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network of networks
One of the greatest things about the Internet is
that nobody really owns it.
It is a global collection of networks, both big and
These networks connect together in many
different ways to form the single entity that we
know as the Internet.
The term The Internet was first used in 1982 to
refer to the enormous collection of inter-
connected network that use TCP/IP protocols.
ARPANET (Advance Research Project Agency
Networks), the originator of Internet emerged
in 1957 from the U.S. Department of
Deference as a fault-tolerance Wide Area
Computer Networking paradigm, one that
would survive a nuclear attack.
Within a decade it became the largest, the most
powerful and definitely the most uncontrollable
force in the world. Since its beginning in 1969,
the Internet has grown from four host computer
systems to tens of millions.
The Internet Society, a non-profit group
established in 1992, oversees the formation of
the policies and protocols that define how we use
and interact with the Internet.
When Internet innovators developed its
infrastructure, their primary intention was to
create a tool that could advance communications
and research across academic institutions.
Even in the early nineties when a broad
consumer audience began to use the Internet,
people viewed it as a speedy version of postal
Only in the past ten years have consumers begun
using the Internet for entertainment, shopping,
business, banking and personal productivity.
IP Address
A computer on Internet can be addressed
using an Internet Protocol (IP) address and can
also be located using Domain Name Service
The IP address consists of Address of the
Network and Address of the computer within
the Network.
A typical IP address looks like this:
To make it easier for us (humans) to
remember, IP addresses are normally
expressed in decimal format as a dotted
decimal number like the one above.
But computers communicate in binary form.
Look at the same IP address in binary:

The four numbers in an IP address are called

octets, because they each have eight positions
when viewed in binary form.
If you add all the positions together, you get
32, which is why IP addresses are considered
32-bit numbers.
Out of the almost 4.3 billion possible
combinations, certain values are restricted
from use as typical IP addresses.
For example, the IP address is reserved
for the default network
and the address is used for
When the Internet was in its infancy, it consisted
of a small number of computers hooked together
with modems and telephone lines.
You could only make connections by providing
the IP address of the computer you wanted to
establish a link with.
For example, a typical IP address might be
This was fine when there were only a few hosts
out there, but it became unwieldy as more and
more systems came online.
The first solution to the problem was a simple
text file maintained by the Network Information
Center that mapped names to IP addresses.
Soon this text file became so large it was too
cumbersome to manage.
In 1983, the University of Wisconsin created the
Domain Name System (DNS), which maps text
names to IP addresses automatically.
The DNS scheme gives us meaningful name to the
addresses. For example
DNS tree


com org gov net il

ibm cnn ac co gov

technion tau

The Internet architecture can be broadly
classified into three layers:
1. Internet Backbones and very high speed
network lines
2. Internet Service Provider (ISP)
3. end users
An Internet point of presence is an access
point to the Internet. It is a physical location
that houses servers, routers, ATM switches
and digital/analog call aggregators.
1. Internet Backbones and very high
speed network lines
The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the first
high-speed backbone in 1987 called NSFNET, it was a
T1 line that connected 170 smaller networks together
and operated at 1.544 Mbps (million bits per second).
IBM, MCI and Merit worked with NSF to create the
backbone and developed a T3 (45 Mbps) backbone the
following year.
Backbones are typically fiber optic trunk lines. The
trunk line has multiple fiber optic cables combined
together to increase the capacity.
Fiber optic cables are designated OC for optical carrier,
such as OC-3, OC-12 or OC-48.
An OC-3 line is capable of transmitting 155 Mbps while
an OC-48 can transmit 2,488 Mbps (2.488 Gbps).
The nodes are known as Network Access point (NAPs).
2. Internet Service Provider (ISP)
The ISPs are connected to the Backbones at
NAPs with high speed lines.
3. end users
The end users which are part of third layer are
connected to ISPs by dial up or leased lines
and modems. The speed of communication is
usually 1400 bps to 2048 kbps.
A message can leave one computer and travel
halfway across the world through several
different networks and arrive at another
computer in a fraction of a second.
The routers determine where to send information
from one computer to another. Routers are
specialized computers that send messages to
their destinations along thousands of pathways.
It joins two networks, passing information from
one to the other.
It also protects the networks from one another,
preventing the traffic on one from unnecessarily
spilling over to the other.
It integrates all the information from the Internet in one big
It is the most user-friendly service.
It allows connecting to any computer having information. It
offers the capability to links with sites.
Web Servers are software that run on the Internet servers
and provide information to the Web users and other
servers. Internet servers store information on the Internet.
All the machines on the Internet are either servers or
The machines that provide services to other machines are
servers. The machines that are used to connect to those
services are clients.
There are Web servers, e-mail servers, FTP servers etc.,
serving the needs of Internet users all over the world.
The information on the web server is compiled in a
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML). It has useful text
and images linked to different documents.
HTML provides 2-D effect. But to have 3-D effect of the
images and to have sound effect etc., Virtual Reality
Modeling Language (VRML) can be used very
Web browser is software, which provides interface to
WWW. This software runs on users machine. Web
browser is available in two formats: Graphical format
and Text format.
Once a client has connected to a service on a particular
port, it accesses the service using a specific protocol.
Protocols are rules that describe how the client and
server will have their conversation. Every Web server
on the Internet conforms to the Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP).
For locating any document on the WWW, a
unique address known as a Uniform Resource
Locator (URL) is required.
It consists of three parts:
protocol name,
server address and
document location within the servers space.
When you connect to to read a page, you
are a user sitting at a client's machine.
You are accessing the NIELIT Web server.
The server machine finds the page you
requested and sends it to you.
Clients that come to a server machine do so
with a specific intent, so clients direct their
requests to a specific software server running
on the server machine.

It is way to communicate offline between
different Internet users. With electronic mail
you can send messages to people across town,
across the country, or across the globe
Chat or Internet Relay Chat is a multi-user,
multi channel, real time CHAT. It allows
multiple users to take part in the conversation.
It can be used for marketing, giving
production, etc. in business sector.
News Groups
Many users can communicate and share their
views through this Internet Service.
A newsgroup is a discussion about a particular
subject consisting of notes written to a central
Internet site and redistributed through Usenet, a
worldwide network of news discussion groups.
Usenet uses the Network News Transfer Protocol
Newsgroups are organized into subject
hierarchies, with the first few letters of the
newsgroup name indicating the major subject
category and sub-categories represented by a
subtopic name.
This Internet Tool enables us to login host
computer on the Internet. Many companies
provide guest login, which can be accessed
through Telnet. It has two operating modes :
Command mode and Input mode. Command
mode is used to open, close and quit the
remote host computer. The input mode can be
used for inputting different data.
It is a menu-based information retrieval tool.
It is used to search the keywords to get the
closest menu. It was used to retrieve
information by linking up to Telnet. It was very
popular before www came into existence.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to transfer
information in the form of file from one user
computer to another computer.
FTP is an application protocol that uses the
Internet's TCP/IP protocols.
FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files
from their creator to the computer that acts as
their server for everyone on the Internet.
It's also commonly used to download programs
and other files to users computer from other