Sei sulla pagina 1di 44

Help

AC Drive Basic Construction of AC


Drive

eLearning
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved.
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 2 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Naming of the variable speed drive!


VSD = Variable Speed Drive ASD = Adjustable Speed Drive

AC Drive DC Drive

VSD = Variable Speed Drive


VFD = Variable-Frequency Drive

AFD = Adjustable Frequency Drive

VVVF = Variable Voltage Variable Frequency

Frequency Converter
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

Inverter
All rights reserved. - 3 -
Help

Converters
Converter is
A circuit which convert a electric power supply to an another form of
electric power supply.

Types of converters-
1. AC to DC rectifier
2. DC to AC inverter
3. DC to DC converter
4. AC to AC converter
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 4 -
Help

Converters
Frequency converter, what is it?
Its only a box with
Three phase input, three phase output to a motor
Input for a start and stop command
Reference signal input to control output frequency

Why convert frequency?


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 5 -
Help

What does mean the word DRIVE?

DRIVE is
1. Electrical supply equipment like a Frequency
converter ALONE or
2. Combination of electrical supply equipment and
motor or
3. Combination of electrical supply equipment, motor
and pulley, gear box, drum
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 6 -
Help

Hardware and software


AC drive is composed of
1. Hardware
covering wide power range

2. Software
Most of application and customer
requirements are fullfilled by the
parameters
From same hardware can be form
totally different drive for a some
certain application with a different
sw-packages.
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 7 -
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 8 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Waveforms
Usupply Ud Udc UU2-V2

Rectifier DC bus Inverter


L + +
Motor
U1
U2
Supply Ud C
V1 Udc V2 M3~
W2
W1
- -
Imotor

Actual
Control electronics
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

signals
- control, monitoring and communication
All rights reserved. - 9 -

Control
signals
Help

Common construction of an AC Drive

Real drive Motor


2

Supply
Circuit diagram 1

1
2

Block diagram
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 10 -

1
2
Help

Rectifier (front end)


AC to DC
E E
+ +

U1
U1 Diode bridge rectifier,
V1
V1 Diode Front End,
W1
W1 Diode Supply Unit (DSU)

- -

E
+

Line-Side Converter,
U1 IGBT Supply Unit (ISU)
V1

W1

Regenerative supplies
-
(Active Front Ends)
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

E
All rights reserved. - 11 -

+
U1

V1 Thyristor Supply Unit


W1 (TSU)
-
Help

Diode Rectifier in a different size of AC drive


1900...28005600 kW
+
U1

V1

W1

0.37 kW
+
U1

V1

W1

M
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 12 -

M
Help

DC- Intermediate circuit

The pulsating dc-voltage is smoothed down by LC-filter


DC-capacitors keep the dc-voltage constant
Charging circuit is needed to limit charging current of the capacitors

2. Charging diode and resistor


with half controlled rectifier
Charging curve
bridge

Rectifier DC bus Inverter


L
+ +
U1 U2
Supply V1 C V2
K
W1 W2
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

- -
R
All rights reserved. - 13 -

Actual
signals Control electronics
Control - control, monitoring and communication
signals

1. Charging resistor and contactor 3. Half controlled rectifier


Help

Inverter
Inverter +

mainly IGBT technology

Rectifier L DC bus Inverter


+

U1 C Ud U2
V1 V2
W1 W2
-

Control Electronics
control, monitoring and communication
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 14 -
Help

Control Electronics
Printed Circuit Boards generally(PCB)
Control and IO-board
IO-connections
Connection for an external communication like a fieldbuses
Common board through a whole power range of same product series
Interface Board
All measurement circuit
Auxiliary power supply for electronic
Construction varies in a different size of same drive series

Rectifier DC link Inverter 2


+

U1 C Ud U2
Supply V1 V2
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

W1 W2
+
All rights reserved. - 15 -

Actual values Control and IO-board Interface board


Control commands

Fieldbus
Control commands
Actuals
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 16 -


Example of IO-connections
Control Electronics
Help
Help

Modules

Drives up to approx. 500 kW based on a compact module

Larger drives consist of separate rectifier- and inverter modules.


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 17 -
Help

Heat dissipation and cooling


Heat dissipation HOT AIR
During the normal operation the drive cause some losses,
heat dissipations.
Amount are approx. 2-3% from a kVA-rate of drive.
Used cooling methods are:
Air cooling implemented most of cases by a cooling fan
Liquid cooling
With a small drives and electronic implemented by compination of cooling
fan and radiato.
With a bigger modules used liquid flows throught the heat sinks.
Providing compact design and silent operation and possibility for totally
enclosed cabinet

COLD AIR
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 18 -
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive vs. Multimotors

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 19 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Single drive vs. Multidrive vs. Multimotor


THE SINGLE DRIVE consist of a 1. 2. 3.

1. Diode rectifier or supply unit either


Non-regenerative Diode supply, DSU or 2.
1.
Regenerative Thyristor supply, TSU or
Regenerative IGBT supply, ISU
2. DC bus (Intermediate circuit)
3. 3. 3.
3. Inverter or paraller connected inverter
modules connected to one motor
The MULTIDRIVE consist of a modules: 2.
1.
1. Common supply unit, either DSU, TSU or
ISU
2. Common DC intermediate circuit
3. 3. 3.
3. Number of inverter units connected to an
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

individual motors.
All rights reserved. - 20 -

MULTI MOTOR
SINGLE converter or
MULTIDRIVE inverter connected
to Multiple motors
Eg. TK Group, Ctg
Help

Single drive
Some examples of single drives
3 x DSU 4 x INU
1.

2.

1. 3.
2.& 3. 2.& 3.

0,75 kW
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 21 -

1800 kW
160 kW
Help

Multidrive
E.g. a centrifuge application
Such of application may include tens of drives
What are a possible choices to implement that?
With a single drives OR
Features of the multidrive construction:
Common DC busbar
Shared energy and motor-to-motor braking
without braking chopper or regenerative
supply unit (sugar centrifuges)
Savings in cabling, installation and
maintenance costs.
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 22 -
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 23 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

All controls of AC drive


Speed ref (Freq. Ref)

I/O SOFTWARE HARDWARE


Application &
Process Control Motor control
Scalar U Inverter control
U, f
Inverter
PID controller f PWM- modulator
Block program Vector Speed Motor model U, f
control Motor data (G99)
Sequence program
Timed functions
DTC Speed Motor model
Loaded App. Sw Switching orders
control Motor data (G99)
(Crane, Winder) Switch. logic

I/O
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 24 -
Help

Application and Process control

AC Drive is part of the process control


Process control is located in a separate system

Actual SPEED or
FREQUENCY ACSxxx
PID REFERENCE
Reference
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 25 -

M
Help

Application and Process control

The process control can also be integrated into the drive = built-in
PID controllers
Eliminates the need for a separate controller
Output of the PID controller is either: L
Speed reference or
Frequency reference

ACSxxx
Reference Ref.
PID
Process actual
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

M
All rights reserved. - 26 -
Help

Application macros
Application macros are preprogrammed parameter sets
Macros help to find the correct parameter values for a certain
application
Example of macros
Motor potentiometer, Hand/Auto
and PID control
Possible 2 user defined macros
One drive for two different applications

Benefits
Cost- and time-efficient design work
Easy and quick start-up
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 27 -
Help

Tailoring: How?
Optional, ready made, certified and field proven application sw:
Crane control
www.abb.com
Winch control
Pump control
Winch control
System sw
Multiblock
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 28 -

Maintenance, Start-up and Engineering tools


Application programming
Sequency programming
Help

Motor control system:Scalar

Application
Reference Process
control
Actual U/f-curve
PI U =

Frequency Macros Uref PWM


fref
reference modulator
f
fref

3~
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 29 -
Help

Motor control system:Vector


Flux
reference Flux
reference
Torque Flux Uref PWM
reference control Modulator =
Speed Torque fref
reference Speed
control reference Torque
and control
selector
Act.
PI torque

Motor Voltage
Act. model Current
flux
3~
Angle of rotor
Measured speed
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 30 -
Help

Motor control system: DTC


The DTC Concept
Fast and accurate control
Immediate response to
load changes
Low audible noise and high
motor loadability
Continuous production
after pulse encoder failure Torque Reference
Torque
and Flux Switching =
Flying restart of motors at Speed REF
Speed
Reference control
Torque Comparator Logic ~
Reference
network disturbances Controller
Torque
and Flux Switch
PID positions
Motor Model Voltage
Current

3~
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

Calculated Speed DTC CORE


All rights reserved. - 31 -

Measured Speed
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 32 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Local and Remote control

Selection of control
location LOCAL control
(control from CONTROL-PANEL)
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 33 -

REMOTE control
(control via I/O-terminals or Fieldbus adapter from
CONTROL DESK or AUTOMATION SYSTEM)
Help

Remote control sources


1
Control sources
1. (Control panel)
2. Automation system through the fieldbus
3. Automation system or control desk through drive I/O

Optional
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

fieldbus adapter
All rights reserved. - 34 -

(inside of the drive)


Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 35 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Typical applications for electrical braking

Centrifuge and decanter


Crane
Downhill conveyors
Elevator
Escalator
Ski-lift
Storage
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

Test bench
All rights reserved. - 36 -

Winch
Windmills
Help

Regenerative braking

Electrical energy
Inverter 1
Motor acts
DC link Inverter 2
Filter +
as generator

U1 C Ud U2
Supply V1 M
V2
W2 3~
W1
+
-

Monitoring
Mechanical
Control Electronics
Control control, monitoring and communication energy
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 37 -
Help

Braking to resistor

Rectifier L DC bus Inverter Motor acts


+ as generator

U1 C Ud U2
Supply V1 V2 M
W1 W2 3~

Mechanical
energy

Electrical energy CH Braking chopper


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

Braking
All rights reserved. - 38 -

resistor
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 39 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Options
Standard delivery is including
All necessary equipments for standard application

Options available with plus a code for example:


Communication
Fieldbus adapters
Internet connection/remote control
I/O
IO extension modules
Galvanic isolation
Filtering
EMC filter for some certain installation environment
Output chokes for long motor cables
Du/dt filter to protect motor insulation
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

Control interface
All rights reserved. - 40 -

Control panels for some AC drive series


Start-up. Maintenance and engineering sw tools
Application softwares
Crane, Winch, Winder, Permanent Magnet Motors
Help

Overview

Construction of an AC drive

Single drive vs. Multidrive

Control circuits and controllers

Controlling of an AC drive

Electrical braking

AC drive options generally


Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.
All rights reserved. - 41 -

Terminology and conclusion


Help

Hardware and software


Hardware (HW) Comprehensive range
Air and liquid cooled
Drives and drive modules
Single and multi drives
Regenerative and non-regenerative

Software (SW) - Optimum motor control

Scalar control
Vector control
DTC
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

Certified and field proven application solutions


All rights reserved. - 42 -

Crane control
Winch control
Pump control
Etc.
Help

Conclusion of an AC drive

AC drive be made up of Rectifier, DC-bus and Inverter


Those basic parts locate either in one module to form
one drive or in own seperate modules.
Multidrive means multiple drives in common supply
Multimotor means multiple motors in one drive
Drive configuration are made in most of cases with a
parameters
Copyright 7/17/2017 ABB.

To feed braking energy of high inertia back to supply


All rights reserved. - 43 -

network needs regenerative supply, like the ISU