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By Grace Abban - Ampiah

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this session students will be
able to:

Gain understanding and identify reasons for

your own and other peoples behaviours at the
work place.

Determine ways to improve individuals

behaviour for organizational effectiveness.
Lesson Structure
The individuals Contributions to the Organization
Determinants/Factors that influence individual
Meaning of Personality
Importance of studying Personality
Factors that determine individual
Measurement of Personality
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
The five big Personality Model
Lesson Structure Continued
Difficulties in studying personality
Meaning of Attitudes
Significance of studying individuals
measurement of attitudes
Attitude formation
Factors that influence attitude formation
Who are the most valuable assets of
the organisation?
Who are the most valuable
assets of an organization?

People are the organization's most valuable

assets but they are the most complex
elements that organization can manage
In what ways does individuals contributes to
the organization.
Why is it important to understand and
manage individuals in the organization.
Individuals Contributions to
Individuals contributes to the organization in
relation to low absenteeism, low turnover, and
good time keeping.

They contributes loyalty to the organization

despite the challenges. E.g. Commitment to
companies is vital especially in the faces of
current unstable business environment
Individuals Contributions to
Individuals contribute their skills, efforts,
ideas, time and energy to ensure
Organizational efficiency.

Individuals represent the image and values

of the organization. E.g. The image of the
organization is important to stakeholders.

E.g. consumers, suppliers, and the general

public. Companies like Unilever and Nestle
companies have invested into their brand
and corporate image.
What is Personality?
The unique characteristics or qualities that
distinguishes a person from the others.

This refers to the unique and relatively stable

pattern of behaviour, thoughts and emotions
shown by individual.

A combination of features or qualities that

form an individuals distinctive characteristics.
Why is Personality Characteristics
so Important on the Job
It is imperative to know the personality
characteristics on the job because:

Understanding Peoples personality helps to

acknowledge what to expect of them and
relate to them better at the work place.

Assists in matching personality perfectly to

individual tasks. E.g. Extrovert matched to
customer service roles.
Why is Personality Characteristics
Important on the Job?
It helps individuals to gain valuable insights
into their own behaviour and enable them to
constantly improve/perform better on the

Knowing the basic principles of how

individuals behave at the work place helps to
effectively provide training, manage, and
discipline employees.
Determinants /Factors that influence
Individual Behaviour in the Organization
Skills and Abilities: E.g. If people lack
the requisite skills and abilities needed to
accomplish their task as a result of

Personality: The unique characteristics or

qualities that differentiate a person from

Learning Styles: Every individual has a

way that they learn at the work place.
Determinants /Factors that influence
Individual Behaviour in the Organization
Motivation: refers to internal factors (intrinsic)
and external factors (extrinsic) that stimulate
people to perform.

E.g. Internal factors: playing games during

leisure time because you want to have fun.

E.g. External factors: E.g. You are motivated to

achieve a specific target because you will be
rewarded. These rewards may be in the form of
incentives, bonus, recognition
Determinants /Factors that influence Individual
Work Behaviour in the Organization
Perception (Belief): refers to the process of using
our senses (sound, sight, touch, smell and taste)
to give meaning to our surroundings. E.g.
perceiving the work is difficult.

Attitudes: is the way we feel or act about

something. E.g. A person leaving work early or
taking long break (negative attitude).

Morale: refers to the total satisfaction people

derived from a job, workgroup, organization,
working condition, superior. E.g. Are people
happy to perform?.
Identify the unique characteristics of
these individuals
Determinants of Personality What
determines individuals behaviour


Heredity Situational
(Nature) Factors (life
(Genetic experience)
and cultural)
Determinants of Personality
In reality, a persons personality is developed
by three main factors namely:

Genetic inheritance
Heredity (Nature) -
acquired from birth. They are physical
attributes or family traits that impacts
on individuals personality.
There are evidence that our genetic inheritance
plays a role in developing our personality.

E.g. Our physical traits/features determined by

genetics factors may influence the way others
treats us and might have impact on how we view

Physical Attributes : E.g. hair type, eye Color,

Skin color.

Aptitude: E.g. A natural talent for music would be

considered as an Aptitude.
Determinants of Personality
Environmental Factors:
Social interacting with people can affect
ones behaviour.
E.g interaction with families, friends, and

Cultural Factors The culture (values, beliefs,

norms) in which one finds him/herself tend to
influence ones behaviour.

Situational Factors:
Life experiences such as bereavement tend to
affect individuals personality.
Tools for measuring Individuals
Personality in the organization
Personality measurement is important on job
especially during recruitment and selection,
promotions in organization:

Observation E.g helps to determine if one

is an introvert (quiet) and extrovert

Interviews face-to-face interactions

between employees and managers
Tools for measuring Individuals
Personality in the organization
Personality test
Myers Briggs Personality Type Indicator

The big five model Classification

Aptitude test assess people abilities to learn,

absorb and apply new information, problem-
solving skills, attention to details.

E.g. Aptitude test on verbal, numerical and

abstract reasoning. E.g. used by most
organizations world wide.
Myers-Briggs Personality Type
Indicator (MBTI) Assessment
This is a psychometric questionnaire designed to
measure psychological preferences in how people
perceive the world and make decisions.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Classification (MBTI)
EXTRAVERSION INTROVERSION Where do you prefer to focus
your attention and get your
E I (Dichotomy) energy?

SENSING INTUITION How do you prefer to take in

S I (Dichotomy)

THINKING FEELING How do you make decision

T F (Dichotomy)

JUDGING PERCEIVING How do you deal with the outer

J- P (Dichotomy)
Description of Classification Myers-
Briggs Indicator Type
Extraversion (E): Introversion (I):

Outgoing, energetic, Reserved, thoughtful, unassuming,

communicative, warm and calm
Sensing (S): Intuitive (N):

Not interested in theories, Practical, Interested in abstracts or theories,

traditional, observant and factual. imaginative, forward thinking, and

Thinking (T): Feeling (F):

Analytical, objective. Make Kind, attentive, approachable,

decisions based on cause and Subjective.
Judging (J): Perceiving (P):

Organized, determined, dedicated Flexible, easy-going, and

and decisive approachable.
Occupation Trend based on MBTI
Administration Education Religion Scientific or
Law Health care Counseling technical
enforcement Religious Teaching fields
Accounting settings Arts Computers

Skilled trades ISFP INFP
Health care Counseling Scientific or
Technical fields
Business Writing technical fields
Law Law Arts
Enforcement enforcement
Occupation Trend based on MBTI
Marketing Health care Counseling Science
Skilled trades Teaching Teaching Management
Business Coaching Religion Technology
Law Childcare Arts Arts
enforcement worker
Applied Skilled trades


Management Education Management
Administration Health care Leadership
Law Religion
Spend sometime to answer the MBTI
questions to determine your MBTI type.
The Big Five Model
The Big Five Model is categorized into five
personality factors:

Emotional Stability
Open to Experience
Five Big Personality Traits
Below shows the five big dimensions of personality traits that account
for the differences in the way people behave at work

Element of the Big Five Description

Personality Traits

Extraversion Extroversion Sociable,

assertive (Confident) & outgoing

Introversion Quiet, reserved

and Shy.
Conscientiousness High in Conscientiousness
Organized Hardworking,
dependable, and persevering

Low in Conscientiousness
Disorganized, lazy, & Unreliable
Five Big Personality Traits
Below shows the five big dimensions of personality traits that
account for the differences in the way people behave at work

Element of the Big Five Description

Personality Traits
Agreeableness Highly Agreeable
cooperative and friendly

Highly disagreeable not

cooperative, unfriendly
Emotional Stability Emotionally Stable
secure, calm & happy

Emotionally Unstable
insecure, anxious, &
Five Big Personality Traits
Below shows the five big dimensions of personality traits that
account for the differences in the way people behave at work

Element of the Big Five Description

Personality Traits

Openness to experience Open to experience

creative & curious, artistic,

Closed to experience
unimaginative, dull,
inflexible, literal minded.
Group Exercise
What are the difficulties in associates with
the tools used in studying peoples
personality on the job?
Difficulties in Studying
The following are difficulties associated with
studying Personality:
Personality test are associated to faked

Assessments may infringe on individual

privacy (Data Protection Act Implications)
Other personality attributes that
influence Individual Behaviour
Major personality attributes that influence
employees behaviour at the work place are:

Locus of control
Internal Locus of Control
External locus of Control
Type A Personality
Type B Personality
Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe that people are in
control of their own destiny (fate).

Internal Locus of Control:

They are individuals who believe that they are in
control of whatever happens to them based on their
skills and ability.

External Locus of Control:

These are individuals who believe that what
happens to them is controlled by external forces.
e.g. luck, chance, someone 'efforts e.t.c
Effects of Locus of Control on
Situation Performance

A work that requires very Internals will perform better

complex information and than Externals

Compliance and Conformity to Externals are likely to perform

Health and safety rules and better.
Difference between Type A and
Type B Personality
Type A Type B
Severe sense of urgency They are people that are
always moving about and relaxed by nature Has not
hardly relax time of urgency
They over achievers They They are achievers and
are always involved in accomplish their work
unrelated challenging work effectively.
and are able to perform well
They are very competitive, They are very calm, and not
impatient, respond quickly in very loud
many contexts e.g. during
Dislike Leisure Time Like Leisure, can relax and
have not guilt
Advantages of Type A Over Type B
Behaviour Pattern
Type A Type B
They perform better at Concentrates on one
various task level task at a time.
Faster on many tasks Work at their own pace
even when there is no when there are no
pressure or deadline deadlines and pressure
involved. to accomplish task.
Work very well even in Type A are able to
the presence of accomplish more tasks
distractions. in the presence of
Why measure personality on the
It helps to determine how individuals work
with people, approach their task,
communicate, and deal with stress.

Helps to evaluate individuals response to

change under different circumstances.
Advantages of Type B Over Type A
Behaviour Pattern
Type A Type B
They always perform Type B perform better
poorly on tasks that on tasks that requires
entails patience or judgment, & accuracy
careful because they are because they are always
always in a hurry. relax.
They are easily prone to They hardly get
stress due to the stressed out since
amount of tasks they get they always relaxed in
involved in accomplishing their
Personality Attributes that
affects Organization Behavior
Self-efficacy (Can-do) :
ones believe in his/her own capacity
to perform a task.

The degree to which a person hold positive or
negative views about themselves.
Personality Attributes that
affects Organization Behavior
The is a personality trait that makes a
person pay attention to a social situation
so that he/she can change behaviors' to
fit that situation.
What are Attitudes?
Attitudes are mental views or dispositions
based on beliefs and feelings which a person
brings to any situation.


Attitudes are feelings towards people or

What are attitudes?
Belief What you think about people, things and
My job is very demanding.

I dislike working late hours.

Intention I will look for another job

Behaviour/Action I accept Company A

How do you measure peoples
attitudes at work?
It is very challenging to measure attitudes
since it cannot be seen, they can only be
inferred (concluded).

The following methods can be used to assess

individuals attitudes at work:

Surveys: E.g.. In the field of marketing,

surveys are constantly used to determine
what people feel about a particular product

Direct Observation
Divide yourselves into groups and reflect on the
factors that influence attitude formation and
how you can change attitudes of people in the
Factors that influence attitude
Attitudes are learned from infancy. Attitudes
Are derived from personal reactions to
Information and events.

Social Groups to which we belong

especially during infancy, workgroups and
friendship groups.

Personal Life experience bereavement,

experiences on the job.
Factors that influence attitude
Media as a means of communication has
influence on individuals attitudes. E.g.
television and radios.

Educational institution and Religious

institution: These institutions help shape
our moral standards.

Culture: Norms and values of society

influence the way people behave. E.g.
Japanese belief in team support achievement
whilst Americans have the can do attitude
Instances where Managers may
desire Attitude Change
Attitude toward introduction and
implementation of new management practices.

Attitude towards work diversity.

Attitude towards ensuring Health and Safety

Regulations. E.g. Use Of Safety Equipments like
industrial safety helmet to reduce head injuries

Attitudes toward future changes In the

organization such as introduction of new
How do managers change
Attitude at work?
Managers may change peoples attitude by:

High degree of Individual involvement in

Participation (contribution in projects)
Effective communication

Managing Individual personality and

attitudes are vital to achieving
organizational effective.