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Chapter 4:

DC to AC
Conversion
(Inverters)
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Overview

General concept

Single-phase inverter

Modulation

Three-phase inverter

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DC to AC Converter (Inverter)
DEFINITION: Converts DC to AC power by switching the
DC input voltage (or current) in a pre-determined sequence
so as to generate AC voltage (or current) output.

General block diagram (VSI & CSI)


TYPICAL APPLICATIONS:
Un-interruptible power supply (UPS), Industrial (induction motor) drives,
Traction, HVDC

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Example of Inverter Application
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

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UTM One leg switch mode inverter
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Simple Square-wave Inverter
To illustrate the concept of AC waveform generation

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AC Waveform
Generation
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AC Waveform
Generation
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5th

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Harmonics Filtering
Output of the inverter is chopped AC voltage with zero DC
component. It contain harmonics.
An LC section low-pass filter is normally fitted at the inverter output to
reduce the high frequency harmonics.
In some applications such as UPS, high purity sine wave output is
required. Good filtering is a must.
In some applications such as AC motor drive, filtering is not required.
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Variable Voltage Variable


Frequency Capability
Output voltage frequency can be varied by period of the square-
wave pulse.
Output voltage amplitude can be varied by varying the magnitude
of the DC input voltage.
Very useful: e.g. variable speed induction motor drive
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Fourier Series
Study of harmonics requires understanding of wave shapes.
Fourier Series is a tool to analyze wave shapes.

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Harmonics of
Square-wave (1)
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Harmonics of
Square-wave (2)
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Half-
bridge
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inverter

Also known as the inverter leg.


Basic building block for full bridge, three phase and higher order
inverters.
G is the centre point.
Both capacitors have the same value. Thus the DC link is equally
spilt into two.
The top and bottom switch has to be complementary, i.e. If the top
switch is closed (on), the bottom must be off, and vice-versa.
Suitable for low power inverter. Big capacitor size and not economic,
for high power rating.
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Shoot through fault and Dead-time


In practical, a dead time as shown below is required to avoid shoot-
through faults, i.e. short circuit across the DC rail.
Dead time creates low frequency envelope. Low frequency
harmonics emerged.
This is the main source of distortion for high-quality sine wave inverter.
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Single-
phase,
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Full-bridge

Full bridge (single phase) is built from two half-bridge leg.


The switching in the second leg is delayed by 180 degrees
from the first leg.
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Three-Phase Inverter
Three phase inverters are usually used for high
power applications.
Three single half bridge inverters can be
connected in parallel as shown in figures 8-21,
to form the configuration of three phase inverter.
The gating signals of single phase inverters
should be advanced or delayed by 120 degree
w.r.t. each other to obtain the three phase
balanced voltages.
The transformer primary winding must be
isolated but secondary must be connected either
in Y or delta.
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Three-Phase Inverter
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Three-Phase Inverter

Each leg
(Red, Yellow,
Blue) is delayed
by 120
degrees.

A three-phase
inverter with
star connected
load is shown
on the right

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Three phase
inverter
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waveforms

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Three Phase
Inverter
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Waveforms
(6 steps output
VL-N)

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3-phase Inverter - Analysis

Rtotal = R + R/2 = 3R/2


iTotal = Vs/Rtotal = 2Vs/3R
Van = Vcn = iTotal.R/2 = Vs/3
Vbn = - iTotal.R = - 2Vs/3 25
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Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

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Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

Triangulation Method
(Natural Sampling)

Amplitudes of the triangular wave


(carrier) and sine wave (modulating)
are compared to obtain PWM
waveform. Simple analogue
comparator can be used.(Introduced
by Scnohung & Stemmler)
Basically an analogue method. Its
digital version, known as REGULAR
sampling is widely used in
industry.(Introduced by Bowes)
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The End
of Chapter 4

Thank You
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