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ORTHOGRAPHIC

AND PHONOLOGICAL
WORDS
BY CECILIA MENDOZA GMEZ
AMERICAN AND BRITISH SPELLING
Definition:
The spelling conventions generally followed by users of present-
day American British English.
American vs. British Spelling
Below are listed some common American-British spelling
correspondences:
- American labor, favor
British labour, favour
- American license, defense
British licence, defence
- American spelled, burned, spilled
British spelt, burnt, spilt
- American center, theater
British centre, theatre
- American judgment, abridgment
British judgement, abridgement
- American dialed, canceled
British dialled, cancelled
- American installment, skillful
British instalment, skilful
- American tire
British tyre
- American curb
British kerb
- American program
British programme
- American pajamas
British pyjamas
- American check
British cheque
- American catalog
British catalogue
PHONETICS VS. PHONOLOGY
You may have also heard of something
called phonetics, which is the study of
speech sounds as they stand in isolation.
The key difference between phonetics
and phonology is that phonology is more
focused on how speech sounds change
and behave when in a syllable, word, or
sentence, as opposed to when spoken in
isolation.
WHAT IS PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS?
Phonological awareness skills are
important in order to develop good
reading skills.
Having good phonological awareness skills
means that a child is able to manipulate
sounds and words, or play with sounds
and words. For example, a teacher or
speech-language pathologist might ask a
child to break the word cat into
individual sounds: c-a-t.
Phonological awareness includes the following skills:
Recognizing when words rhyme (e.g., Do cat and
shoe
rhyme?) and coming up with a word that rhymes
(e.g.,
What rhymes with key?)
Segmentation of words in sentences (e.g., Clap for
each
word you hear in the sentence The dog is furry.)
Blending syllables (e.g., I am going to say parts of a
word. Tell me what the word is. Pan-da.)
Segmentation of syllables (e.g., Clap for each
syllable
Deletion of syllables (e.g., Say the word
strawberry.
Now say it without saying straw.)
Identifying sounds in words (e.g., What sound do
you hear at the end of tulip?)
Blending sounds (e.g., Put these sounds together to
make a word. D-oo-r.)
Segmentation of sounds (e.g., Tell me each sound
you hear in the word cat?)
Deletion of sounds (e.g., Say chair. Now say it
without the ch.)
Addition of sounds (e.g., Say cook. Now say it with
an e at the end.)
Manipulation of sounds (e.g., Change the s in sad
to a d and say the new word.)
PHONOLOGICAL WORD
It is the study of the distribution and
patterning of speech sounds in a language
and of the tacit rules governing
pronunciation.
The phonological word understood in terms
of sound: a spoken signal that occurs more
commonly as part of a longer utterance than
in isolation and is subject to rhythm:
Its no good at all.
now good a tall.
In the flow of speech, words do not have such
distinct shapes as on paper, and syllable
boundaries do not necessarily reflect
grammatical boundaries: the phrases a notion
and an ocean are usually homophonic and
only context establishes which has in fact
been said.
PAUSES
Pausing appears in most cases (although
perhaps not in all) to be related not to
grammatical word but to phonological word.
In English, for instance, there are just a few
examples of two grammatical words making up
one phonological word, e.g. don't, won't, he'll.
One would not pause between the grammatical
words do- and n't in the middle of the
phonological word don't (one could of course
pause between the do and not of do not, since
these are distinct phonological words).
CLITIC
Definition:
In morphology and phonology, a word or part of a word that is
structurally dependent on a neighboring word (its host) and
cannot stand on its own.
Clitics are usually weak forms of functional elements such as
auxiliaries, determiners, particles, and pronouns.

Examples and Observations:


Certain tensed forms of auxiliary verbs have, in addition to
their weak forms, clitic versions, which merge phonologically
with an adjacent word, their host. Thus, we've is pronounced
like weave, and he'll like heel, while I'm rhymes with time, and
so on. . . .