
Concept food service elements that, together, address the
needs and expectations of customers.

Location food providers must carefully select the right location


for the concept they are trying to achieve.
Hard Rock Caf that adjoins Orlandos Universal Studios
A restaurant with a view of Niagara
Size of facility how is the size of the dining facility prescribed,
usually by numbers of seats.
a coffee shop near a limited-service hotel will be smaller than a dinner
theater which can accommodate busloads of tourism.
Hours of operations customer needs to dictate when a food
service will operate.
Luxury or big resort hotel are expected to provide 24-hour room
service, as are major airport hotels, where travelers arrive at all
hours.
A museum cafeteria is open only during the museums operating
hours.
Theme theming has become the popular path toward food
service.
Rainforest Caf which makes you feel as if you are in the jungle.
Planet Hollywood which displays movie memorabilia
TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE
Table Service also known as the sit down service,
this is a type of food service we know
(a) the greeter seats you,
(b) a server takes your order from the menu,
(c) then food and beverage are delivered to your table, and
(d) before leaving, you pay your server or cashier.

Banquet Table Service also called as American (a


family style service) or French style service
this form of service comes in the three versions:
everyone is served the same meal at the same time

several choices but the meals are served at the same


time
guest select from the menu and are served at about the
same time (usually on cruise ship, cruise business calls a
seating)
TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE
Cafeteria Service in travel industry, usually in
attractions, airports and theme parks.
(a) guest pick up a tray
(b) select their food (which is dished up either in
advance or at the diners request-by service people)
(c) place their choices on a tray
(d) pay for their selections at the cashier
(e) take the food themselves to a table

Buffet Service this is very similar to cafeteria service,


except that its even more self-serve.
perhaps only one or two employees dish up the food,
sometimes non do
difference from cafeteria service features is that one
price, paid in advance, covers everything (rather than
paying per food item selected)
some hotels find breakfast buffets to be extremely
popular
TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE
Room Service guests order meals from a special in-room
menu, and the meal is brought to their guestroom usually
within 30-45 minutes
a service charge and perhaps gratuity are, in most
cases, automatically added to the bill, which appears on
the guests folio and is paid when they check-out

Fast Food Service you walk up to the counter or drive


through and order your food
similar to traditional fast-food outlets are coffeehouses
(Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts), which provide a
limited menu off food choices
most fast-food facilities have even an open-seating area
family or road travelers often use fast-food outlets to
save time and money
occasionally, escorted tour groups use them too, and
these facilities have become popular in airport terminals
as well
TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE
Fast Casual Service guest order food at the counter,
like they do at a fast-food restaurant, but usually the
food is of a higher quality and the atmosphere is nicer.

Delivery Service food is prepared and then


delivered, usually to the customers home.
hotels are increasingly using delivery services to
provide an alternative to in-house room service
limited-service hotels often rely entirely on delivery
service because they have no full kitchen on-site
FOOD SERVICE TERMS
Back-of-the-house behind the scene area of food services
(kitchen accessible only to staff, not the public. (Used
similarly in the lodging industry.

First-in, first-out (FIFO) Rotating and storing system in


which older food items are used before newer ones. Affected
also by how perishable the food is (how long it remains
safely edible)

Flow chart diagram that depicts the order in which a


menu item is prepared, beginning with the ingredients and
ending with the service to the customers.

Front-of-the-house opposite of back-of-the house.

No-show a customer with a reservation at a restaurant


who fails to show-up or cancel. (Also used in the lodging
and airline industry).
FOOD SERVICE TERMS
BOGO buy one, get one free offer.

Day-Part the time period when a certain set of menu


items is served (a lunch menu)

Dual-branding when two or more brand name operators


are located in the same retail location. Common in
Airports.

LTO limited-time offer.

Paid Outs money taken from the register to purchase


something with cash.

Stair-stepping scheduling according to typical customer


flow.

Table turns how many times a table is used to serve a


new customer over a period of time (three time an evening)
FOOD SERVICE CAREERS
Senior Executives, director and managers
Accountants/controllers
Busboys
Chefs/cooks
Bartender
Cashier
Food servers (waiters/waitresses)
Food and beverage managers
Clerical support
Human Resources/training specialists
Maintenance personnel
Kitchen staff
Maitre ds/hosts/hostesses (greeters)
Pastry chef
Purchasers
Receptionists
Sommeliers (wine stewards)
Sous Chef (Assistant Chef)
END