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Aerodynamics

FF-1/01

Aero Foundations

• Translating Tendency • Ground Effect • Translational Lift • Transverse Flow • Dissymmetry of Lift • Drag • Total Aerodynamic Force • Aero in Autorotations

Aerodynamic Difficulties

•Engine Failure in a Left Turn • Negative/Low G •Vortex Ring State •Loss of Tailrotor Effectiveness •Marginal Power Ops •Retreating Blade Stall

Huey Hovering

• Nose High

– 5º Mast tilt

• CG Forward / Aft

• Left Skid Low

– Translating Tendency

• Antitorque (Tail Rotor)

– Pushes Tail to the Right (Nose - Left) – Thrust also pushes fuselage right, below the CG

• Compensated for by left cyclic

– Thus, left skid lower than right skid

Translating Tendency

Translating Tendency

Ground Effect

• Practically speaking, experienced up to one rotor disk above the ground. • In ground effect hover power up to 30% less than out of ground effect. Why?

Primary: Reduction in downward velocity of induced flow caused by proximity of the ground

Secondary: Disruption in size and number of wing tip vortices (downward and outward flow of air discourages vortex formation)

The Transition to Directional Flight

Because hovering is fun, but it isn’t getting us anywhere.

Translational Lift

Additional lift because of horizontal movement with respect to the air

– Airflow transitions from vertical at a hover to more horizontal in forward flight

– Modifies induced flow changing the resultant RW and increasing the AOA

Translational Lift

Airflow at a Hover

Airflow in Forward Flight
Airflow in Forward Flight

Effective Translational Lift

• Definition

(ETL)

– The point at which the aircraft outruns its own downwash

• Results:

– Lift increases with no collective change

– Roll - right;

Nose - up

• Pitch up and Roll Caused by:

– Transverse Flow – Dissymmetry of Lift

Transverse Flow Effect

• Definition

– A condition of increased drag and decreased lift in the aft portion of the rotor disk caused by the air having a greater induced velocity and reduced angle of attack in the aft portion of the disk.

Transverse Flow Effect

Transverse Flow Effect Rotor Disk -Front Rotor Disk -Rear

Rotor Disk -Front

Rotor Disk -Rear

Transverse Flow Effect Rotor Disk -Front Rotor Disk -Rear

Transverse Flow Effect

More lift in front half

of rotor disk Less lift in rear half

Transverse Flow Effect • More lift in front half • of rotor disk Less lift in

•Phase lag effect felt 90º later

•Result:

-Right Roll

Transverse Flow Effect • More lift in front half • of rotor disk Less lift in

Dissymmetry of Lift

• The difference in lift between the advancing half and the retreating half of the rotor disk

Dissymmetry of Lift

L = 1/2  V 2 S CL
L =
1/2  V 2 S CL

Dissymmetry of Lift

• Result

– Nose pitches up – Referred to as “Blowback”

• Compensate by

– Flapping – Cyclic Feathering

Dissymmetry of Lift • Result – Nose pitches up – Referred to as “Blowback” • Compensate
Dissymmetry of Lift • Result – Nose pitches up – Referred to as “Blowback” • Compensate

Types of Drag

• Induced • Profile

– Skin Friction – Form

• Parasite

– Skin Friction – Form – Interference – Wave

Drag

Drag

PPC

PPC

Total Aerodynamic Force

• Lift is perpendicular to Resultant Relative Wind • Drag is parallel to Resultant Relative Wind • Lift is modified by Total Drag

Total Aerodynamic Force • Lift is perpendicular to Resultant Relative Wind • Drag is parallel to
Autorotations • Blade Regions • Descent Rates/Rotor RPM – -10 Pg 9-11 • HV Diagram –

Autorotations

• Blade Regions • Descent Rates/Rotor RPM

– -10 Pg 9-11

• HV Diagram

– -10 Pg 9-13 – FM 1-203 Pg 6-50

Flight Characteristics

• Engine Failure during left turn

– -10 Pg 9-2

• Negative Gs / Low Gs

– -10 Pg 8-10 – Right Roll – Mast Bumping Video

AERODYNAMIC PROBLEMS

The main reason why pilots need to know aero