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Tea Bag + Sugar + Hot Water Tea

Tb + S + Hw T

Products
Reactants
Definition
Balancing Equations
Interpret Chemical Equations
Qualitatively
Quantitatively
Stoichiometry
A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a
chemical reaction in terms of chemical formulae.

Reactants Products

Reactants: Substances that changed


Products: New substances formed
Synthesis
Decomposition
Single-replacement
Double-replacement
Combustion
Two or more substances react to form a
single substance.
A+B AB

Example: 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

2H2 + O2 2H2O
A compound breaks down into two or more
simpler substances.

AB A+ B

Example: 2H2O 2H2 + O2

CaCO3 CaO + CO2


One element takes the place of another
element in a compound.

A + BC B + AC

Example:
2K + 2H2O H2 + 2KOH

Cu + 2AgNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + CO2


Two different compounds exchange positive
ions and form two new compounds.

AB + BD AD + CB

Example:
Pb(NO3)2 + 2KBr PbBr2 + 2KNO3

CaNO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2CO3


A substance reacts rapidly with oxygen,
often producing heat and light.

Example:
CH4 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O

2H2 + O2 2H2O
KI + Pb(NO3)2 PbI2 + KNO3

Is it a balanced chemical equation?

Why we need to balance the chemical


equation?

Based on the law of mass conservation


atoms are neither created nor destroyed in
chemical reactions.
Step 1:
Determined the chemical formulae of reactants and
products.
Step 2:
Write the unbalanced chemical equation.
Step 3:
Write the symbols that can give the information about the
reactants and products.
Step 4:
Apply an appropriate coefficient in front of each chemical
formula so that the numbers of each elements in both sides
are same.
STEP 1:
Reactants: KI , Pb(NO3)2
Products: PbI2 , KNO3
STEP 2:
KI + Pb(NO3)2 PbI2 + KNO3
STEP 3:
KI (aq) + Pb(NO3)2 (aq) PbI2 (s) + KNO3 (aq)
STEP 4:
KI (aq) + Pb(NO3)2 (aq) PbI2 (s) + KNO3 (aq)
Balanced the I:
2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + KNO3(aq)

Balanced the K:
2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

Balanced the NO3:


2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
Finally, the balanced chemical equation is:
2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

Check the answer:


Left Right
K 2 2
Both sides
I 2 2 have the same
number of each
Pb 1 1 element

NO3 2 2
Qualitatively

2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

Reactants: aqueous potassium iodide, KI; aqueous


plumbum nitrate, Pb(NO3)2
Products: precipitate of plumbum iodide, PbI2; aqueous
potassium nitrate, KNO3
aqueous potassium iodide, KI reacts with aqueous
plumbum nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 to produce precipitate of
plumbum iodide, PbI2 and aqueous potassium nitrate, KNO3
Quantitatively

2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

2 units of KI reacts with 1unit of Pb(NO3)2 to yield 1unit of


PbI2 and 2 units of KNO3.
2x6.02x1023 units of molecule KI reacts with
1x6.02x1023unit of molecule Pb(NO3)2 to yield
1x6.02x1023unit of molecule PbI2 and 2x6.02x1023 units of
molecule KNO3.
2 mol of KI reacts with 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2 to yield 1 mol of
PbI2 and 2 mol of KNO3.
332g unit of KI reacts with 331g unit of Pb(NO3)2 to yield
461g unit of PbI2 and 202g unit of KNO3.
Products

1.
What is the name and chemical formulae o
f the reactants and products?
2.
Write a balanced equation for the reaction
.
Suggested answers:

1. Reactants: potassium iodide, KI;


argentum nitrate, AgNO3
Products: argentum iodide, AgI;
potassium nitrate, KNO3

2. KI(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgI(s) + KNO3(aq)


KI(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgI(s) + KNO3(aq)

Left Right

Ag

NO3
Mass, g Number of particles

X Molar X NA
Molar
mass
mass N A

Number of
moles

X Molar volume of gas Molar volume of gas


Volume, dm3
(gas phase only)
Example 1:

Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

From the given equation, calculate the


a) number of moles of zinc b) mass of zinc
that react completely with 0.2 mol hydrochloric acid.
[Relative atomic mass: Zn, 65]

Solution:
Given: Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
? mol 0.2 mol
From equation: 1 mol 2 mol 1. Compared the
stoichiometry of the equation.
a) From the equation, 2 mol of hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts
completely with 1 mol of zinc (Zn).
Therefore, 0.2 mol of HCl reacts completely with
0 .2
1
2 mol zinc
2. Get the number of moles of
= 0.1 mol zinc Zn that reacted.

b) Mass of zinc that reacted = number of moles X molecular mass


= 0.1 X 65
= 6.5 g

3. Change the unit:


number of moles mass
Example 2:
Heating of magnesium in oxygen gas produced magnesium
oxide.

a) Write the chemical equation for this reaction.


b) Calculate:
i) the volume of gas oxygen that reacted
ii) number of molecules of magnesium oxide that produced
if 6g of magnesium heating in oxygen gas at STP.
[Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24, O, 16; Avogadro number: 6 x 10 23;
1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 22.4 dm3 at STP]
Solution: 1. Compared the
stoichiometry of
a) 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO (s) the equation.

b) i) From the equation, 2 mol of Mg reacts with 1mol O2.


mol of Mg reacted =
mass of Mg
relative mass of Mg
2. Get the number
6
= = 0.25
of moles of Mg that 24
reacted.
0.25
thus, 0.25 mol Mg reacts with 2 = 0.125 mol O2

3. Change the unit:


volume of gas oxygen that reacted number of moles
= number of moles x molar gas volume
= 0.125 x 22.4 dm3 volume
= 2.8 dm3
b) ii) from the equation,
1. Compared the
2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO (s)
stoichiometry of
2 mol Mg produced 2 mol MgO the equation.

Thus, 0.25 mol Mg produced 0.25 mol MgO


Number of molecule MgO that produced 2. Get the number
of moles of MgO
= number of moles x Avogadro number that produced.
= 0.25 x 6.02 x 1023
= 1.56 x 1023
3. Change the unit:
number of moles

Number of particles
Learning Outcomes:
State the meaning of chemical equation.
Identify the reactants and products of a
chemical equation.
Write and balance chemical equations.
Interpret chemical equations
quantitatively and qualitatively.
Solve numerical problems using
chemical equations.