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10 visualizzazioni29 pagineFinite Element Methods Introduction

Jul 19, 2017

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Finite Element Methods Introduction

© All Rights Reserved

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10 visualizzazioni29 pagineFinite Element Methods Introduction

© All Rights Reserved

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Phase -2

Finite element method is to find the solution of a

complicated problem by replacing it by a simpler one

Approximate solution rather than the exact solution

interconnected sub-regions called finite elements

Finite Element Method (FEM) :

Very Popular Method based upon discretization of component into Finite number of

blocks (elements)

Buckling and Fatigue Analysis

Just like Finite Element Method, it also requires Nodes and Elements but as the name

suggest, it considers only the outer boundary of the domain

All Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) soft wares are based upon FVM.

Unit Volume is considered in Finite Volume Method (similar to Elements in Finite

Element Method)

Finite Difference Method (FDM) :

equation.

Is it possible to use all the above listed methods (FEA ,BEM , FVM,

FDM) to solve same problem

YES ! But the difference is in Accuracy achieved , programming ease

and time required to obtain the solution

Area of Problems Area of Problems

study study

Stress Analysis Of Nuclear Engg Analysis of Nuclear

Pressure Vessels, Pressure Vessels and

Mechanical

Pistons, Containment Structures;

design

Composite Materials, Steady-state Temperature

Linkages, and Gears Distribution in Reactor

Static Analysis of Trusses, Components

Frames, Folded Plates, Biomedical Stress analysis of

Civil Engg. Shell Roofs, Shear Walls, Engg eyeballs,

Bridges, and Concrete Bones, And Teeth;

Structures Load-bearing Capacity Of

Static Analysis of Aircraft Implant And Mechanics

Aircraft Wings, Fins, Rockets, of Heart Valves

structures Spacecraft, Electrical Steady-state analysis of

and Missile Structures machines & synchronous and

Steady-state Temperature electro- induction machines,

Heat magnetics eddy current, and core

Distribution in Solids and

Conduction losses

Fluid

Can readily handle very complex The FEM obtains only "approximate"

geometry solutions.

Can handle a wide variety of

engineering problems:

-Solid mechanics

The FEM has "inherent" errors

- Dynamics

- Heat problems

- Fluids

Can handle complex restraints:

Mistakes by users can be fatal

-Indeterminate structures

Can handle complex loading:

-Nodal load (point loads)

-Element -

-Time or frequency dependent

loading

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Finite Element Method (FEM) both are

one & the same.

Process of modeling a structure

using suitable number, shape and

size of the elements is called

discretization

need to find the values of a field

variable such as Displacement, No. of Points =

DOF per point = 6

Stress, Temperature, Pressure, Total No of Equations to be

and Velocity as a function of Solved = * 6 =

spatial coordinates (x, y, z)

infinite number of degrees of DOF per point = 6

freedom by A system having finite Total No of Equations to be

number of degrees of freedom. Solved = 8 * 6 = 48

The case of transient or unsteady state problems, the field variable has to

be found as a function of not only the spatial coordinates (x, y, z) but also

time (T).

First step of the finite element analysis involves the discretization of the

irregular domain into smaller and regular sub-domains, known as finite

elements

Method

Geometry, material properties, and

the field variable of the problem

can be described in terms of only

one spatial coordinate, we can use

the one-dimensional or line

elements

Analysis of beams, the values of

the field variable (transverse

Triangular

displacement) and its derivative

Element (slope) are chosen as the unknowns

(degrees of freedom) at each node

Problem can be described in terms

Quadrilateral

Element of two independent spatial

coordinates, we can use the two-

dimensional elements

Geometry, material properties, and

other parameters of the body can be Hexahedral

Element

described by three independent

spatial coordinates

three-dimensional, can be described

by only one or two independent

coordinates. Such problems can be

idealized by using an axisymmetric

or ring type of elements

Demands on the Computer Storage

Reduced by storing only the elements

involved in half bandwidth

Bandwidth of the overall or global

characteristic matrix depends on the

node numbering scheme and the

number of degrees of freedom

considered per node

Minimizing the bandwidth, will

minimize the storage & solution time

Eg: Three degrees of freedom per

node, there are 240 (20*3*4)

unknowns in the final equations

Stiffness matrix is stored in the

computer it will Require

240*240 = 57,600 locations

bandwidth) of the overall stiffness

matrix is 15 and thus the storage

required for the upper half band is

only 15 240 = 3600 locations. The bandwidth of the overall

system matrix depends on the

Band Width B is given by the manner in which the nodes are

expression numbered

B = (D + 1) f For simple systems or regions,

it is easy to label the nodes

where D is maximum difference in

node number in an element after For large systems, the

considering all elements procedure becomes nearly

f-degrees of freedom per node. impossible

Automatic mesh generation algorithms, capable of discretizing any

geometry into an efficient finite element mesh without user intervention

Mesh generation program generates the locations of the node points and

elements, labels the nodes and elements, and provides the elementnode

connectivity relationships

User can also specify the minimum permissible element sizes for

different regions of the object.

Common methods used in the development of automatic mesh

generators are the Tessellation and Octree methods

The user gives a collection of node

points and also an arbitrary starting

node.

Then creates the first simplex element

using the neighboring nodes.

Subsequent or neighboring element is

generated by selecting the node point

that gives the least distorted element

shape.

Procedure is continued until all the

elements are generated.

Alternately, the user can define the

boundary of the object by a series of

nodes.

The object is first considered enclosed

in a square region

If the object does not completely

cover the square, the square is

subdivided into Four equal quadrants.

If any one of the resulting quadrants is

full (completely occupied

By the object) or empty (not occupied Step-1 Step-2

by the object), then it is not

subdivided further.

On the other hand, if any one of the

resulting quadrants is partially full

(partially occupied by the object), it is

subdivided into four quadrants.

Procedure of subdividing partially full

quadrants is continued until all the

resulting regions are either full or

empty Step-3 Step-4

If the body has no abrupt changes in

geometry, material properties, and external

conditions Concentrated Load on a Beam

(e.g., load and temperature), the body can

be divided into equal subdivisions and

hence the spacing of the nodes can be

uniform

Discontinuity in Loading on a Beam

If there are any discontinuities in the

problem, nodes have to be introduced at

these discontinuities

Discontinuity in Geometry

Discontinuity in Material

Number of elements to be chosen for

idealization is related to the accuracy

preferred, size of elements, and the

number of degrees of freedom involved

generally means more accurate results, for

any given problem, there will be a certain

number of elements beyond which the

accuracy cannot be improved by any

significant amount.

elements involves a large number of Effect of Varying the Number of Elements

degrees of freedom

complexity

Global and local coordinate It may be necessary to establish

systems are used to locate nodes, your own coordinate system,

key points, etc. in space. whose origin is offset from the

global origin, or whose

A global coordinate system can orientation differs from that of the

be consider as an absolute predefined global systems. Such

reference frame user defined coordinate systems,

known as local coordinate

systems

Finite element method is piecewise approximation

Complicated problem is obtained by dividing the region of interest

into small regions (finite elements) and approximating the solution

over each sub region by a simple function

Functions used to represent the behavior of the solution within an

element are called interpolation functions or approximating functions

or interpolation models

Polynomial-type interpolation functions have been most widely

Easier to formulate & perform differentiation or

integration with polynomials

Is possible to improve the accuracy of the results by

increasing the order of the polynomial

The interpolation polynomial is of

order one, the element is termed a

linear element

The interpolation polynomial is of

order two or more, the element is

known as a higher order element

Higher order elements, some

secondary (midside and/or interior)

nodes are introduced in addition to

the primary (corner) nodes in order

to match the number of nodal

degrees of freedom with the

number of constants (generalized

coordinates) in the interpolation

polynomial.

One-dimensional Element

n is the degree of the polynomial

m is number of polynomial coefficients

m = n + 1 for One-dimensional Elements

For n = 1 (Linear Model)

One-dimensional case:

Two-dimensional case:

Three-dimensional case:

For n = 2 (Quadratic Model)

One-dimensional case:

Two-dimensional case:

Three-dimensional case:

Validation and Effectiveness of the FEM depends on how best

approximate solution converges to the exact solution

1. The displacement with in an element must be continuous.

the general displacement function

state of constant strain.

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