Sei sulla pagina 1di 66

Fundamentals of Networking

Chapter 2: Configuring a Network


Operating System
Chapter 2 - Objectives
Explain the purpose of Cisco IOS.
Explain how to access and navigate Cisco IOS to configure
network devices.
Describe the command structure of Cisco IOS software.
Configure hostnames on a Cisco IOS device using the CLI.
Use Cisco IOS commands to limit access to device
configurations.
Use Cisco IOS commands to save the running
configuration.
Explain how devices communicate across network media.
Configure a host device with an IP address.
Verify connectivity between two end devices.
2
Cisco IOS
Operating Systems

All networking equipment depend on operating systems:


End users (PCs, laptops, smart phones, tablets)
Switches
Routers
Wireless access points
Firewalls

Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS)


Collection of network operating systems used on Cisco devices

3
Cisco IOS
Operating Systems

4
Cisco IOS
Purpose of OS

PC operating systems (Windows 8, Linux & OS X) perform technical


functions that enable
Use of a input and output devices
Manage processes and programs
Manage file systems, security, hardware, etc.
Switch or router IOS provides options to
Same functions as host operating systems
Configure interfaces
Enable routing and switching functions
All networking devices come with a default IOS (switches, routers,
firewalls)
Possible to upgrade the IOS version or feature set 5
Cisco IOS
Location of the Cisco IOS

IOS stored in Flash


Non-volatile storage not lost when power is lost
Can be changed or overwritten as needed
Can be used to store multiple versions of IOS
IOS copied from flash to volatile RAM when booted
Quantity of flash and RAM memory determines IOS that
can be used
6
Cisco IOS
IOS Functions
Major functions performed or enabled by Cisco routers and switches
include:

7
Router/Switch Bootup Process (more in later course)

8
Bootup Process

running-config startup-config IOS Bootup program


IOS (running) ios (partial)

9
Where is the permanent configuration file stored used during boot-up? NVRAM (B)
Where is the diagnostics software stored executed by hardware modules? ROM (D)
Where is the backup (partial) copy of the IOS stored? ROM (D)
Where is IOS permanently stored before it is copied into RAM? FLASH (C)
Where are all changes to the configuration immediately stored? RAM (A)

A B C D

running-config startup-config IOS Bootup program


IOS (running) ios (partial)
10
?

running-config startup-config IOS Bootup program


IOS (running) ios (partial)
11
startup-config B running-config A Bootup program D
IOS C ios (partial) D IOS (running) A

A B C D

running-config startup-config IOS Bootup program


IOS (running) ios (partial)

12
Cisco IOS
CCO Account Benefits and IOS Files

This video introduces Cisco Connection Online (CCO). CCO has a wealth of
information available regarding Cisco products and services. 13
Accessing a Cisco IOS Device
Console Access Method
Most common methods to access the Command Line Interface
Console
Telnet or SSH
AUX port

14
Accessing a Cisco IOS Device
Console Access Method

Console port
Device is accessible even if no networking services
have been configured (out-of-band)
Need a special console cable (aka rollover cable)
Allows configuration commands to be entered
Should be configured with passwords to prevent
unauthorized access
Device should be located in a secure room so console
port can not be easily accessed
15
Establishing a HyperTerminal session (next week)

Router

Console port
Terminal or a
PC with
Rollover cable
terminal
emulation
software

Com1 or Com2 serial port


Or USB port with USB-to-Serial adapter
Connect PC using the RJ-45/mini-USB to Serial/USB rollover cable.
Configure the terminal or PC terminal emulation software for:
9600 baud
8 data bits
no parity
1 stop bit 16
no flow control
Terminal
(Serial)
Settings)

Configure the terminal or PC terminal emulation software for:


9600 baud
8 data bits
no parity
1 stop bit
no flow control. 17
Establishing a Terminal/Serial/Console session
PuTTY
Important: A console connection is not
Tera Term
the same as a network connection!
SecureCRT
HyperTerminal
OS X Terminal
Zoc

Dumb Terminal

18
Accessing a Cisco IOS Device
Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods
Telnet
Method for remotely accessing the CLI over a network
Require active networking services and one active interface that
is configured

Secure Shell (SSH) Preferred over Telnet


Remote login similar to Telnet but utilizes more security
Stronger password authentication
Uses encryption when transporting data

Aux Port (not used too much)


Out-of-band connection
Uses telephone line
Can be used like console port

19
C:\> ping

C:\> ssh

Ethernet Connection
Network connection needed

NIC
When can you use a network connection to
connect to the router? When there is a network
connection to the router (telnet).
What software/command do you need? TCP/IP, Terminal prompt (DOS),
Tera Term, etc.
What cable and ports do you use? PC & Router: Ethernet NIC
Ethernet straight-through cable
When should you not use a network When the change may
20
connection to configure the router? disconnect the telnet connection.
Accessing a Cisco IOS Device
Terminal Emulation Programs

Software available for


connecting to a networking
device (usually same as
terminal/serial/console
connection):
PuTTY
Tera Term
SecureCRT
HyperTerminal
OS X Terminal
Zoc

21
Navigating the IOS
Cisco IOS Modes of Operation

22
Navigating the IOS
Cisco IOS Modes of Operation

enable

configure terminal

interface < >


router < >
line < >

23
Navigating the IOS
Primary Modes

enable
enable

24
Navigating the IOS
Global Configuration Mode and Submodes

Global configuration mode and interface configuration modes can


only be reached from the privileged EXEC mode. 25
Navigating the IOS
Navigating between IOS Modes

Similar IOS commands for switches and routers


26
Navigating the IOS
Navigating between IOS Modes (cont.)
Switch> user mode
Switch> enable go to privilege mode
Switch# configure terminal go to global configuration
mode
Switch(config)# interface vlan 1 go to interface mode
Switch(config-if)# exit
Switch(config)# exit
Switch# config t Shortened commands and parameters
Switch(config)# vlan 1 go to VLAN configuration mode
Switch(config-vlan)# end go to privilege-EXEC mode
Switch# disable
Switch> enable
Switch# config t
Switch(config)# line vty 0 4 go to interface (line) mode
Switch(config-line)# exit
Switch(config)#

27
Common Commands for Switches and Routers
Switch> user mode
Switch> enable
Switch# privilege mode
Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)# exit
Switch# config t
Switch(config)# hostname name
Switch(config)# enable secret password privilege password
Switch(config)# line console 0 console password
Switch(config-line)# password password
Switch(config-line)# login
Switch(config)# line vty 0 4 telnet password
Switch(config-line)# password password
Switch(config-line)# login
Switch(config)# banner motd # message # banner
Switch(config)# interface type number configure interface
Switch(config-if)# description description

28
Making your life easier!

Switch# enable
Switch(config)# line console 0 Console port
Switch(config-line)# logging synchronous IOS will not
Switch(config-line)# exec-timeout 0 0 password
Switch(config)# no ip domain-lookup password
Switch(config-line)# login

Switch(config)# banner motd # message # banner


Switch(config)# interface type number configure interface
Switch(config-if)# description description

29
Navigating the IOS
Navigating between IOS Modes

30
The Command Structure
IOS Command Structure

31
The Command Structure
Cisco IOS Command Reference
IOS Command Conventions
The general syntax for a command is the command followed by any
appropriate keywords (defined) and arguments (undefined).
An argument is generally not a predefined word.
An argument is a value or variable defined by the user.
Switch(config-if)# description string

Boldface text indicates commands and keywords that are typed as


shown
Italic text indicates an argument for which you supply the value. For the
description command, the argument is a string value.
The string value can be any text string of up to 80 characters.
Example:
Switch(config-if)# description MainHQ Office Switch

32
The Command Structure
Cisco IOS Command Reference
For the ping command:
Switch> ping IP-address
Switch> ping 10.10.10.5

The command is ping and the user defined argument is the


10.10.10.5.

Similarly, the syntax for entering the traceroute command is:


Switch> traceroute IP-address
Switch> traceroute 192.168.254.254

The command is traceroute and the user defined argument is the


192.168.254.254.

33
The Command Structure
Context Sensitive Help

34
The Command Structure
Command Syntax Check

35
The Command Structure
Command Syntax Check

36
The Command Structure
Command Syntax Check

37
The Command Structure
Hot Keys and Shortcuts
Tab - Completes the remainder of a partially typed command or
keyword
Ctrl-R - Redisplays a line
Ctrl-A Moves cursor to the beginning of the line
Ctrl-Z - Exits configuration mode and returns to user EXEC
Down Arrow - Allows the user to scroll forward through former
commands
Up Arrow - Allows the user to scroll backward through former
commands
Ctrl-Shift-6 - Allows the user to interrupt an IOS process such
as ping or traceroute.
Ctrl-C - Aborts the current command and exits the configuration
mode

38
The Command Structure
IOS Examination Commands

39
The Command Structure
The show version Command

40
The Command Structure
Navigating the IOS

41
Hostnames
Why the Switch
Lets focus on
Creating a two PC network connected via a switch
Setting a name for the switch
Limiting access to the device configuration
Configuring banner messages
Saving the configuration

42
Hostnames
Device Names
Hostnames allow devices to be identified by network administrators
over a network or the Internet.
Some guidelines for naming conventions are that names should:
Start with a letter
Contain no spaces
End with a letter or digit
Use only letters, digits, and dashes
Be less than 64 characters in length

Without names, network


devices are difficult to
identify for configuration
purposes.

43
Hostnames
Configuring Hostnames

Switch(config)# hostname Sw-Floor-3


Sw-Floor3(config)#

Switch(config)# hostname Sw-Floor-2


Sw-Floor2(config)#

Switch(config)# hostname Sw-Floor-1


Sw-Floor1(config)#

44
Limiting Access to Device Configurations
Securing Device Access
The passwords introduced here are:

Enable password - Limits access to the privileged EXEC mode

Enable secret - Encrypted, limits access to the privileged EXEC mode

Console password - Limits device access using the console connection

VTY password - Limits device access over Telnet

Note: In most of the labs in this course, we will be using simple


passwords such as cisco or class.

45
Limiting Access to Device Configurations
Securing Privileged EXEC Access

class

use the enable secret command, not the older enable password
command
enable secret provides greater security because the password is
encrypted

46
Limiting Access to Device Configurations
Securing User EXEC Access

Console port must be secured


reduces the chance of unauthorized personnel physically
plugging a cable into the device and gaining device access

vty lines allow access to a Cisco device via Telnet


number of vty lines supported varies with the type of
device and the IOS version

47
Limiting Access to Device Configurations
Encrypting Password Display
service password-
encryption
prevents
passwords from
showing up as plain
text when viewing
the configuration
purpose of this
command is to keep
unauthorized
individuals from
viewing passwords
in the configuration
file
once applied,
removing the
encryption service
does not reverse the
encryption

48
Limiting Access to Device Configurations
Banner Messages
Switch(config)# banner motd # This is a secure system Authorized
Access Only!!! #
Sw-Floor3(config)#

Important part of the legal process in the event that someone is


prosecuted for breaking into a device
Wording that implies that a login is "welcome" or "invited" is not
appropriate

49
Saving Configurations
Configuration Files
Switch# show running-config

Switch# copy running-config startup-config

<Changes made>
Switch# delete vlan.dat
Delete filename [vlan.dat]?
Delete flash:vlan.dat? [confirm]
Switch# erase startup-config
Switch# reload
System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]: n
Proceed with reload? [confirm]

50
Saving Configurations
Capturing Text

51
Saving Configurations
Capturing Text

52
Ports and Addresses
IP Addressing in the Large
Each end device on a
network must be
configured with an IP
address
Structure of an IPv4
address is called
dotted decimal
IP address displayed in
decimal notation, with
four decimal numbers
between 0 and 255
With the IP address, a
subnet mask is also
necessary
IP addresses can be
assigned to both
physical ports and
virtual interfaces
IPv4 and IPv6
addresses will be
discussed in more 53
detail later
Ports and Addresses
Interfaces and Ports
Terms are used interchangeably
Some interfaces can be can be configured with an IP address such as:
NIC (Ethernet interface) on a host/computer
Routers Ethernet or Serial interfaces

Switches have ports (interfaces) but do not typically have IP addresses


assigned to them
Used to connect devices on LANs that do have IP addresses such as
hosts, routers, printers.

54
Addressing Devices
Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface

Allows the network administrator to communicate (SSH, telnet, ping) with the
switch.
It is OPTIONAL
Layer 2 switches do NOT need an IP address to forward Ethernet frames.
IP address - together with subnet mask, uniquely identifies end device on
internetwork (more later)
Subnet mask - determines which part of a larger network is used by an IP address
interface VLAN 1 - interface configuration mode
ip address 192.168.10.2 255.255.255.0 - configures the IP address and subnet
mask for the switch
no shutdown - administratively enables the interface
Switch still needs to have physical ports configured and VTY lines to enable
remote management 55
Addressing Devices
Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices

More later!

56
Addressing Devices
Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices

More later!

57
Addressing Devices
IP Address Conflicts

More later!

58
In Class Lab

59
Verifying Connectivity
Test the Loopback Address on an End Device

C:\> ping 127.0.0.1


Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 60
Verifying Connectivity
Testing the Interface Assignment

61
Verifying Connectivity
Testing End-to-End Connectivity

62
Configuring a Network Operating System
Chapter 2 Summary
Services provided by the Cisco IOS accessed using a command-line
interface (CLI)
accessed by either the console port, the AUX port, or through
telnet or SSH
can make configuration changes to Cisco IOS devices
a network technician must navigate through various hierarchical
modes of the IOS
Cisco IOS routers and switches support a similar operating system
Introduced the initial settings of a Cisco IOS switch device
setting a name
limiting access to the device configuration
configuring banner messages
saving the configuration

63
DEMO

64
In Class Lab

65
Fundamentals of Networking
Chapter 2: Configuring a Network
Operating System
Fall 2013