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Protection Application Capacitor Protection

Handbook
ABB Group - 1 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Capacitor banks- General

Phase compensation of loads


Reactive generation for voltage control

Series reactors used to limit inrush current


Harmonic filters used for thyristor capacitor
banks
ABB Group - 2 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Shunt Reactors-General

400 kV

130 kV

40 Mvar 60 Mvar XX Mvar


ABB Group - 3 -

Circuit-Breaker Capacitor Switch


22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Shunt Reactors-General
ABB Group - 4 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Shunt Capacitor Configurations

D-connected
Single Y-connected
Double Y-connected
Earthed or unearthed
ABB Group - 5 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Earthing of Shunt Capacitors

Solidly Earthed Shunt Capacitors


Increases the capacitive earth fault current in high-impedance
earthed systems
Reduces the stress on the switching devices
Unearthed Shunt Capacitors
Safety Regulation may prescribe unearthed shunt capacitors
Sensitive earth fault protection may be easy to arrange
ABB Group - 6 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Bank Connections and Grounding

Grounded Wye Advantages:


Lower cost (insulation of neutral)
switch duty not as severe (recovery voltages are reduced)
mechanically, structure is simpler
Grounded Wye Disadvantages:
High inrush currents may occur in station grounds which may and cause
instrumentation problems (protection relay performance)
An open phase produces zero-sequence harmonic currents and cause telephone
ABB Group - 7 -

interference
Need for current limiting fuses if only one series group
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Capacitor protection
DOUBLE Y-CONNECTED UNEARTHED CAPACITOR
ABB Group - 8 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Shunt Capacitor Faults

Terminal shunt faults


Capacitor unit failures
Capacitor unit over voltages
Capacitor rack arc-over
ABB Group - 9 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Abnormal Conditions

Inrush currents
Transient over voltages
Temporary over voltages
Out rush currents
ABB Group - 10 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
General conditions as per IEC 60871-1 (1997)

Capacitors should be able to withstand 10% over


voltage
The capacitors should tolerate 30% overcurrent (r.m.s.
value) arising from overvoltage and harmonics.
Depending on the capacitance deviations, which may be
not more than 1.15 Cn, the maximum current may be up
to 1.15 x 1.3 = 1.5 In
Capacitors may not be reconnected until they have
discharged to 10% of their rated voltage.
ABB Group - 11 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
CAPACITOR UNITS AND FUSES
P

S
ABB Group - 12 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Unit Overcurrent Protection

External or internal fuses


Risk for damage: P < Pmax
Fusing: P > Pmin
Often done by manufacturer
ABB Group - 13 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Capacitor Bank Protections

Short -circuit protection (3I >>)


Ground-fault protection (I )
Overload protection (3I/U >)
Under current protection (I/U <)
Unbalance protection (IN-N)
ABB Group - 14 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Short- circuit protection

Provides protection against short circuits and earth


faults
Two or three phase over current along with earth
fault relay used
This should be set to as short a time as possible
without causing spurious tripping due to switching
transients.
ABB Group - 15 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
PHASE-TO-PHASE RACK FAULT

A B C
ABB Group - 16 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Ground- fault protection

Protection settings have to be coordinated with the


existing ground-fault protection of the network and
carried out individually in each case without any
general guidelines.
ABB Group - 17 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
BANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Using

I>

I>

I>

I>
ABB Group - 18 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Capacitor bank overload relay
This protection prevents capacitor overload due to
overvoltage and/or harmonic currents. The
overload protection is measuring in three phases
for banks with grounded neutral. For banks with
insulated neutral it is usually measuring in two
phases.
The SPAJ 160C is actually a maximum-value-
detecting voltage protection whereby the relay
converts measured capacitor currents, including
harmonics up to the 13th, to a maximum voltage
ABB Group - 19 -

value. Its characteristic corresponds to the voltage


tolerance levels according to ANSI/IEE std. 18
22-Jun-17

and IEC 60871-1.


Capacitor protection
Under current relay

This protection disconnects the bank from the


busbar upon voltage failure, to prevent
reconnection of a charged capacitor. The relay can
inhibit reclosing of the capacitor bank circuit
breaker for a preset discharge time, trec by means
of an auxiliary contact connected in the closing
circuit.
ABB Group - 20 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Unbalance relay
Detects asymmetry due to
Blown internal fuses
Short circuits across bushings
Short circuits between capacitor units /racks

If capacitor value decrease below 5/6 of nominal


value bank must be taken out of service
Faulty elements taken out by fuses cause increase
in voltage level
ABB Group - 21 -

Capacitors can withstand 110% of rated voltage


22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Unbalance Protection Schemes
Provide early unbalance alarm signal to indicate the operation of
fuses (internally or externally fused capacitors) or failure of
capacitor elements (fuseless capacitors)
Trip the bank for unbalances that are large enough to indicate
that continuing operation may result in damage to remaining
good capacitors or elements from overvoltage
Many schemes available for detecting unbalances
Most installations will require an individual engineering analysis to
determine the most appropriate detection scheme
ABB Group - 22 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
UNBALANCE PROTECTION
Double Y-connected unearthed Capacitor
Neutral Unbalance Overcurrent Relay

I>
ABB Group - 23 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
SPAJ 160 C : Unbalance , Overload and
Under current functions
ABB Group - 24 -
22-Jun-17
ABB Group - 25 -
22-Jun-17
Capacitor protection
Capacitor protection
Questions to be answered
What is the % of allowable unbalance current in a healthy
bank. Is there any standard IS or IEC for this?
Capacitor failure rates is very high compared to other devices
(e.g: NDPL). Why?
With internal fuses replacement not possible. Why not provide
them external to capacitor.
Often clearance between terminal of capacitor and other live
parts is not enough.
ABB Group - 26 -
22-Jun-17