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Natural removal mechanisms in
Mechanism atmosphere
Dispersion -done by wind current
-lessens the conc at one place
Gravitational -removing particulates those >20 micron
Flocculation -settle out particles <0.1micron
Absorption -particulates and gaseous pollutants are
(washout or collected in rain or mist, then settle out
scavenging) -takes place below cloud level
Rainout -involving precipitation
-occurs within clouds when submicron part
serve as condensation nuclei
Adsorption -occurs in friction layer of atm (the closest layer
to earth)
-gas, liq and solid are electrostatically attracted
to a surface
-natural adsorbent soil, rocks,leaves, grass

1) Dilution
Accomplished using tall stacks
Penetrate the inversion layer and disperse
the contaminant
Reduce the ground-level conc
Means of spreading air contaminant
Diluting air contaminant to harmful level
and less noticeable near the source
Only short-term control measure
2) Control at source
Long-term control, desirable and
i. Prevent the contaminant from exist
ii.Use alternative power source in case
of contaminants associated with
combustion processess
iii.Altered high contaminant fuels to
desulfured, LNG or LPG
iv. Proper use of existence equipment
competent inspective and
v. Changing the process being used
vi. Install control equipment either
destroy, counteract, collect or mask
Can be divided into five SELECTION

major groups: 1) Depends on particle

characteristics size
Gravitational settling distribution, shape,
density, stickiness,
chambers electrical properties
Centrifugal collectors 2) Depends on carrier
gas properties flow rate
Wet collectors and particle conc
Electrostatic 3) Depends on economic
precipitators considerations cost of
installation, operating and
Fabric filters maintenance
1) Gravitational settling chambers

Settling chamber

Baffled chamber
Provide enlarged areas to minimize
horizontal velocities and allow time for
vertical velocity to carry particle to the
Usual velocity 0.5 to 2.5 m/s (best result
-obtained at uniform flow of <0.3m/s
Calculating minimum diameter of a
particle at 100% efficiency in a chamber
of length L,
Simple in design and operation
Remove particle >50 micron Advantages
Employ gravity to separate
Require a large space for
installation Disadvantages

Low efficiency for small particles

Go thru Example 9.1

2) Centrifugal collectors

Employ centrifugal force which can

be generated
Much smaller particles can be
removed compared to gravity
settling chamber
2.1) Cyclones
Vi = i



Length of cylinder, L1 = 2D
Length of cone, L2 = 2D
Diameter of exit, De = D/2
Height of entrance, h = D/2
Width of entrance, b = D/4
Diameter of dust exit, Dd = D/4
Length of exit duct, L3 = D/8
Empirical efficiency for standard
dimension cyclone
Centrifugal force
generated by spinning of gas
Magnitude depends on particle mass,
gas velocity within cyclone and cyclone
Solid particles are thrown to the walls
as gas spirals upward
Separation efficiency depends on
centrifugal force exerted on particles
Large-diameter cyclone remove
particles 40 to 50 micron in diameter
23 cm or less diameter cyclone high
efficiency for particles of 15 to 20 micron
Smaller diameter cyclone
Increase the centrifugal force
Reduce distance of particle travelling
before collection
Problems with equalizing gas flow to
each cone
Abrasion of tube high velocity
Plugging of heavily loaded tubes
Types Advantages Disadvantages
Cyclones Have no moving parts Have low collection efficiency for
respirable particulates
Can be used as precleaners to Suffer decreased efficiency if gas
remove coarser particulates and viscosity or gas density increases
reduce load on more efficient dust
Can be designed to remove a Are susceptible to erosion
specific size range of particles
Have drastically reduced efficiency
due to reduction in airflow rate
Cannot process sticky dust

Multicyclones Have no moving parts Have low collection efficiency for

respirable particulates
Are more efficient than single- Are prone to plugging due to smaller
cyclone separators diameter tubes
Have low pressure drop when Improper gas distribution may result
used as a precleaner in dirty gas bypassing several tubes
Cannot process sticky dust
For a given gas volume, occupy
more space than single-cyclone
Normally have higher pressure drop
than single-cyclone separators

Go thru example 9.2

2.2) Dynamic precipitators
Centrifugal force
Generated by the action of rotating vanes
Seven times higher than conventional
Serve as both exhaust fan and dust
collector Advantages
Widely used in ceramics, food,
Cannot handle wet, fibrous material
Requires higher power input Disadvantages
3) Wet collectors

Incorporating particles into liquid

droplets by impingement or
interception during gravitational
Efficiency depends on energy
consumed in the air-to-water
Directly proportional contact
to pressure drop

Applying this theory

high efficiency is
expected in venturi-type Low- remove High remove
medium to coarse fine particles
size particles
Provide efficient, low-cost
solutions to air pollution problems Advantages
Can handle hot and moist gases
High or fluctuating pressure drop
High maintenance cost if
collecting corrosive materials
Not recommended for use where
high plume rise is important
Disposal problems of the
particulates require other
3.1) Spray tower
Low-cost scrubber
Remove both gaseous and
particulate contaminants
Cause little pressure loss
Able to handle large volumes of
Effective in moving particles in
excess of 10 micron
3.2) Wet cyclone scrubber
High-pressure spray nozzles generate a
fine spray that intercepts the small
particles entrained in the swirling gases
100% - particles of 100 micron
90-98% - particles 5 to 50 micron
Higher compared to spray tower
Particle removal depends on
Liquid flow rate
Liquid droplets and particle size
3.3) Venturi scrubber
Most efficient in removing
submicron particles of 0.5 to 5
micron (smoke and fumes) Advantages

Efficient in removing particulate

and gaseous contaminant
High power cost high inlet gas
Removal efficiency depends on
particle size and head loss
4) Fabric filters (baghouse filters)
Gas stream with particulate
contaminant passes through a woven or
felted fabric
Ways of how small particles are retained
Direct interception
Inertial impaction
Electrostatic attraction
Gravitational settling
Filter bags used
Tubular or envelope-shaped
Capable of retaining particles < 0.5 micron
(+ substantial quantities of < 0.1 micron)
Ranging from 1.8 to 9 m long
Upper ends are closed and lower ends are
attached to inlet manifold
After the pressure drop increase, can be
cleaned intermittently, periodically or

Unit must be shut down

seldom used Using mechanical shaker,
Portions are cleaned while reverse-air flow, pulse jets
the rest in operation
Possibility of explosion or fire if sparks
are discharged in baghouse where
organic dust are being filtered
Space limitation for heavy loads
Possibility of rupture
if temperature too high for the fabric medium
because of moisture, acidity or alkalinity
content of the particulate
The design based on filtering
rates/air-to-cloth ratios
Filtering rates range from 0.5 to 5
m/min depends on dust loading,
fabric material and method of
High collection efficiency over a broad
range of particle size
Extreme flexibility in design
Advantages (continue)
Able to handle large volumes of gases at
relatively high speed, reasonable operating
pressure drop and power requirement
Ability to handle a diversity of solid materials
Application in high-volume operation such as
cement kiln, foundries, steel furnaces and
grain-handling plants

Go thru example 9.3

5) Electrostatic precipitators (ESP)
Can be classified as low-voltage two-
stage or high-voltage single-stage
Low-voltage unit
Operate at 6000 to 12 000 V
Employed mainly in conjunction with air-
conditioning systems for hospitals and
commercial installation
Used mainly to collect liquid particles
Not recommended for control of solid or
sticky material
Its precipitators have a separate ionizing zone
located ahead of the collection plates
Have design capacities approaching 10m 3/s
with air velocity of 0.5 m/s
Operate at 30 000 to 100 000 V range
Used at large industrial plant such as coal-
fired utility boilers
Require 4 basic steps in in the operation
Electrical charging of the particulates
Collection of charged particles on a grounded
Neutralization of the charge at the collector
Removal of the particulate for disposal
Have wide application
=>99% removal efficiency for a wide range
of particle sizes
Can handle large volumes of gas 25 to
1000 m3/s
Low pressure drops
Can operate continuously with little
Can be used to collect acid or tar mists
Cannot be used with explosive materials
Initial installation cost is high
Require a great deal of space for industrial
Only operate at peak efficiency within a
limited temperature range
May use excessive power if buildup of
collected material causes spark over
Inefficient if buildup suppresses the corona
discharge from negative electrode

Go thru example 9.4


Gas of concern in air pollution control

SOx, CO, NOx, organic and
inorganic acid gases & HC
Major treatment processes
1) Adsorption
Passing a stream of effluent gas through
a porous solid material (adsorbent)
Adsorption of adsorbate on adsorbent
can be either by physical or chemical
Physical adsorption
Condensation of gases and vapors on solid
above dew point
Depends upon van der Waals force
The higher the boiling point, the greater the
amount adsorbed
Directly proportional to the amount of
solid surface available
Accompanied by capillary condensation
within the pores
Small amount of heat is liberated
Process relatively rapid and readily
Lowering pressure/increasing temperature
adsorbed gas can be desorbed
Chemical adsorption/chemisorption
Gas molecule forms a chemical bond
with the adsorbent
Gas is strongly held to the solid surface
by valence forces
A slower process since displacement of
atoms must occur in molecules
Liberates greater amount of heat and
require more energy
Results in formation of single layer of
molecules on solid surface
Process is irreversible chemical nature
of adsorbate have been altered
Amount of gas adsorbed depends on
pressure and temperature
1.1) Adsorbents
Key characteristics of solid adsorbents
preferential affinity for specific substances
Alumina, bauxite, silica gel affinity for polar such
as water
Activated charcoal nonpolar organic compounds
Molecular sieve (tailor-made) SO2
Surface-to-volume ratios
Provided by internal pores
Can be increased by activating some adsorbent
Activated carbon treating with steam
Activated alumina reactivated by heating to 175 to
1.2) Adsorption equipment

Can be designed with fixed, moving

or fluidized beds
2) Absorption

Contaminated effluent gas (absorbate

or solute) is brought into contact with
liquid absorbent (solvent)
Utilize chemical (reactive) or physical
(nonreactive) change to remove
Reactive absorbent - water and
Nonreactive water
Amount of gas absorbed depends on
properties of gas and solvent
Pressure of gas above the solution
Temperature of the system
Packing used turbulence, flow rate and
Control of SO2, H2S, Cl2
Remove of HC
2.1) Absorbent (solvent)

Good solubility of solvent if

Chemically similar to the solute
Low viscosity
Have low freezing point
Low in toxicity
Relatively nonvolatile
Chemically stable
Application in SO2 absorption process
Alkalies (sodium and ammonia)
Sodium not volatile and have no fume
Ammonia by product (ammonium sulfate)
is more desirable
Alkaline earths (calcium and
Compound being used MgO, CaO, CaCO3
2.2) Absorption units
Designed to provide
intimate contact between gas and liq
Optimum diffusion of the gas in solution
Selection depends on number of
scrubbers to be used
Single - removes both particulate and
Two separate
Equipment : Spray tower, Plate or Tray
tower, Packed Towers, Venturi Scrubbers
(Read page 552-557)
2.2.1) Spray towers
2.2.2) Plate or tray towers
2.2.3) Packed towers
2.2.4) Venturi scrubber
3) Condensation
2 basic types of condensation
surface and contact condensers

Vapor and cooling medium are

brought into direct contact
Less expensive and more Key role is physical
flexible adsorption
More efficient in removing Cooling medium air or
organic compounds water
Disadvantage create water Vapor and cooling
pollution problem medium is separated by a
metal wall
Application depends upon
Amount and type of coolant used
Waste liquid disposal problems that will
Amount of compound to be recovered
Used in conjunction with
afterburners, absorbers or adsorption
4) Combustion
Basic for important air-pollution control
Convert the air contaminants to
innocuous CO2 and water
4 basic elements for efficient
to occurthe end Must be keep at
product obtained ignition tem
Temperature Keep O2 well mixed with
the combustible subs
Turbulence Provided by baffles or
time For sufficient injection nozzles
Done by increasing
stack height
4.1) Direct-flame combustion
Waste gases are burned directly in a
Burn by own if sufficient heat value
and O2 content
Frequently used in petrochemical plants
and refineries
is usually open-ended combustion units
Safe means of disposing highly combustible
waste gases (not ideal)
Disadvantages of flares
Burn at high temp and long periods
cause formation of oxides of nitrogen
Produce visible smoke or soot
Waste large amount of heat energy
Economical when the waste gas
contribute >50% of the total heating
value for incineration
4.2) Thermal combustion

Applied when combustible gaseous

pollutant is too low
The waste gas is preheated using
heat exchanger by utilizing the heat
produced by thermal incinerator
Temp of operation depends on nature
of the waste gas
Well-designed unit can produce odorless
steam plumes
Clean stream of hot air produced can be
used as a heat source for other
4.3) Catalytic combustion

Used when combustible materials is low

Consist of preheating and catalytic
Efficiency depends on
Contaminant concentration
Temperature of gas stream
O2 concentration
Contact time
Type of catalyst
4.4) Automotive emission control

Indirect control
Abolition of the internal combustion engine
Use of electric-powered vehicles
Increased the utilization of mass transit
Sources of emissions from gasoline-
powered vehicle
20% from crankcase
15% from fuel tank and carburetor
65% from tail pipe
9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.17, 9.18, 9.21