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An Overview of the

RABIES VIRUS
Pathogen

SPECIES: RABIES LYSSAVIRUS

Prepared and presented by:


Chin Tze Liang (Steven)
Woh Chee Leong

MUFY BIOLOGY UNIT 1 (2017)


CONTENTS
Introduction Symptoms
Epidemiology Treatment
Virology Prevention
Pathogenesis Impact on
Diagnosis Society
INTRODUCTION TO RABIES DISEASE
Rabies is a viral neuroinvasive disease that causes acute encephalitis
(inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. It is zoonotic (i.e.,
transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal but
occasionally by other forms of contact. Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-
exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe
symptoms. It is a significant killer of livestock in some countries.
INTRODUCTION

Group: Lyssaviruses
Cause of zoonotic
A neurotropic virus disease: Rabies

transmitted through infected saliva


exists in warm blooded animals
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Rabies is an ancient
disease. It is well
described in writings by
Egyptians dating back to
2300 B.C.
About 1000 cases of human
rabies are reported annually
to the World Health
Organization, almost all from
developing countries
VIROLOGY (STRUCTURE)
Bullet-shape
Cylinder diameter of about 10nm
Length of about 210 nm
Enveloped
Covered with projections
Ether-sensitive

Contains a single stranded RNA


genome encoding five
structural proteins
VIROLOGY
Viral Life Cycle

1. Adsorption 6.
Processing
2. Penetration
7.
3. Uncoating
Replication
4.
8.Assembly
Transcription
9. Budding
5. Translation
PATHOGENESIS

Viral Tropism and


Dissemination
Virus transmitted from saliva to muscle

,
,
Virus travels from neuromuscular
junction to peripheral nerves

From PNS to CNS

Infects brain, salivary gland, skin,


cornea, and other organ

,
,
PATHWAY OF VIRUS
At neuromuscular
junction
After inoculation, these glycoprotein
projections attach to the nicotinic
acetylcholine receptors of the plasma
membrane of muscle cells to enter.

The viruses then enter nerve cells .

Since neurons do not express


acetylcholine receptors, other unidentified
receptors may exist to allow cell entry.
PATHWAY OF
VIRUS
At spinal cord
Viruses then migrate centrally in a
, retrograde direction within the
axoplasm of peripheral nerves at
approximately 50 to 100 mm per day until
reaching the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal
cord

Rabies viruses then ascend rapidly up the


spinal cord to the brain
Initially infecting the diencephalon,
hippocampus, and brainstem
MODE OF NUTRITION
Viruses unlike other "living"
organisms because they don't need
food to survive.
They are an organised structure of
proteins and nucleic acid.
Thus, when they invade a host cell,
they are able to take over cells
metabolic machinery and make new
virus particles.
PREVENTION
Pre-exposure prophylaxis
risk of exposure to lyssaviruses
because of their job, residence
or travel Post-exposure prophylaxis

epidemiological likelihood that


the implicated animal was rabid
the severity of exposure
PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS
Vaccines (adults and children aged 2 years)

Travellers in high-risk areas should be vaccinated after a risk assessment.

Travellers to and residents of rabies-affected countries and areas should avoid


contact with free-roaming, wild, free-ranging or captive animals.
cavers should be warned not to handle bats.
POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS
suspect animal should be identified, quarantined for observation and
euthanized for laboratory examination.
laboratory tests are positive, an immediate retrospective risk assessment
and post-exposure prophylaxis conducted to identify all people who may
have been exposed
All bite victims and other people with suspect animal contacts presenting
should immediately be reported to a veterinary expert
conduct an investigation of the animal and ensure laboratory examination
SYMPTOMS OF RABIES
symptoms appear(two weeks to two years)
flu, malaise, headache, and fever
slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion,
agitation and abnormal behavior (paranoia, terror, hallucinations, delirium).
The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability
to speak or swallow (hydrophobia)
mania, lethargy and coma
death (respiratory insufficiency)-two to ten days after the first symptoms have
appeared
DIAGNOSIS

PCR/viral culture on brain samples

skin samples, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples

Light electron microscopy diagnosis

Direct fluorescent antibody test


Stages of post-exposure prophylaxis
LOCAL TREATMENT OF WOUNDS

flushing and washing of the wound with soap and water, detergent, providing
iodine or other substances with virucidal activity
infiltrated with either human or equine rabies immunoglobulin

daily dressing and secondary suturing

administration of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis


VACCINE
HUMAN ANIMALS
Cell culture and embryonated egg- Injectable inactivated vaccines
based rabies (CCEEV) vaccines
Injectable live recombinant vectored
human diploid cell culture rabies vaccine
(HDCC) vaccine
competent vaccines for oral use
purified chicken embryo cell (PCEC)
Pseudorabies DNA Viral Vaccines
vaccine
Purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine,
CPRV
HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBLIN
1. human rabies immunoglobulin
2. equine rabies immunoglobulin
category II exposure (both an effective rabies vaccine and rabies
immunoglobulin)
Rabies immunoglobulins administered into and around the wound site to
neutralize the rabies virus still present
Human Population Impact
Economic Impact

Death
Medical costs 55000 death per year
lose income
economic losses (treatment and prevention)
livestock affected

Impact Of Society
Individual Impact Impact of Wildlife and Biodiversity

long term and severe side effects 20 million out of 375 million stray dogs
worldwide are slaughtered each year
reducing populations numbers.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. World, Health Organization. WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies, edited by Health Organization
World, World Health Organization, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central
2. Williamson, John G.. Rabies: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention, edited by John G.Williamson,
Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010. ProQuest Ebook Central
3. Okell C. N., Pinchbeck G. P., Stringer A. P., Tefera G. et al (2012) A community-based participatory
study investigating the epidemiology and effects of rabies to livestock owners in rural Ethiopia.
Prev Vet Med.
4. Claire, (4 June, 2015) Rabies Virus information,
http://rabiesvirusinformation.weebly.com/blog/rabies-virus-structure, 14 February 2017
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (April 22, 2011) The Rabies Virus,
http://https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/transmission/virus.html, 14 February 2017
6. Alfred DeMaria, Jr, MD. (2016). Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of rabies. UpToDate[online]. 1,
15. http://https://www.uptodate.com.ezp.imu.edu.my/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-
diagnosis-of-rabies/contributors.
7. Melnick, Joseph L. (2014) Rabies. AccessScience, McGraw-Hill Education[online]. 1, 3.
http://accessscience.com/content/565400