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OPERATION, MAINTENANCE

&

TROUBLE SHOOTING
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt Ltd 1
PNEUMATICS

Pneumatics is the system of fluid


power that transmits and controls
energy through the use of
pressurised gas.

Fluid power: The transmission of


force by the movement of a fluid.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 2
FLUID POWER
It has few moving parts, therefore it is simple
to operate and maintain.

It is simple and compact.

It provides maximum safety and high degree of


reliability and low maintenance cost.

It provides instantly reversible motion,


automatic protection against overloads and
infinitely variable speed control.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 3


KM
90
E
ATMOSPHERE AB
O V

R E KM M
HE 90 0K
OSP RE E
5
E R
EX S PH HE KM
O S P 18
IN T O E
AIR IS THE O ER
R PH
COMBINATION ST OS
OF N2=78%, P
O
O2=21% & TR
OTHER GASES EARTH
= 1%

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 4


THEORIES OF COMPRESSED AIR
Air is freely available everywhere. But
Compressed air is not. So what is compressed air
and what happens to air when it is compressed.

The quantity of air available in our atmosphere is


huge and every living organism require air (which
has oxygen) to survive. Not only organisms, even
machineries and engines require air for their
proper and efficient operation. Thus air plays a
vital role in industries and plants. But they are
usually compressed so that energy is available to
perform some work.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 5
THEORIES OF COMPRESSED AIR
COMPRESSED AIR WHAT IT MEANS?
The free air has some density or the given mass of gas
occupies certain volume in free space. The molecules of air
occupy a certain volume in free space. By compressing, the
molecules of air are made to come closer, by which they
occupy less space when compared to earlier (when they were
free). As the number of molecules of air increases in a given
volume, the mass of air also increases. As the mass of air in
the given volume increases, its density also increases. As the
density increases, the pressure of air increases and thus
becomes compressed air. Air molecules after compression
Air molecules before compression

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 6


ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
Availability
Storage
Simplicity of design of control
Choice of movement
Economy
Reliability
Resistance to Environment
Environmentally clean
Safety
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 7
Ltd
LIMITATIONS OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

Relatively low accuracy

Low loading

Processing required

Uneven moving speed

Noise
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 8
THE BASIC PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

Basic pneumatic system consists of


four main sections.
Air production section.
Air treatment section.
Air distribution section.
Air consumption section.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 9


THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM r
filte Tapping point
tor
actua
ol e r
e r co
valv Inte tor Input/output
ety o
Saf m
t a rt er
s ge
alve g au Selector valve
ck v
Ch e
Dryer
tank
FRL
Drain valve Auto drain

The system uses the compressed air as working fluid. An


air compressor can be driven by IC engine or electric
motor, sucks an air from the atmosphere and compresses it
to high pressure (more than the atmospheric pressure). The
compressed air is supplied through a pipe to the cylinder
via Filter, Regulator, lubricator. From the cylinder it is
supplied to the system through different pressure regulators
to meet the sub-system requirement and DC valves.

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Prolific Systems &
THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
A relief valve is used to prevent any
damage to system because of excessive
pressure. The filter prevents the dirt and
dust entering into the system and the
lubricator adds some oil into air to
lubricate these sliding surfaces such as
cylinder and piston. The compressed air
enters into the cylinder and acts on the
piston to develop a force on the piston
rod for moving an object or load.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 11


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AIR PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Compressor: It transforms mechanical energy into
pneumatic energy. Air is taken in at atmospheric
pressure is compressed and delivered at high
pressure to the pneumatic system.

Electric motor: It transforms electrical energy into


the mechanical energy thereby supplying the
mechanical power to the compressor.

Pressure switch: controls the electric motor by


sensing the pressure into the tank. It is set to a max
pressure at which it stops the motor (cut off) and min
pressure at which it restarts (cut in) the electric
motor.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
AIR PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Check valve: It allows the compressed air
from the compressor into the tank and
prevents it leaking back when the compressor
is stopped.
Tank: Stores the compressed air. Its size is defined
by the capacity of the compressor. The larger the
volume, the longer the intervals between compressor
runs.
Pressure gauge: Indicates the tank pressure.

Auto drain: Drains the water condensed in the tank


without supervision.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 13


AIR PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Refrigerated Air Dryer: Cools the
compressed air to a few degrees above
freezing point and condenses most of the
humidity.

Safety valve: Blows compressed air off if the


pressure in the tank rises above the set
pressure.

Line filter: Being in the main pipe, this filter


helps to keep line free from dirt and dust.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 14


THE AIR CONSUMING SYSTEM
Air take-off: For consumption, the air is taken off
from the top of the main pipe so that the
occasional condensate remains in the main
pipe. When it reaches a low point, it will flow in
to an automatic drain and the condensate will be
removed.

Auto drain: Every descending tube should have


a drain at its lowest point. The most efficient
method is an auto drain, which prevents water
from remaining in the tube.
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Technologies Pvt. Ltd
THE AIR CONSUMING SYSTEM
Air service unit: Normally called as FRL. It conditions
the compressed air to provide clean air at optimum
pressure and occasionally adds lubricants to increase
the life of all those components which need lubrication.
Directional Control Valve: Alternately exhausts cylinder
connection to control the direction of movement.
Speed controllers: Allows an easy and stepwise speed
adjustment of the actuator movement.
Actuator: Transfers the potential energy of the
compressed air into mechanical work

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Prolific Systems &
AIR SERVICE UNIT

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AIR COMPRESSOR
A compressor converts the mechanical energy of an
electric motor into the potential energy of compressed
air.
Air compressors fall into two main categories:
Reciprocating
Piston
Single stage
Double stage
Diaphragm
Rotary
Vane
Screw
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 19
SINGLE STAGE PISTON COMPRESSOR
Air is taken in at atmospheric pressure
is compressed to required pressure in a
single stroke. Downward movement of
the piston increases volume to create
low pressure than that of the
atmosphere, causing air to enter the
cylinder through the inlet valve. At the
end of the stroke, the piston moves
upward, the inlet valve closes as air is
compressed forcing the outlet valve to
open discharging air into receiving tank.
This type of compressor is used in
system requiring 3-7 bar range
pressure.

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Technologies Pvt. Ltd
TWO STAGE PISTON COMPRESSOR
Air is taken in at atmospheric
pressure is compressed in two
stages to the final pressure. The
first stage normally compresses
the air to approximately 3 bar, after
which it is cooled. The cooled air is
fed into the second stage cylinder
which compresses it to 7 bar. The
compressed air enters the second
stage cylinder at greatly reduced
temperature after passing through
the intercooler, thus improving the
efficiency compared to that of a
single stage unit

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Prolific Systems &
DIAPHRAGM COMPRESSOR
The diaphragm provides
a change in the chamber
volume. This allows the
air intake in the down
stroke and compression
in the up stroke.

Diaphragm compressor
provides compressed air
in the 3-5 bar range
totally free of oil and are
therefore widely used by
food, pharmaceutical and
similar industries.
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
VANE COMPRESSOR (ROTARY)
This is an eccentrically
mounted rotor having a
series of vanes sliding in
various slots. As the
rotor rotates centrifugal
force holds the vanes in
contact with the stator
wall and the space
between the adjacent
blades decreases from
the air inlet to outlet, so
compressing the air.
Provides pulse free
delivery Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 23
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 24


SCREW COMPRESSOR
Two meshing helical rotors
rotate in opposite directions.
The free space between
them decreases axially in
volume and this compresses
the air trapped between the
rotors. Oil flooding provides
the lubrication and sealing
between the two rotating
rotors. Oil separator
removes this oil from outlet
air. Flow rate: 400 m3/min.
pressure: 10 bar can be
obtained
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
MAIN PARTS OF SCREW COMPRESSOR
Compressor: It transforms mechanical energy into
pneumatic energy. Air is taken in at atmospheric pressure is
compressed and delivered at high pressure to the
pneumatic system. Rotary screw compressors use two
meshing helical screws, known as rotors, to compress the
gas.
Electric motor: It transforms electrical energy into the
mechanical energy thereby supplying the mechanical power
to the compressor.

Pressure switch: Controls the electric motor by sensing


the pressure into the tank. It is set to a max pressure at
which it stops the motor (cut off) and min pressure at which
it restarts (cut in) the electric motor.

Oil separator : Purpose of oil separator is to separate


the oil from discharged compressed
Prolific air.
Systems & Technologies Pvt. 26
Ltd
MAIN PARTS OF SCREW COMPRESSOR
Filter air inlet : Purpose of the filter is to filter the dust
and dirt particles, which are contained in atmospheric
air.
Sight glass : It indicates the oil level in the compressor
gear box.
Oil filter: It filters the sediments etc., from the oil . To
supply clean oil to helical screws or rotors.
Air Cooler: It cools the air before being discharged by
air.
Oil cooler: It cools the air before being discharged by
oil.
Pilot valve : A pilot valve is a small valve that controls
a limited-flow control feed to a separate piloted valve.
Typically, this valve Prolific
controls a high pressure or high 27flow
Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
feed.
MAIN PARTS OF SCREW COMPRESSOR
Hour meter : Record the total running time of the
compressor.

Gauge pressure : It indicates the system pressure.

Safety valve : Release the excessive compressed air off


if the pressure in the tank rises above the set pressure.

Green power on light : It indicates the presence of


control voltage.

Green start push button: It is used to start compressor.

Stop red button: When depressed stop the compressor


immediately.

Fault indicator red light: It indicates machine is stopped


due to fault condition (i.e.& Technologies
Prolific Systems High temperature
Pvt. or motor
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overload).
DOUBLE STAGE COMPRESSOR

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 29


COMPRESSOR ACCESSORIES
Air Receiver/Tank
Air Filter
Air Dehydration
After-coolers
Water cooled
Air cooled
Air dryers
Absorption
Adsorption
Refrigeration

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 30


AIR RECEIVER
Its main function is to store sufficient air to meet
temporary heavy demands in excess of compressor
capacity and minimise frequent loading and unloading
of the compressor. The vessel should be fitted with a
safety valve, pressure gauge, drain and inspection
covers for checking and cleaning inside.
The receivers are sized according to compressor output,
size of the system and constant or variable demands.
Electrically driven compressors in industrial plants,
supply a network and are automatically switched
on/off frequently. This needs certain minimum
receiver volume to avoid such frequent switching.
Mobile compressor with combustion engine are not
stopped when a maximum pressure is reached. These
are fitted with relief valves.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 31


AIR FILTERS
A typical city atmosphere may contain 40 million
solid particles (dust, dirt or pollen) per m3. If this air
is compressed to 7 bar, the concentration would
be 280 million parts/m3. An important condition for
reliability and durability of a compressor is that it
must be provided with suitable and efficient filters
to prevent excessive wear of cylinders, pistons
rings etc, which is caused mainly by the abrasive
effect of these impurities.
The filter must not be too fine as the compressor
efficiency decreases due to high resistance to air
flow, and so every small particles (2-5) cannot be
removed.
To remove the moisture, air must be dehydrated.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 32
AIR DEHYDRATION
AFTER-COOLERS:
After final compression the air will be hot and
when cooled, will deposit water in considerable
quantities in the air line systems which would be
avoided. The most effective way to remove the
major part of this condensate is to subject the air
to after-cooling, immediately after compression.
After-coolers are heat exchangers, being either
air cooled or
water cooled.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
AIR DEHYDRATION
Air Dryers: After coolers cool the air to within 10-150C of
the cooling medium. The drying of the air is lowering its
dew point that is the temperature at which the air is fully
saturated with moisture (100% humidity). The lower the
dew point, the less moisture remains in the air.
There are three main types of air dryers
Absorption

Adsorption

Refrigeration

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 34


ABSORPTION (DELIQUESCENT) DRYER
The compressed air is forced
through a drying agent such
as dehydrated chalk or
magnesium chloride which
remains in solid form, lithium
chloride or calcium chloride
which reacts with the
moisture to form a solution
which is drained from the
bottom of the vessel.
The drying agent must be
replenished at regular
intervals as the dew point
increases.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
ADSORPTION (DESICCANT) DRYER

A chemical such as silica


gel or activated aluminium
in granular form is
contained in chamber to
physically absorb moisture
from the compressed air
passing through it. When
the drying agent becomes
saturated it is regenerated
by drying, heating or by a
flow of previously dried
air.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 36
Ltd
ADSORPTION (DESICCANT) DRYER
Wet compressed air is supplied through a
direction control valve and passes
through desiccant column 1. The dried air
flows to the outlet port. 10-20% of dried
air passes through orifice O2 and column
2 in reverse direction to reabsorb
moisture from the desiccant to regenerate
it. The regenerating air flow then goes to
exhaust. The DC valve can be switched
periodically and alternately by a timer.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 37


REFRIGERANT DRYER
This is a mechanical unit
incorporating a refrigeration
circuit and two heat
exchangers. Humid hot air is
pre cooled in the first heat
exchanger 1 then it cooled by
the refrigeration principle of
heat extraction as a result of
evaporating Freon gas in the
refrigerator circuit in heat
exchanger 2.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 38
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 39
REFRIGERANT DRYER
The moisture and oil mist condenses and
are drained automatically. The cooled dry
air passes through air heat exchanger 1
and gains heat from the incoming hot air.
This prevents dew forming on the
discharge outlet.
The cost of drying compressed air may
be 10-20% of the cost of compressing air.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
AIR DISTRIBUTION

The air main is a permanently installed


distribution system carrying the air to the
various consumers. There are two main
layout configurations.

Dead End Line

Ring Main
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 41
DEAD END LINE

To assist drainage, the pipe work should have a


slope of about 1 in 100 in the direction of flow and
it should be adequately drained. At suitable places
the main can be brought back to its original height
by using two long sweep right angle bends and
arranging a drain leg at the low point.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 42
RING MAIN

In a ring main system air can be fed from two sides to a


point of high consumption.
This will reduce pressure drop. However this drive
condensate in any direction and sufficient water take-offs
with auto drains should be provided. Isolating valves can
be installed to divide the air main into sections. This
limits the area that will be shut down during periods of
maintenance or repair.
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
SECONDARY LINES

Unless an after cooler and air dryer are installed the


compressed air distribution pipe-work acts as a
cooling surface and water and oil will accumulate
through its length. Therefore the branch lines are often
taken off the top of the main to prevent water entering
them instead of drainage tubes which are taken from
the bottom of the main pipe at each low point.
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
AIR QUALITY
Different levels of air
quality for various
uses are divided into
three main branches:
Branch 1&2 provides
air direct from the
receiver, branch 3-6
provide air
conditioned by a
refrigerated type of
dryer.; branch 7
incorporates an
additional dryer of
the adsorption type.
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
No Removal of. Application Typical Ex.
1 The saturated Where some Workshop air for
humidity >99%, solid impurities, clamping, blowing
Dust particles humidity and oil and simple
>5, liquid oil can be accepted. pneumatic drives.
>96%

2 Dust particles Where removal General industrial


>0.3, oil mist of dust & oil equipments,
>99.9%, dominates but a pneumatic controls
saturated certain amount &drives seal-less
humidity >99% of condensation metallic joints, air
can be risked. tools & air motors.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
3 Humidity to an Where the removal Similar to (1) but as
atmospheric of humidity is air is dry additional
dew point imperative but general spray
below -170C traces of fine dust painting.
Further as in & oil are
(1) acceptable.

4 Dust particles Where NO Process control,


>0.3, oil mist humidity and fine measuring
>99.9%, dust & oil vapour equipments, high
Humidity to an are acceptable. quality spray
atmospheric painting, cooling of
dew point foundry and
below -170C injection moulding
dies.
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
5 Dust particles Where pure air Pneumatic precision
>0.01, oil free from all measuring devices,
mist impurity is electronic spray
>99.999%, required. painting, cleaning &
humidity as drying of electronic
(4) assemblies.

6 As (5) with Absolute pure air Pharmacy, food


additional as (5), but odour industry for packing,
odour free air is brewing and
removal. required. breathing air.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 48


7 All impurities Where every risk Drying electronic
as in (6) but of condensation components,
with an during expansion storage of
atmospheric and at low pharmaceuticals,
dew point temperatures must marine measuring
below -300C be avoided. equipments.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 49


PRESSURE REGULATOR
Construction:
Pressure regulators have a piston or
diaphragm to balance the output
pressure against an adjustable
spring force. The important pats
are:
Adjusting knob
Adjusting spindle
Setting spring
Relieving seat
Diaphragm
Flow compensation chamber
Flow compensation tube
Valve
Valve spring
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
PRESSURE REGULATOR
Function:
The secondary pressure P2 is set
by the adjusting screw, loading
the setting spring to hold the
main valve open, allowing flow
from primary pressure P1 inlet
port to the secondary pressure
P2 outlet port. The pressure in
the circuit connected to outlet
rises and acts on the
diaphragm, creating a lift force
against the spring load.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
PRESSURE REGULATOR
When consumption starts, P2
will initially drop and
momentarily the spring Adjusting
knob
force acting on the
Adjusting
diaphragm opens the valve.

er
spindle

mb
If the consumption rate drops,

cha
n
P2 will slightly increase, this

tio
Disk with

nsa
increases the force on the diaphragm

pe
com
diaphragm against the

w
spring force, diaphragm
and valve will then lift until Flo
the spring force is equalled e
again. alv
v
ain
M
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 52
PRESSURE REGULATOR
The air flow through the valve will be reduced
until it matches the consumption rate and the
output pressure is maintained.

If the consumption rate increases, P 2 and the


force on the diaphragm against the spring
will decrease and the valve drops until spring
force is equal again. This increases the air
flow through the valve to match the
consumption rate.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 53


DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES
Port Identification:
The identification of the ports are not uniform, originally the
codes previously used the older hydraulic nomenclature. P
for the supply port comes from pump, the hydraulic source of
fluid energy. The outlet of 2/2 or 3/2 valve has always been A,
the second output port B.
The exhaust is invariably R from the return (to the oil tank). The
second exhaust port in 5/2 valves was then named S, or the
former R1 and the latter R2. The pilot port initiating the power
connection to port A was originally coded Z (the two extreme
letters in the alphabet belong together) and the other Y.
After 20 years of bargaining about pneumatic and hydraulic
symbols one of the ISO/work groups had the idea that port
should have numbers instead of letters. Supply should be 1,
the outputs 2 and 4, the pilot ports connecting 1 with 2 is then
12

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES

Supply NC NO Exhaust Exhaust Pilot for Pilot for


Output Output of NC of NO NC NO

P A B R S Z Y
P A B R1 R2 Z Y

P A B EA EB PA PB
1 2 4 3 5 12 14

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 55


DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 56


DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 57


DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES
Direction Control Valves

Puppet Valves Sliding Valves

Spool Valves Rotary Valves Plane Slide Valves

Elastomer Seals Metal Seals

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 58


AUXILIARY VALVES

The various auxiliary valves are:


Non-return valves
Speed Controllers
Shuttle Valves
Quick exhaust valves

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QUICK EXHAUST VALVE

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SOLENOID VALVE
solenoid valve solenoid valve
1. Valve Body
4. Coil / Solenoid
7. Plunger
2. Inlet Port
5. Coil Windings
8. Spring
3. Outlet Port
6. Lead Wires
9. Orifice

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SOLENOID

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ACTUATORS
Actuators are the components which
converts fluid energy into mechanical
energy. These are the output devices.
Work done by pneumatic actuators can be
linear or rotary and are so classified into:
Linear actuators
Single acting cylinders
Double acting cylinders
Rotary actuators
Vane-type actuators
Rack & pistons-type actuators
Special actuators
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 63
SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER

Single acting cylinder have one air inlet to produce a power


stroke in one direction.
It develops thrust in one direction only. The piston rod is
returned by a fitted spring or by external force from the load. In
single acting cylinder there is a reduction in thrust due to
opposing spring force, and so a longer bore may be required.
Also accommodating the spring results in a longer overall
length and limited stroke length.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 64
DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER

With this actuator thrust is developed in both extending


and retracting directions as air pressure is applied
alternately to opposite sides of a piston. The thrust
available on a the retracting stroke is reduced due to
smaller effective piston area, but is only a considerable if
the cylinder is to pull the same load in both directions.
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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
SYMBOLS

The symbols for fluid power


systems and components are
standardized in ISO 1219. The
standard combines hydraulic and
pneumatic components symbols
show the function of a component,
but do not indicate the construction.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 66
BASIC SYMBOLS

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
BASIC SYMBOLS

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ISO SYMBOLS FOR AIR TREATMENT EQUIPMENT

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VALVE OPERATORS

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VALVE OPERATORS

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PUMPS AND MOTORS

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INSTRUMENTS

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FLUID CYLINDERS

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ISO SYMBOLS FOR ACTUATORS

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HOW TO COMBINE VALVE SYMBOLS

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CIRCUITS
Basic rules:
A circuit diagram is
drawn in the rest
position of the
controlled machine,
with the supply under
pressure. But in the
case of mixed
circuits, without
electric power, all
components must be
drawn in the
positions resulting
from these
assumptions. 77
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
CIRCUIT LAYOUT
In a circuit diagram, the flow of the working
energy is drawn from the bottom to the top and
the sequence of the working cycle left to right.
Consequently, the air supply (FRL) unit is
situated in the lower left corner, the cylinder that
performs the first stroke of the cycle, in the
upper left corner etc.
The power valves are drawn directly below their
cylinders, each power unit is then coded with
capital letters. As given in the figure. In purely
pneumatic circuits, 3/2 roller / lever valves
controlling the end position of the cylinder driven
machine parts, are situated in the lower level.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
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TROUBLE SHOOTING
Poorly maintained compressor with a faulty
relief valve
Devices operated at excessive pressures
which may cause them to explode
High pressure systems with bad connections or
fittings, which could allow a hose to spring
loose, jump around and hit a nearby
person
Electrically related heat from power cables or
from too little air circulating around the
compressor. 80
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY

Valve fail to Low supply voltage Check & adjust


operate either Coil breakage Replace coil
open or close Signal failure Trouble shoot
control sys
Contamination Inspect & clean
Damaged valve Inspect, repair or
replace.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Heat damaged Supply voltage too Adjust voltage level &
coil high. replace coil.
Iron core Inspect, clean or
malfunction due to replace.
contamination.
High ambient core Check manufacturers
temp. specification for
operating environment.

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Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd
TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Solenoid Low supply voltage Adjust voltage.
plunger Core contamination.
oscillates
Damaged solenoid Inspect, clean or repair.
or valve. Inspect, repair or
replace.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 83


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Leakage (in / Valve seals Inspect & clean.
out side) contaminated.
Worn components. Replace parts.
Loose connections. Tighten connections.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 84


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Heat damaged Supply voltage too Adjust voltage level &
coil high. replace coil.
Iron core Inspect, clean or
malfunction due to replace.
contamination.
High ambient core Check manufacturers
temp. specification for
operating environment.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 85


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Air receiver Leak from the piping Inspect and repair.
pre fails to rise. point. ----as above----
Compressor unloading
sys failure. Inspect and replace.
Safety valve leakage. Inspect and clean.
Air receiver inlet
blockage.

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TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Air receiver Compressor unloading Inspect & repair.
abnormally system failure.
high Air receiver outlet Inspect and clean.
blocked.
Safety valve Inspect and replace.
malfunctioning.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 87


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SOLENOID VALVES

SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE REMEDY


CAUSE
Air receiver often Automatic drain Inspect, clean
contains large blocked or or repair.
amount of water damaged.
and malfunctions

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 88


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE REMEDY
CAUSE
Oil/lubricant Clogged or dirty Clean the filter
pumping suction filter element as per
the instructions
given in the
maintenance
section

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 89


Trouble Shooting
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY

Lubricant oil viscosity too Drain the existing


low lubricant and refill
with proper one

Lubricant oil level too high Check for optimum


level of oil

Detergent type lubricant Replace the lubricant


being used with a non-detergent
lubricant having rust
and oxidation
inhibitors.

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TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY

Piston rings damaged or Replace piston rings.


worn (broken, rough,
scratched, excessive end
gap or side clearance).

Piston rings not seated, Clean and adjust the


stuck in grooves or end piston rings. Replace
gaps not staggered. as required.

Cylinders or pistons Repair or replace the


scratched, worn or scored. cylinders or the
pistons as required.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 91


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Piston rings not seated, clean and adjust the
stuck in grooves or end piston rings. Replace
gaps no9t staggered. as required.

Cylinders or pistons Repair or replace the


scratched, worn or scored. cylinders or the
pistons as required.

Moisture in frame or Detergent type lubricant Replace the lubricant


Rusting in cylinders. being used. with a non-detergent
lubricant having rust
and oxidation
inhibitors.

Extremely light duty cycles. Run compressor for


longer duty cycles.

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TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Moisture in frame or Compressor located in damp Relocate the
Rusting in cylinders or humid spot compressor or add
crankcase heaters.
Safety / relief valve pops. Valve leaking, broken, Check valves, clean or
carbonised or loose. Air replace as required.
passages restricted.
Defective safety / relief Replace safety / relief
valve. valve
Knocks or rattles. Loose belt wheel or motor Check belt wheel,
pulley or excessive end play motor pulley and
in the motor shaft. shaft. Repair or
replace as required.
Cylinders or pistons Repair or replace the
scratched, worn or scored. cylinders or the
pistons as required.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 93


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TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Knocks or rattles. Carbon on top of piston Use proper solvent to
remove it or apply
emery paper of fine
grade and clean the
surface of the piston.
Leaking, broken, carbonized Check valves. Clean
or loose valves. Air passages or replace as required.
restricted.
Worn or scored connecting Inspect all. Replace
rod, piston pin or crank pin the parts which are
bush. defective.
Defective ball bearing on Replace the crankshaft
crankshaft or on motor assembly complete
shaft. with bearings.

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Trouble Shooting
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Motor does not run. Improper line voltage. Check line voltage &
change lines as
required.
Poor contacts on motor or Ensure proper contacts
starter terminals. on motor and starter
terminals.
Improper starter heaters. Install starter heaters.
Poor power regulation Consult with local
(unbalanced line). power company.
Engine does not run. No fuel in the tank. Refuel the tank.
Motor overloads or draws Lubricating oil viscosity too Drain the existing
excessive current. high. lubricant and refill
with proper one

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TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Motor overloads or draws Poor contacts on motor or Ensure proper
excessive current. starter terminals. contacts on motor and
starter terminals.
Improper line voltage. Check line voltage &
change lines as
required.
Poor power regulation Consult with local
(unbalanced line). power company.
Improper starter heaters. Install proper starter
heaters.
Leaking, broken, Check valves. Repair
carbonized, or loose valves. or replace as required.
Air passages restricted.
Worn or scored connecting Inspect all. Replace
rod, piston pin or crank pin the parts which are
bush. defective.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 96


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Motor overloads or draws V-belt is pulled too tight. Adjust proper belt
excessive current. tension.
Defective ball bearing on Replace the crank
crankshaft or on motor shaft assembly
shaft. complete with
bearings.
Repair or replace the
Cylinders or pistons cylinder or pistons as
scratched, worn or scored. required.
Detect the leakage
Excessive starting & Air leaks in piping (on and solve it.
stopping. machine or external Tighten or replace the
system). check valve.
Receiver check valve Drain the receiver.
leaking.
Excessive condensate in the
receiver.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 97


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Compressor runs Inadequate ventilation Relocate the
excessively hot. around belt wheel. compressor for
adequate air-flow.
Lubricant oil level too low. Check for optimum
level of oil.
Receiver check valve Tighten or replace the
leaking. check valve.
Leaking, broken, carbonized Check valves. Repair
or loose valves. Air or replace as required.
passages restricted.
V-belt is pulled too tight. Adjust proper belt
tension.
Wrong belt wheel direction Check motor wiring
of rotation. for proper
connections.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 98


TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Compressor does not come Loose belt wheel or motor Check belt wheel,
up to speed. pulley. Excessive end play motor pulley and
in the motor shaft. shaft. Repair or
replace as required.
Improper line voltage. Check line voltage &
change lines as
required.
Poor contacts on motor or Ensure proper
starter terminals. contacts on motor and
starter terminals.
Improper starter heaters.
Install proper starter
terminals.
Abnormal piston, ring or Clogged or dirty suction Clean the filter
cylinder wear. filter. element as per the
instruction given in
the maintenance
section.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 99
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TROUBLE SHOOTING
SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Abnormal piston, ring or Clogged or dirty suction Clean the filter
cylinder wear. filter. element as per the
instruction given in
the maintenance
section.
Lubricant oil viscosity too Drain the existing
low or too high. lubricant and refill
with proper one.
Lubricant oil level too low. Check for optimum
level of oil.
Detergent type lubricant Replace the lubricant
being used. with a non-detergent
lubricant having rust
and oxidation
inhibitors.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 100


TROUBLE
SYMPTOMS
SHOOTING
POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Abnormal piston, ring or Extremely dusty or polluted Route air inlet filter
cylinder wear. environment. to a clean air source.
Use heavy duty filter
element.
Check line voltage &
Light flicks or dim when Improper line voltage.
compressor is running. change lines as
required.
Poor contacts on motor or Ensure proper
starter terminals. contacts on motor and
starter terminals.
Improper starter heaters. Install proper starter
heaters.
Poor power regulation Consult with local
(unbalanced line) power company.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 101


TROUBLE
SYMPTOMS
SHOOTING
POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
Vibration & noise. Loose belt wheel, motor Inspect all. Repair or
pulley or motor with replace as required.
excessive end play in the
shaft.

Clamping bolts are loose. Tighten the bolts to


the optimum torque
level as per torque
chart.

Suction filter open or loose Close it and apply


assembly. sealant for leak proof
assembly.

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TROUBLE
SYMPTOMS
SHOOTING
POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY
High discharge temperature. Intercooler fins are Clean the intercooler
deposited with dust or dirt. fins externally.

Prolonged operation. Operate with


intermittent duly
cycle.

Lubricant oil level too low. Check for optimum


level of oil.

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WHY AUTOMATION IS REQUIRED?
In order to increase the productivity, industries are spending more
and more on automation

This can be accomplished by:

Speed up of production process

Material handling

Manufacturing processes

Safety of Personnel

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 104


WHAT CAN PNEUMATICS DO
The applications for compressed air are
limitless.
Operation of system valves for air, water or
chemicals.
Operation of heavy or hot doors.
Crop spraying and operation of other tractor
equipments.
Lifting and moving in slab moulding machine.
Spray painting.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 105


WHAT CAN PNEUMATICS DO
Holding and moving in wood working and
furniture making.
Holding in jigs and fixtures in assembly
machinery and machine tools.
Holding for gluing, heat sealing, welding
plastics, brazing or welding.
Forming operations of bending and
drawing.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 106


What Can Pneumatics Do
Soft welding machines
Riveting
Bottling and filling machines
Wood working machinery drives and feeds
Test rigs
Machine tool, work or tool feeding
Components and material conveyor transfer
Pneumatic robots
Vacuum lifting of thin sheets
Dental drills
And much more.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 107
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FLUID POWER
The fluid power is a backbone of automation. It offers
the following advantages:
With the application of smaller force at one point
within the system, a force of several hundred tonnes
can be produced at some other location efficiently.
With the use of simple levers and knobs the fluid
power system can be started, stopped, speed up,
slow down the operations easily and accurately.
The fluid power system provides a constant torque
or force irrespective of the change in the speed.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 108


NON METRIC UNITS
Magnitude Metric unit (m) English (e) Factor Factor
m e e m
Mass kg pound 2.205 0.4535
g ounce 0.03527 28.3527
Length m foot 3.281 0.3048
m yard 1.094 0.914
mm inch 0.03937 25.4
Temperature C F 1.8 C +32 (F 32)/1.8
Area, section m sq. ft 10.76 0.0929
cm sq. inch 0.155 6.4516
Volume m cu. yard 1.308 0.7645
cm cu.inch 0.06102 16.388
dm cu. ft 0.03531 28.32

Volume flow mn/min scfm 35.31 0.02832


dmn /min (l/min) scfm 0.03531 28.32
Force N pound force (lbf) 0.2248 4.4484
pressure bar lbf.sq.inch (psi) 14.5 0.06895
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 109
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CONVERSION OF PRESSURE
Starting Unit Pascal Dyne/cm2 Bar Psi Kgf/cm2 Inch of Mm of
H2O Hg
Pascal 1 10 10-5 1.45 x 10-4 1.02 x 10-5 4.02 x 10 -3 7.5 x10-3

Dyne/cm2 0.1 1 10-6 1.45 x 10-5 1.02 x 10-6 4.02 x 10-4 7.5 x10-4

Bar 105 106 1 14.5 1.02 4.02 x 10-2 7.5 x 102

Psi 6.89 x 103 6.89 x 104 6.89 x 10-2 1 7.03 x 10-2 27.67 51.751

Kgf/cm2 9.81 x 104 9.81 x 105 0.981 14.22 1 3.293 x 10 7.356 x 102

Inch of H2O 2.49 x 102 2.49 x 103 2.49 x 10-3 3.61 x 10-2 2.54 x 10-3 1 1.868

Mm of Hg 1.33x 102 1.33 x 103 1.33 x 10-3 0.01934 1.35 x 10-3 0.5352 1

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 110


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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MEASURES WHILE USING
PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
(a) Compressed air can cause serious damage to the human
body if they enter the body through ducts like the oral
cavity or ears.
(b) Never spray compressed air onto anyone.
(c) Under high temperature, compressed air can pass
through human skin.
(d) Compressed air released from the exhaust contains
particles and oil droplets, which can cause damage to
eyes.
(e) Even though the pressure of compressed air in pipes and
reservoirs is relatively low, when the container loses its
entirety, fierce explosions may still occur.
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 111
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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MEASURES WHILE USING
PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
(f) Before switching on a compressed air supply unit, one
should thoroughly inspect the whole circuit to see if there
are any loose parts, abnormal pressure or damaged pipes.

(g) A loose pipe may shake violently due to the high pressure
built up inside it. Therefore, each time before the system
pressure is increased, thorough inspection of the entire
circuit is required to prevent accidents.

(h) As the force produced by pneumatic cylinders is relatively


large, and the action is usually very fast, you may suffer
serious injuries if you get hit by a cylinder.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 112


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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MEASURES WHILE USING
PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
(i) Switches should be installed on the compressed air supply
unit to allow easy and speedy control of air flow.

(j) In case of a leakage, the compressed air supply unit


should be turned off immediately.

(k) The compressed air supply unit must be turned off before
changes can be made to the system.

(l) Stay clear of the moving parts of the system. Never try to
move the driving parts in the mechanical operation valve
with your hand.

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. 113


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ANY QUESTIONS

?
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 114
Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt. Ltd 115