Sei sulla pagina 1di 69

m  m   

       
    

m  m  
   
O  Õ

 Õ

  Õ


 Õ


 Õ
O  Õ

 Õ

!  Õ

"  Õ Closed Open


corner corner
emember, t e purposes of  weld preprton s to llow ccess
for t e weldng process, penetrton nd fuson t roug t e re
of t e ont nd ts fces

     


     #             # 

! s s mor effects on economcs nd dstorton control etc


! e root fce, root gp nd ngle of bevel vlues, t e c oce of
sngle, or double sded preprtons, re dctted only by t e type
of weldng process, t e poston nd ccessblty of t e ont
2    
 
=  $

=  %

=  

=  &
m
  $
( 

'  


(   (


(  


 $


 %


 


 &
m m     

m     

m  
   
m    

m m    

m  
  
m   !  

m   !  

m  
 !  
m   " "  

m m   " "  

m  
 " "  
m 
    ) " 
"  


m       ) "  

m  m   ) "  


Weld Fce
mctul ! rot ! ckness
Weld Wdt
 Weld !oes esgn ! rot ! ckness

ï
m

O  

mZ Fuson Boundry


Weld oot Fuson Zone
m + B = * Weld Metl
ertcl Leg Lengt

Weld fce

orontl Leg Lengt



cess weld metl 
esgn t rot
mctul t rot
þ + = Nomnl t rot t ckness þ+ =
ffectve t rot t ckness

eep t rot fllet welds from FCmW & SmW etc



Ö mm

V 
%     O m


 mm


' $   O m

It s lso possble t t t e eg t of e cess weld metl s 
   of n ppled stndrd, but t e toe blend s
  , s s own below
  

90°  mm

tremely poor toe blend, but e cess weld metl s wt n lmts
 m Unon of mterls
 m Confgurton of members
    Preprng  ont to llow ccess nd fuson
   Butt Fllet Spot Sem Plug Slot
dge
   Butt ! Lp Corner (Open & Closed)
     Bevel¶s ¶s J¶s U¶s Sngle & ouble Sded
     Bevel/ncluded ngle oot fce/gp Lnd/dus
   Weld fce & root Fuson one & boundry mZ
Weld toesWeld wdt
 ,
-O . !! m!!
cess weld metl
 ,
-. !! m!!
cess weld metl Leg lengt 
It s t e duty of ll weldng nspectorsÕ
!o ensure t t weldng opertons re crred out n
ccordnce wt wrtten, or greed prctces or
specfctons

O  
= 

m 

escrbe your dutes to your code of prctse ³"' * ´


=   

Before WeldngÕ
ï.  
Legslton nd sfe workng prctces
. =  
Spec rwngs Procedures Welder pprovls Certfctes Mll s eets

. 
    
upmen
Cbles egultors Ovens Quvers etc

. '
"  
Mterls/weldng consumbles (Se Condton Specfcton Storge)
/. 0 #
     1  
Met od mngles/oot fce/gp vlues storton control Pre- et pror to
tck weldng f pplcble
= 



ï.  23 
4 -0   .
. '       -O    5  
.
. "    4 -"   #
 
    .
. 
  -(     44 $ 4
  .
/. 
 5    2   

6. 0  *  ' 2    


7.       
$   
m  


ï. %  '
. 8 = $ 

. (  
. (     -8=* $ 
  $ .
/. 3
6. 3 2  

7.         9"  


 ) $ m$ 1
' 

 (  m$ 1
' 

m$ 1
 " 
' 
   #    $ 
' 

„onest „ nowledgeble
„Lterte „
perenced
„espected „ecord keepng sklls
„edcted „Communcton sklls
„Imprtl „Sfety conscous
„Observnt „In ustve
„ecsve „esponsble
„mnlytcl „plomtc sklls
m Weldng Inspectors toolbo s ould contn
m weldng guge (Cmbrdge style, or g low guges etc)
m tpe mesure nd scle
m wre brus
m mgnfyng glss
m torc nd mrror
m specfcton, pen nd report, or note pper
mny ot er ds to vsul nspecton
Inspecton my utlse t e followng speclsed e upmentÕ

Boroscopes (For ssessng root runs n smll Ø ppes)


Flow-meter (For mesurng gs flow rtes n MIG/MmG/!IG)
Smple N! e upment (Penetrnts nd MPI)
Comple N! e upment (dogrp y or Ultrsoncs)
8 Bot smple nd comple N! met ods re ures t e
speclsed sklls of ulfed opertors/tec ncns

      
 , 
 

ï. " #
. :    1  
.  ' 
. ! #  
/.    1 ! #  

6. 0       

7. 0 

m mZ ydrogen crck, ntted t t e weld toe
Most crcks re ntted from stress concentrtons
    #
 
 #
  $
"     
    
O  ; ï46  <

3    m       


    #
  
'       

 #   2   '       

 #    

'           


      $   
! #     1
 
$
)$   -" 
  .

! #   2   ! #    

! #   
  m ' 
$

! #   
O     
 
m   #
  

'   


 #

$

"   (  $

( *     


*       

( (   þ3  +   

        

       


            þ +   
m    
   
: 

3  
  #


   #
    -3     .
m   #

m   $         #     


!
*    

!    
 

 mm
!  
     

m


 Y

m
  
     

 =     $       
  

    =


ï. 3 
. 

.   

. = 
0   escrbes t e ctons of þ   1 +

   Somet ng t t mkes one mterl useful for 


ob         

3  ! e blty of  mterl to resst ndentton


 ! e blty of  mterl to bsorb mpct energy

  
 ! e blty to resst t e cton of  pullng force

=  ! e blty to deform plstclly under tenson


We test welds to estbls mnmum levels of mec ncl
propertes, nd soundness of t e welded ont

We dvde tests nto 9  $ 1 9  $ met odsÕ

ï. 9  $  -3 $ .

. 9  $  -3 $  .


!ypes of tests ncludeÕ

ï. 9  $ 


rdness tests
!oug ness tests
!ensle strengt tests

. 9  $ 


Mcro tests
Bend tests
Frcture tests
! e test weld s usully cut nto sectons s followsÕ
! e locton of specmens wll depend upon t e stndrd

C rpy test Bend test

!ensle test    Mcro/rdness test


! e specmen below s been pols ed nd s
redy to be   

> 3   $

! ckness

Bse metl mZ Fuson boundry Weld metl

     $     #   #


     
Generlly we use  dmond or steel bll to form n ndentton

We mesure t e wdt of t e ndentton to guge t e rdness


ï. %#  =    mlwys uses  dmond

. O     mlwys uses  steel bll

. (#    Uses  bll, or dmond


dependng on t e scle
Mc ned notc 0 0 mm

! e specmen my be tested from dfferent res of t e weld

Grduted scle Pendulum mmer


of bsorbed
energy n Joules

Locton of specmen
ï. "  %  ï * ï -  , .  

. ',  ï * ï - $  . 4

. ")=       


 ,4
=     4 
0 ? ï46 @       

  

!rnston  Joules =    


Zone
! ree specmens re normlly
tested t ec temperture
 Joules

!rnston !emperture nge


O    
-0 -0 -0 -0 0 +0 +0 +0 + 0

  
m Secton of weld s cut, or mc ned out p t e test pece
nd tested n tenson to flure ! e unts re usully n N/mm²

 $     


(  
-       .




 3mA

=   
      (  

rsed to ssess t e tensle strengt of t e weld metl


O 7   O  ï
m  0   

=    

!ensle test pece cut


long weld specmen
Frstly, before t e tensle test  mrks re mde 0mm prt

/ 

urng t e test, Yeld pont & !ensle strengt re mesured

! e specmen s put toget er nd t e mrks re re-mesured

7/ 

m new mesurement of  mm wll ndcte


longton / @
)
cess Weld Metl eg t ) Poor !oe Blend
) Lmntons

Ö)Porosty

) Lck of Sdewll Fuson


) oot Penetrton
) Lck of oot Fuson

) Slg ncluson & Lck of nter-run fuson


O            
:  m :    
! #      

 
 
 

Furt er tests nclude fce, sde nd longtudnl bend tests


For mterl $ ï  t ckness, sde bend test my be used
       
Sw cut ï 
mmer blow 
Lne of fuson
ï 
   

Full frcture



ï
 mny strt lne ndctes 
'   
³! #   +
  "  3  

m
   

O 
 m p

"

! #     '     


 
We test welds to estbls mnmum levels of mec ncl
propertes, nd soundness of t e welded ont

We dvde tests nto 9  $ 1 9  $ met odsÕ

9  $ -3 $ . 9  $ -3 $  .


3  -%8 1 O38. 0   

 -  1 4. O 
 
 -8 1 '.     
= 
 -@. O  8#   # 
! e mn dfference between 0   1 0  s t t Mcro s
t e study of t e mcro-structure t muc g er mgnfcton
! e lmt of Mcro nspecton s 
   ?  ï

! e specmen s usully cut from  stop/strt n t e test pece

! e cut specmen s pols ed to  fne fns (00 grt)

! e specmen must be , before etc ng


( B         
) $  (   " B
m defnton of t e term ³  ´?
m       
 

! erefore,  ³
  ´ s?
m       
  
m Weldng Procedure s  recpe of vrble prmeters, w c
wll produce t e sme results of certn ulty & propertes f
crred out n t e sme wy ec tme

!o evlute  Provsonl Weldng Procedure we need to


c eck f ll t e prmeters set wll work toget er to produce
t e desred results


Once t e weld s been completed t s usully vsully
nspected, t en ( 
 or &  
s usully
ppled
Fnlly, nd most mportntly, 0    to ensure
t t t e desred level of mec ncl propertes ve been met
If ll t e desred propertes ve been met, t en  procedure
ulfcton record (9( or m() s completed wt ll
t e test results, nd t e procedure t en becomes ulfed
From t s dt,  workble document for producton weldng s
prepred nd clled  Weldng Procedure Specfcton ()

mples of ³  %  ´ ncludeÕ

) meter of ppe, or t ckness of plte


b) Weldng poston, mperge rnge, or number of runs
c) Process (On mult process procedures only)
d) Certn mterl groups
e) C nge of consumble to one of t e sme clssfcton
Only f t e clss s gven n t e orgnl procedure
f) et nput rnge (kJ/mm)
Once t e procedure s been pproved t s t en mportnt to
test ec welder, to ensure t t e s t e # to rec t e
  $  5     s ld down n t e
pplcton stndrd

! ere s no need to crry out t e mec ncl tests of t e


procedure, lt oug bend tests re often used to ensure good
sde wll fuson
Normlly; vsul, ry, bends, frctures nd mcro¶s re used
n welder pprovl tests
   $
   
  

) C eck t e weldng process, condton of e upment nd test re for sutblty
) C eck t t e trcton systems, goggles nd ll sfety e upment re vlble
) C eck grnders, c ppng mmers, wre brus nd ll nd tools re vlble
) C eck mterls to be welded re correct nd stmped correctly for t e test
) C eck weldng consumbles specfcton, dmeter, nd tretment wt WPS
Ö) C eck t e welder¶s nme nd stmp detls re correct
) C eck t t t e ont s been correctly prepred nd tcked, or gged
) C eck t t t e ont nd sem s n t e correct poston for t e test
9)
pln t e nture of t e test nd c eck t t t e welder understnds t e WPS
0) C eck t t t e welder crres out t e root run, fll nd cp s per t e WPS
)
nsure welders dentty nd stop strt locton re clerly mrked
) Supervse or crry out t e re ured tests nd submt results to Q/C deprtment