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SPEAR 202

Biomechanics in Physical
Education and Sports
Presented by:
NORALIE B. MORALES
Badminton is a game played by either two
players (singles) or four players (two pairs in
doubles), who take positions on opposite
halves of a rectangular court with a net in the
Badminton has middle
beenline.
internationally
recognized as an athletic sport requiring fast
reactions and skilled movements.
Badminton offers a wide variety of basic
strokes, and players require a high level of
skill to perform all of them effectively.
With the exception of serving, there are six
basic strokes in badminton: defensive clear,
attacking clear, drive/flick, smash, drop and
net play.
Among these strokes, the smash is the most
typical and powerful offensive badminton
technique to defeat the opponent.
The smash has been described as a shot
toward the opponents court with a downward
power and speed wherein the angle of the
shuttlecocks trajectory is very steep.
In the forehand overhead smash, it can either
be performed through a smash (standing
smash) and a jump smash.

The jump smash has more vertical jump with a


short aerial suspension compared to the
standing smash.
In a jump smash, a jump is performed during
the second and third phase of the sequence to
generate more power and a steeper angle for
the shot therefore giving the opponent less
time to react.
Preparation
Phase
Body should
be sideways
with non-
racket
shoulder
towards the
net in
Legs line
should
with
be the
spread
oncoming
apart to widen
shuttle.
the base of
support with
bent knees to
lower the
athletes
center of
Preparation
Phase

Having a
supported
center of
gravity allows
all the
particles of
the body to be
evenly
distributed to
maximize
control of
technique.
Preparation
Phase
If an athlete
attempts the
smash with a
poor center of
gravity then
most likely will
become off
balance which
can reduce the
power and
accuracy of the
shot and
Line of disrupt the
Gravity overall
sequence of
Preparation
Phase

Muscles
involved:
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Calves
Back Swing
Phase
As weight is
transferred to
the back
(weight on
1 2 rear foot), the
body is
pushed with
the racket
foot into the
air moving the
center of
gravity into
3 4 position.
Back Swing
Phase
The legs are
brought at the
back to
generate
1 2 more force
while
suspended in
the air at
Racket theis
arm
highest
stretchedpoint
as
possible.
far back as
possible to
provide
3 4 optimal
momentum
for forward
Back Swing
Phase
Newtons 3rd
Law:
for every
action there is
1 2 an equal and
opposite
For the
reaction.
forehand
smash,
applying a
downward
force before
jumping can
3 4
accelerate the
body forward
Back Swing
Phase

Reaching
optimal height
when jumping
1 2 provides a
greater
trajectory
angle when
making
contact at the
highest point
with the
3 4
racket.
Back Swing
Phase

The more
flexible the
1 2 racket arm
can pull back
creates the
optimal
distance for
generating
greater force.

3 4
Forward Swing
Phase
The further the racket
arm is behind the athlete
the more momentum can
be generated increasing
the power when making
contact
Once thewith the shuttle.
forward swing is
in motion, legs should
begin to straighten out to
return to the optimal line
of gravity, while also
transferring the power
from the legs to the
forward swings
momentum, increasing
power.
Forward Swing
Phase

Force summation
using the largest
muscles first, followed
by the smallest
muscles while
sequentially
accelerating each body
part to maximize
momentum.
Forward Swing
Phase
Muscles
involved:
Forward Swing
Phase
Muscles
involved:
Impact Phase

Straightening the
elbow when
connecting with the
Flexion shuttle.
of the wrist
in a downward
motion at the point
of impact increases
the power and angle
towards the
opponents court.
Impact Phase

For optimal
performance, the
shuttle should make
point of contact with
the racket at the
highest possible
point to provide the
best possible shot
that consists of
power and downward
trajectory.
Impact Phase

The angle of release


of the shuttle
determines how long
it will stay airborne
and considers how
far (horizontally) it
will move with
gravity as a constant
effect.
Impact Phase

The angle of release


is important as a
downward angle
creates less time for
the opponent to
react and difficulty to
return, which is why
the height of release
can be considered to
maximize the
success of the shot.
Follow Through
Phase

1 2 3

Racket should follow through after making


contact with the shuttle to put maximum
force in the shot.
Follow Through
Phase

1 2 3

Follow through should lead the racket


towards the non-racket leg by crossing
the body.
Follow Through
Phase

1 2 3

For optimal performance, it is critical that


once the racket has made contact with the
shuttle it is then swung down and crosses
the body to ensure no momentum is lost
during the hit.
IMPLICATIONS

The badminton forehand overhead jump


smash applies a great amount of pressure
towards the opponent in attempting to
return the shuttle. If its optimal
performance is executed considering the
biomechanical principles, with proper
training which involves muscular and
cardiovascular exercises, then the shot is
almost impossible to return.