Sei sulla pagina 1di 152

http://www.capitalmarket.com/MarketBeat/derSwap.

asp (derivatives)
A farmer prays for rain in his dried out paddy
field in the drought affected area
A farmer examines rice in a paddy field
near a farm house
2/21/2015 3
2/21/2015 4
FINANCIAL
DERIVATIVE
S
Introduction:
Risk is a characteristic feature of all
commodity and capital markets. Over
time, variations in the prices of
agricultural and non-agricultural
commodities occur as a result of
interaction of demand and supply
forces.
The last two decades have witnessed
a many-fold increase in the volume of
international trade and business due
to the ever growing wave of
2/21/2015 7
As a result, financial markets have
experienced rapid variations in
interest and exchange rates, stock
market prices thus exposing the
corporate world to a state of growing
financial risk.

Increased financial risk causes losses


to an otherwise profitable
organization. This underlines the
importance of risk management to
2/21/2015 8
Derivatives provide an effective
solution to the problem of risk caused
by uncertainty and volatility in
underlying asset.

Derivatives are risk management


tools that help an organization to
effectively transfer risk.

2/21/2015 9
What are Derivatives?

Derivatives are instruments


which have no independent
value. The value is derived from
the value of another asset. Which
is known as the underlying.
The underlying asset may be
financial or non-financial.
2/21/2015 10
When the price of the underlying
changes, the value of the derivative
also changes.

A Derivative is not a product. It is a


contract that derives its value from
changes in the price of the
underlying.
Example : 1
The value of a gold futures contract
is derived from the value of the
2/21/2015 11
Example 2: A farmer growing a crop
in the month of January. His crop is
likely to harvest in the month of April.
If there is a demand for crop due to
shortage in yield, after the harvest,
farmer may get higher price. If the
supply of crop is more, farmer may sell
his crop for lower rate. Therefore there
is a risk in the later situation. In such
situation, farmer may enter into a
contract and lock the price.
2/21/2015 12
If the prices or the crop go up, he
may lose, but if there is a fall in
prices of crop, he will stand to gain.
The contract specifies the quantity,
price and the date of delivery.
This will enable the farmer to
minimize or reduce the risk, which
otherwise will be face due to
uncertain price fluctuations of the
future price of the crop.
2/21/2015 13
Concept:
The term derivatives, refers to a
broad class of financial instruments
which mainly include forwards,
futures, options and swaps. These
instruments derive their value from
the price and other related variables
of the underlying asset. They do not
have worth of their own and derive
their value from the claim they give
to their owners to own some other
financial assets or security.
2/21/2015 14
A simple example of
derivative is butter, which is
derivative of milk. The price
of butter depends upon price
of milk, which in turn depends
upon the demand and supply
of milk. The general
definition of derivatives
means to derive
2/21/2015 15
Definition of Financial
Derivatives:
Section 2(ac) of Securities Contract
Regulation Act (SCRA) 1956 defines
Derivative as:
a) a security derived from a debt
instrument, share, loan whether
secured or unsecured, risk instrument
or contract for differences or any
other form of security;
b) a contract which derives its value
2/21/2015 16
Underlying Asset in a
Derivatives Contract
As defined above, the value of a
derivative instrument depends upon
the underlying asset. The underlying
asset may assume many forms:
i. Commodities including grain, coffee
beans,
orange juice;
ii. Precious metals like gold and silver;
iii. Foreign exchange rates or
2/21/2015 17
iv. Bonds of different types, including
medium to long term negotiable debt
securities issued by governments,
companies, etc.
v. Shares and share warrants of companies
traded on recognized stock exchanges
and Stock Index
vi. Short term securities such as T-bills;
and
vii. Over- the Counter (OTC) money market
products such as loans or deposits.
2/21/2015 18
Foreign Exchange
Agricultural
Rate
Commodities
Interest Rates

Stocks Underlying Assets Bonds

T-Bill
Crude Oil
Precious Metals
History
The Derivatives markets can be traced
back to the middle Ages. They
originally developed to meet the needs
of farmers and merchants.
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT)
was the first derivatives market
established in 1848 to bring farmers
and merchants together. Initially, its
main task was to standardize the
quantities and qualities of the grains
that were traded. Within a few years,
2/21/2015 20
Speculators soon became interested
in the contract and found trading the
contract to be an attractive
alternative to trading the gain itself.
The Chicago Board of Trade now
offers futures contracts on many
different underlying assets, including
corn, oats, soybeans, soybean oil,
wheat, silver, treasury bonds, and
treasury notes.
2/21/2015 21
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange:
In 1874, the Chicago Produced
Exchange was established. This
provided a market for butter, eggs,
poultry, and other perishable
agricultural products. In 1898, the
butter and egg dealers withdrew from
this exchange to form the Chicago
Butter and Egg Board.
In 1919, this was renamed the
Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)
and was reorganized for futures
2/21/2015 22
Since then, the exchange has
provided a futures market for many
commodities including pork bellies
(mutton/chicken) (1961), live cattle
(1964) live hogs (pig) (1966) and
feeder cattle (1971). In 1982, it
introduced a futures contract, and a
Eurodollar futures contract on the
S&P 500 Stock Index.
2/21/2015 23
The International Monetary Market
(IMM) was formed as a division of the
Chicago Mercantile Exchange in 1972
for futures trading in foreign currencies.
The currency traded on the IMM now
include the British Pound, the Canadian
futures Dollar, the Japanese Yen, the
(Swiss Franc, the German mark)
European Euro and the Australian dollar.
The IMM also trades a gold futures
contract, a treasury bill futures contract,
and a Eurodollar futures contract.
2/21/2015 24
DERIVATIVES - INDIA
Derivatives have a fairly long history in India too. The
first organized futures market came up in 1875 with
the establishment of BOMBAY COTTON TRADE
ASSOCIATION LTD.
Subsequently, many futures exchanges, predominantly
commodity-based futures sprang up (bounced), like.,
YEAR DETAILS
1875 BOMBAY COTTON TRADE ASSOCIATION LTD
1893 BOMBAY COTTON EXCHANGE LTD
1900 GUJARATI VYAPARI MANDALI
1919 CALCUTTA HESSIAN EXCHANGE LTD
Most of them did not last till the second world war in
1939.
2/21/2015 25
After the country attained independence,
derivative markets came through a full circle
from prohibition of all sorts of derivatives
trades to their recent reintroduction.
YEAR DETAILS
Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 1999 permits legal frame
1999
work for derivatives trading in India.
2000 Trading in index futures began on BSE and NSE
Trading in options on index and stocks commenced trading
2001
on BSE and NSE
2002 Trading on single stock futures began on BSE and NSE
Introduction of interest rate futures on NSE, Introduction
Rupee of options, Futures trading-is permitted on almost all
2003 commodities but options on commodities still prohibited
and commencement of NCDEX and MCX commodity
exchange.
2/21/2015 26
Other Exchanges:
Many other exchanges throughout the
world now trade futures contracts.
Prominent among them are
Chicago Rice and Cotton Exchange (CRCE,
the)
New York Futures Exchange (NYFE),
London International Financial Futures
Exchange (LIFFE),
Toronto Futures Exchange (TFE),
Singapore International Monetary
Exchange (SIMEX) and
National Commodity and Derivative
The Indian financial market woke up
to this new generation of financial
instruments and the Indian
Derivatives Market odyssey in
modern times commenced with the
FOREX derivatives in 1997 has also
seen the introduction of many
derivatives on different underlyings.

2/21/2015 28
The following factors have been driving the
growth of financial derivatives:
1.Increased volatility in asset prices in
financial
markets,

2.Increased integration of national financial


markets with the international markets,

3.Marked improvement in communication


facilities and sharp decline in their costs,
4.Development of more sophisticated risk
management tools, providing economic
agents a wider choice of risk management
strategies,
And
5.Innovations in the derivatives markets,
which optimally combine the risks and
returns over a large number of financial
assets, leading to higher returns, reduced
risk as well as trans-actions costs as
compared to individual financial assets.
Features of Derivates Market:
1. Derivatives are popular
instruments traded globally.
2. Gain or loss depends on the
underlying assets value.
3. Change in value of underlying
asset will have effect on values of
derivatives.
4. They are traded on exchange.
5. They are liquid and transaction
cost is lower.
Why derivatives ?
1. Earn money on shares that
are lying idle:
So Investor dont want to sell the
shares that investor bought for long
term, but he want to take advantage of
price fluctuations in the short term. He
can use derivative instruments to do so.
Derivatives market allows investor to
conduct transactions without actually
selling his shares also called as
physical settlement.
2/21/2015 33
Benefit from arbitrage:

When an investor buy low in one


market and sell high in the other
market, it called arbitrage trading.
Simply put, investors are taking
advantage of differences in prices in
the two markets.

2/21/2015 34
Protects investor securities
against
Protects investor securities against
fluctuations in prices. The derivative
market offers products that allow
investor to hedge themselves against
a fall in the price of shares that they
possess. It also offers products that
protects the investor from a rise in the
price of shares that he/she plan to
purchase. This is called hedging.
2/21/2015 35
Risk Averse Investor
Arisk averse investoris
aninvestorwho prefers lower returns
with knownrisksrather than higher
returns with unknownrisks. In other
words, among
variousinvestmentsgiving the same
return with different level ofrisks, this
investoralways prefers the alternative
with least interest.
2/21/2015 36
Transfer of risk:
The most important use of these
derivatives is the transfer of market risk
from risk-averse investors to those with an
appetite for risk.
Risk-averse investors use derivatives to
enhance safety, while risk-loving investors
like speculators conduct risky, contrarian
trades to improve profits.
This way, the risk is transferred. There are
a wide variety of products available and
strategies that can be constructed, which
2/21/2015 37
USES OF DERIVATIVES
1. Derivatives help in discovery of future as well as
current prices:
. Corporations use Derivatives: Corporate are risk averse.
They do not like risk and uncertainties in their financial
planning. Financial uncertainties expose them to unexpected
losses and thereby reduce the value of their
investments.Companies use currency forwards and other
derivatives to hedge their exports, imports and other foreign
exchange exposure.
.They use commodity derivatives to hedge raw material
consumption and inventories as well as their output prices and
inventories.
.Example: An electrical goods manufacturer might use copper
futures to hedge the cost of copper which is a major raw
material for it.
.A gold mining company might use gold futures to hedge the
selling price of its output. Companies also use interest rate
derivatives
2/21/2015 to hedge their borrowing costs. 38
2. Mutual funds and investment institutions
use Derivatives

Investment Institutions use currency forwards


and other derivatives to hedge their
international asset and liability portfolios.
They use commodity futures to invest in asset
classes, in which they find it difficult to invest
directly. Investment institutions also sell
options to earn premium income and enhance
the returns on the portfolio.
Hedge funds and other aggressive investors
use derivatives to speculate in various financial
markets or to arbitrage between different
markets.
2/21/2015 39
3. Financial Service Firms, Banks and other
Dealers use Derivatives.
Banks and securities firms use derivatives to
hedge their inventories of securities.
Example: A stock broker might carry large
inventories of shares as part of his trading
activities. He might use stock index futures to
eliminate the market risk of these inventories.
Banks often act as dealers in derivative markets to
earn dealer spreads by buying a derivative from
one customer and selling the same to another at a
higher price. They may also seek to make profits by
carrying on arbitrage between different markets.
Some firms may also speculate on different prices
and earn trading profits by taking positions.
2/21/2015 40
4. How Individuals use
Derivatives:

Many individuals do
speculate on asset prices.
Individual who manage their
own investment portfolios
might also use derivatives for
the same reason as
investment institutions
2/21/2015 41
Economic benefits of
derivatives
Reduces risk
Enhance liquidity of the underlying asset
Lower transaction costs
Enhances the price discovery process.
Portfolio Management
Provides signals of market movements
Facilitates financial markets integration

2/21/2015 42
2/21/2015 43
2/21/2015 44
Misuses of Derivatives
1. Speculative and Gambling Motives: One
of the most important arguments against the
derivatives is that they promote speculative
activities in the market.

. Throughout the world the trading volume in


derivatives have increased in multiples of
the value of the underlying assets and hardly
one to two percent derivatives are settled by
the actual delivery of the underlying assets.

2/21/2015 45
2. Increase in Risk:
The derivatives are supposed to be efficient
tool of risk management in the market. But
this is one sided argument.

it has been observed that the derivatives


market especially OTC markets, privately
managed and negotiated and thus, they are
highly risky,

The studies in this respect have shown that


derivatives not resulted in the reduction in
risk, and rather these have raised of new
types of risk.
2/21/2015 46
3. Instability of the financial system:
derivatives have increased risk not only for
their users but also for the whole financial
system.

The fears of micro and macro financial crisis


have caused to the unchecked growth of
derivatives which have turned many market
players into big losers.

2/21/2015 47
4. Price Stability: the derivatives that their
major contribution is towards price stability
and price discovery in the market whereas
some others have doubt about this. Rather
they argue that derivatives have caused wild
fluctuations in the asset prices and moreover,
they have widened the range of such
fluctuations in the prices.

The derivatives may be helpful in price


stabilization only if there exist a properly
organized, competitive and well-regulated
market.
2/21/2015 48
5. Increased Regulatory Burden: The
derivatives create instability in the financial
system as a result, there will be more burden
on the government or regulatory authorities to
control the activities of the trades in financial
derivatives.

2/21/2015 49
UNIT 1: Introduction to Derivatives
Development and Growth of Derivative
Markets, Types of Derivatives,
Uses of Derivatives, Fundamental linkages
between spot & Derivative Markets, The Role
of Derivatives Market, Uses & Misuses of
derivatives.

2/21/2015 50
TYPES OF MARKETS

SPOT
MARKET

DERIVATI
VE
MARKET

2/21/2015 51
DERIVATIVES
(in general)

OTC ETD
2/21/2015 52
OTC and Exchange Traded
Derivatives.
1. OTC
Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is to trade
financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities or
derivatives directly between two parties without going
through
an exchange or other intermediary.
The contract between the two parties are privately
negotiated.

The contract can be tailor-made to the two parties liking.

Over-the-counter markets are uncontrolled, unregulated


and have very few laws. Its more like a freefall.
2/21/2015 53
2. Exchange-Traded Derivatives:
Exchange traded derivatives contract (ETD) are those
derivatives instruments that are traded via specialized
Derivatives exchange or other exchanges. A derivatives
exchange is a market where individuals trade
standardized contracts that have been defined by the
exchange.

The world's largest derivatives exchanges (by number of


transactions) are the Korea Exchange.

There is a very visible and transparent market price for


the
derivatives.
2/21/2015 54
Classification of derivatives according to
the nature of the market in which the
derivatives is traded.
OVER THE
EXCHANGE TRADED
COUNTER
DERIVATIVES
(OTC)DERIVATIVES
Futures contracts on Forward contracts on
stocks, currencies and stocks, currencies and
commodities. commodities.
Exchange traded options OTC Options on stocks,
on stocks, currencies, currencies and
and commodities. commodities.
Swaps note futures and Interest rate swaps,
interest rate futures. floors and forward rate
2/21/2015 agreements. 55
2/21/2015 56
Types of Derivative
Contracts

FORWAR
FUTURES OPTIONS SWAPS
DS

2/21/2015 57
What is a Forward?
A forward is a contract in which one party
commits to buy and the other party commits
to sell a specified quantity of an agreed upon
asset for a pre-determined price at a specific
date in the future.

It is a customized contract, in the sense that


the terms of the contract are agreed upon by
the individual parties.

Hence, it is traded OTC.


2/21/2015 58
2/21/2015 59
Forward Contract
Example
Agree to sell
Farmer 500kgs wheat Bread
at Rs.40/kg Maker
after 3
months.

3 months
Later
500kgs Bread
Farmer wheat
Maker
Rs.20,00
0

2/21/2015 60
Risks in Forward
Contracts
Credit Risk Does the other party have the
means to pay?

Operational Risk Will the other party make


delivery? Will the other party accept delivery?

Liquidity Risk Incase either party wants to


opt out of the contract, how to find another
counter party?

2/21/2015 61
Terminology
Long position - Buyer

Short position - seller

Spot price Price of the asset in the spot


market.(market price)

Delivery/forward price Price of the asset at


the delivery date.

2/21/2015 62
What are Futures?
A future is a standardized forward contract.

It is traded on an organized exchange.

Standardizations-
- quantity of underlying
- quality of underlying(not required in financial
futures)
- delivery dates and procedure
- price quotes
2/21/2015 63
2/21/2015 64
2/21/2015 65
Futures Contract
Example
A
Long Market
Rs.10 Price/Spot
Price

Day1

B C
Rs.10

Short
Rs.10

2/21/2015 66
Futures Contract
Example
A
Long
Market
Price/Spot
Price
Rs.10
Short
Profit
Rs.12 Day1
Rs.2 Rs.10
Day2
B C Rs.12

Short L
Rs.10 Rs.12

2/21/2015 67
Futures Contract
Example
A
Market
Price/Spot
Price
Long
Rs.10
Short Day1
Profit
Rs.12 Rs.10
Rs.2 Day2
Rs.12
B C Day3
Rs.14
Short Long
Rs.10
Long Rs.12
Short
Loss
Rs.14 Rs.14
Profit
Rs.4
2/21/2015
Rs.2 68
Futures Contract
Example

L
A Market
Price/Spot
Price
S
Rs.10
Rs.12
Profit Day1
Rs.2 Rs.10
Day2

B C
Rs.12
Day3
S L Rs.14
L
Rs.10 S
Rs.12
Loss
Rs.14 Profit
Rs.14
Rs.4
2/21/2015 Rs.2 69
Types of Futures
Contracts
Stock Futures Trading
(dealing with shares)

Commodity Futures Trading


(dealing with gold futures, crude oil
futures)

Index Futures Trading


(dealing with stock market indices)

2/21/2015 70
Margins
A margin is an amount of a money that must
be deposited with the clearing house by both
buyers and sellers in a margin account in
order to open a futures contract.

It ensures performance of the terms of the


contract.

Its aim is to minimize the risk of default by


either counterparty.
2/21/2015 71
SPOT MARKET PRICE

2/21/2015 72
FUTURE PRICE
Amount required 2,400 X 269.80 = 6,47

2/21/2015 73
MARGIN MONEY

2/21/2015 74
2/21/2015 75
Initial Margin (IM)-
Deposit that a trader must
make before trading any
futures. Usually, 10% of
the contract size.
2/21/2015 76
Advantages of derivatives
over Equity Trading
The financial derivative instruments futures and
options have the following advantages.
derivatives can be uses as convenient substitute
for other investments, leaving risks and rewards
unchanged.
Derivatives can be used to hedge the risk and can
help manage the risks inherent in a business.
Derivatives can used speculatively to increase risk
and reward through leverage (control).
Derivatives are also the basis for modern financial
engineering.
Forward v/s Futures Contract
FORWARD FUTURES
Traded on organized
Over the Counter Products
Exchanges
Customized Contract Standardized Contract
No Involvement of
Clearing House Guarantee
Clearing House
No Margins Margins are Must
Less Liquidity High Liquidity
Regulated by agencies like
Self Regulated
SEBI etc.
Counter Party Risk No Counterparty Risk
Settled by actual delivery Cash Settled
Settled on the Maturity Daily Settlement
Profits or losses realized Profits or losses realized daily
on the Maturity
What are Options?
Contracts that give the holder the option
to buy/sell specified quantity of the
underlying assets at a particular price on
or before a specified time period.

The word option means that the holder


has the right but not the obligation to
buy/sell underlying assets.

2/21/2015 81
TYPES OF
OPTIONS

European American
Style Style

Call Put Call Put


Option Option Option Option

2/21/2015 82
Types of Options (cont.)
Broadly the OPTIONS are two types,
they are European style options and
American style options.
European style options can be
exercised only on the maturity date of
the option, also known as the expiry
date.
American style options can be
exercised at any time before and on the
expiry date.
2/21/2015 83
Options Terminology
Underlying: Specific security or asset.
Option premium: Price paid.
Strike price: Pre-decided price.
Expire date: Date on which option expires.
Exercise date: Option is exercised.
Open interest: Total numbers of option
contracts that have not yet been expired.
Option holder: One who buys option.
Option writer: One who sells option.
Put-call ratio: The ratio of puts to the calls
traded in the market.
2/21/2015 84
Types of Options
Options are of two types call and put.
Call option give the buyer the right, but not
the obligation to buy a given quantity of the
underlying asset, at a given price on or
before a particular date by paying a
premium.
Put options give the seller the right, but not
obligation to sell a given quantity of the
underlying asset, at a given price on or
before a particular date by receiving a
premium.
2/21/2015 85
Call Option Example
CALL
Right to buy
OPTION Current Price =
Premium =
Rs.25/share 100 Reliance Rs.250
shares at a
Strike
Amt to buy price of Rs.300
Price
Call option = per share after Expiry
Rs.2500 3 months. date
Suppose after a month,
Market price is Rs.400, Suppose after a month,
then the option is market price is Rs.200, then
exercised i.e. the shares the option is not exercised.
are bought. Net Loss = Premium amt =
Gross gain = 40,000- Rs.2500
30,000
2/21/2015 = 10,000 Net gain 86
Call Option Example
CALL
Right to buy
OPTION Current Price =
Premium =
Rs.0.95/share 2,400 ITC Rs.278
shares at a
Strike
Amt to buy price of Rs.295
Price
Call option = per share after Expiry
Rs.2280 1 month. date

2/21/2015 87
2/21/2015 88
2/21/2015 89
2/21/2015 90
Open Interest
Definition:Open interest is the total number of
outstanding contracts that are held by market participants
at the end of each day. Open interest measures the total
level of activity into the futures market.

Description:If both parties to the trade are initiating a


new position (one new buyer and one new seller), open
interest will increase by one contract. If both traders are
closing an existing or old position (one old buyer and one
old seller), open interest will decline by one contract. If one
old trader passes off his position to a new trader (one old
buyer sells to one new buyer), open interest will not
change.

2/21/2015 91
Increasing open interest means that new
money is flowing into the marketplace. The
result will be that the present trend (up, down
or sideways) will continue. Declining open
interest means that the market is liquidating
and implies that the prevailing price trend is
coming to an end. Therefore, open interest
provides a lead indication of an impending
change of trend.

2/21/2015 92
Put Option Example
PUT OPTION
Premium = Right to sell Current Price =
Rs.25/share 100 Reliance Rs.250
shares at a
Amt to receive on Strike
price of Rs.300
put option = Price
Rs.2500 per share after
Expiry
3 months.
date
Suppose after a
month, Market price Suppose after a month,
is Rs.200, then the market price is Rs.300, then
option is exercised the option is not exercised.
i.e. the shares are Net Loss = Premium amt =
sold. Rs.2500
Net gain = 30,000-
2/21/2015 93
Options Terminology
(cont.)
Moneyness: Concept that refers to the
potential profit or loss from the exercise of
the option. An option maybe in the money,
out of the money, or at the money.

DETAILS CALL OPTION PUT OPTION

In the money Spot Price > Strike price Spot price < strike price

At the money Spot Price = Strike price Spot Price = Strike price

Out of the Spot price < strike price Spot price > strike price
money

2/21/2015 94
For Call Option
In- the Money Option : A option is said to
be In- the money, when the underlying stock
price is greater than the strike price. (S>k).

A call option is said to be anin the money


callwhen the current market price of the
stock is above the strike price of the call
option. It is an "in the money call" because
the holder of the call has the right to buy the
stockbelowits current market price.
http://www.call-options.com/out-of-the-money.html
2/21/2015 96
At-the Money: A option is said to be At- the
money, when the underlying stock price is
equal to the Strike price. (S=k).
Out-of Money:- A option is said to be Out-
of money, when the underlying stock price is
less than the strike price. (S<k).

2/21/2015 97
2/21/2015 98
For Put Option
In- the Money Option : A option is said to
be In- the money, when the underlying stock
price is less than the strike price. (S<k).
At-the Money: A option is said to be At- the
money, when the underlying stock price is
equal to the Strike price. (S=k).
Out-of Money:- A option is said to be Out-
of money, when the underlying stock price is
greater than the strike price. (S>k).
What are SWAPS?
In a swap, two counter parties agree to enter
into a contractual agreement wherein they
agree to exchange cash flows at periodic
intervals.

Most swaps are traded Over The Counter.

Some are also traded on futures exchange


market.

2/21/2015 101
Types of Swaps
There are 2 main types of swaps:

Plain vanilla fixed for floating swaps


or simply interest rate swaps.

Fixed for fixed currency swaps


or simply currency swaps.

2/21/2015 102
What is an Interest Rate
Swap?
A company agrees to pay a pre-determined
fixed interest rate on a notional principal
for a fixed number of years.

In return, it receives interest at a floating


rate on the same notional principal for the
same period of time.

The principal is not exchanged. Hence, it is


called a notional amount.
2/21/2015 103
Floating Interest Rate
LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate
It is the average interest rate estimated by
leading banks in London.
It is the primary benchmark for short term
interest rates around the world.
Similarly, we have MIBOR i.e. Mumbai
Interbank Offered Rate.
It is calculated by the NSE as a weighted
average of lending rates of a group of banks.

2/21/2015 104
Interest Rate Swap Example
LIB LIBOR
SWAPS
Co.A
OR
BANK Co.B
Aim - 8 8.5% Aim -
VARIABLE % FIXED

5m 7 5m LIBOR
+ 1%
% Notional
Amount = 5
Bank million Bank
Fixed
A Fixed
B
7% 10%
Variable Variable LIBOR
LIBOR + 1%
2/21/2015 105
Using a Swap to Transform a
Liability
Firm A has transformed a fixed rate liability
into a floater.
A is borrowing at LIBOR 1%
A savings of 1% (8% - 7%)

Firm B has transformed a floating rate liability


into a fixed rate liability.
B is borrowing at 9.5% (8.5% + 1%)
B savings of 0.5%. (10% - 9.5%)

Swaps Bank Profits = 8.5%-8% = 0.5%


2/21/2015 106
What is a Currency Swap?
It is a swap that includes exchange of
principal and interest rates in one currency for
the same in another currency.

It is considered to be a foreign exchange


transaction.

It is not required by law to be shown in the


balance sheets.

The principal may be exchanged either at the


beginning or at the end of the tenure.
2/21/2015 107
However, if it is exchanged at the end of the
life of the swap, the principal value may be
very different.

It is generally used to hedge against


exchange rate fluctuations.

2/21/2015 108
Direct Currency Swap
Example
Firm A is an American company and wants to
borrow 40,000 for 3 years.

Firm B is a French company and wants to


borrow $60,000 for 3 years.

Suppose the current exchange rate is 1 =


$1.50.

2/21/2015 109
Direct Currency Swap Example
Firm 7 Firm
%
A B
Aim -
(American)
Aim - EURO 5% (French)
DOLLAR

$60t
h
7% 40 5%
th

Bank A Bank B

6% 5%
$ $
7%
2/21/2015 8% 110
Comparative Advantage
Firm A has a comparative advantage in
borrowing Dollars.

Firm B has a comparative advantage in


borrowing Euros.

This comparative advantage helps in reducing


borrowing cost and hedging against exchange
rate fluctuations.

2/21/2015 111
The participants in a derivatives market are of
three types.

Participants in
Derivatives

Speculato Arbitrage
Hedgers
rs urs
Traders in Derivatives Market
There are 3 types of traders in the
Derivatives Market :
HEDGER
A hedger is someone who faces risk
associated with price movement of an
asset and who uses derivatives as
means of reducing risk. They provide
economic balance to the market.
2/21/2015 114
SPECULATOR:
A trader who enters the
futures market for pursuit of
profits, accepting risk in the
speculation. They provide
liquidity and depth to the
market.

2/21/2015 115
A speculator is a person who is willing to take a risk by
taking futures position with the expectation to earn
profits. Speculator aims to profit from price
fluctuations.
The speculator forecasts the future economic
conditions and decides which position (long or short)
to be taken that will yield a profit if the forecast is
realized.

Example, suppose a speculator forecasts that price of


silver will be Rs 3000 per 100 grams after one month.
If the current silver price is Rs 2900 per 100 grams, he
can take a long position in silver and expects to make
a profit of Rs 100 per 100 grams.

2/21/2015 116
This expected profit is associated with risk
because the silver price after one month may
decrease to Rs 2800 per 100 grams, and may
lose Rs 100 per 100 grams.

2/21/2015 117
POSITIONA
L TRADERS
SPECULAT
ORS
DAY
TRADERS

2/21/2015 118
FUNDAMENT
AL ANALYST

POSITIONAL TECHNICAL
TRADERS ANALYST

LOCAL
SPECULATO
RS
2/21/2015 119
Position Speculator uses
fundamental analysis of economic
conditions of the market and is known
as fundamental analyst.
Technical Analyst whereas the one
who predicts futures prices on the
basis of past movements in the prices
of the asset is known as technical
analyst.
Local Speculator A speculator who
owns a seat on a particular exchange
2/21/2015 120
SCALPERS

LOCAL
PIT
SPECULAT
TRADERS
ORS
FLOOR
TRADERS
2/21/2015 121
Scalpers usually try to make profits from holding
positions for short period of time. They bridge the
gap between outside orders by filling orders that
come into the brokers in return for slight price
concessions.
Pit Traders like scalpers take bigger positions and
hold them longer. They usually do not move quickly
by changing positions overnights. They most likely
use outside news
Floor Traders usually consider inter commodity
price relationship. They are full members and often
watch outside news carefully and can hold positions
both short and long. Day traders speculate only
about price movements during one trading day.
2/21/2015 122
Day Traders speculate only about
price movements during one trading
day.

2/21/2015 123
ARBITRAGEUR:
A person who simultaneously enters into transactions
in two or more markets to take advantage of the
discrepancies between prices in these markets.

Arbitrage involves making profits from relative


mispricing.

Arbitrageurs also help to make markets liquid, ensure


accurate and uniform pricing, and enhance price
stability

They help in bringing about price uniformity and


discovery.
2/21/2015 124
An arbitrageur tries to earn riskless profits
from discrepancies between futures and spot
prices and among different futures prices.
Example, suppose that at the expiration of the
gold futures contract, the futures price is Rs
9200 per 10 grams, but the spot price is Rs
9000 per 10 grams. In this situation, an
arbitrageur could purchase the gold for Rs 9000
and go short a futures contract that expires
immediately, and in this way making a profit of
Rs 200 per 10 grams by delivering the gold for
Rs 9200 in the absence of transaction costs

2/21/2015 125
Reasons to use derivatives
Derivative markets have attained an
overwhelming popularity for a variety of
reasons...
Hedging: Interest rate volatility
Stock price volatility
Exchage rate volatility
Commodity prices volatility

VOLATILITY

High portion of leverage


Speculatio Huge returns
n:
EXTREMELY RISKY
Reasons to use Derivatives:
Also derivatives create...

a complete market, defined as a market in which


all identifiable payoffs can be obtained by trading
the securities available in the market.

and market efficiency, characterized by low


transaction costs and greater liquidity.
Uses of derivatives
1. Foreign-Exchange Risks:

One of the more common corporate uses


of derivatives is for hedging foreign-
currency risk, orforeign-exchange risk,
which is the risk that a change in currency
exchange rates will adversely impact
business results.

2/21/2015 128
2. Commodity or Product Input
Hedge:
Companies that depend heavily on raw-material
inputs or commodities are sensitive, sometimes
significantly, to the price change of the inputs.

Airlines, for example, consume lots of jet fuel.


Historically, most airlines have given a great deal of
consideration to hedging against crude-oil price
increases - although at the start of 2004 one major
airline mistakenly settled (eliminating) all of its crude-
oil hedges: a costly decision ahead of the surge in oil
prices.
2/21/2015 129
3. Risk management
Derivatives allow firms to:
Separate out the financial risks that they
face.
Remove or neutralize the risk exposures
they do not want.
Retain or possibly increase the risk
exposures they want.
Using derivatives, firms can transfer, for a
price, any undesirable risk to other parties
who either have risks that offset or want to
4. Leverage

Leverage is the ability to control large


amounts of an underlying asset with a
comparatively small amount of capital.
As a result, small price changes can lead
to large gains or losses.
Leverage makes derivatives:
Powerful and efficient
Potentially dangerous
Leveraging with futures
A speculator believes interest rates are going to
fall.
To realize a gain, she might:
Buy bonds worth, say, Rs.1 million.
Buy Treasury bond futures for the purchase of
Rs.1 million of Treasury bonds.
To buy the bonds, speculator needs Rs.1 million.
To buy the Treasury bond futures, speculator
needs initial margin of about Rs.15,000.
speculator gains the same exposure in both
cases. That is, speculator stands to realize an
equivalent gain/loss should interest rates fall/rise.
The Role of Derivative Markets

The existence of derivative markets in the


United States economy and indeed throughout
most modern countries of the world
undoubtedly leads to a much higher degree of
market efficiency. Derivatives facilitate the
activities of individual arbitrageurs so that
unequal prices of identical goods are arbitraged
until they are equal. Because of the large
number of arbitrageurs, this is a quick and
efficient process.

2/21/2015 133
Arbitrage on this large a scale makes markets
less capable of being manipulated, less costly
to trade in, and therefore more attractive to
investors. (The opportunity to hedge also
makes the markets more attractive to investors
in managing risk.)

This is not to say that an economy without


derivative markets would be inefficient, but it
would not have the advantage of this arbitrage
on a large scale.

2/21/2015 134
It is important to note that the derivative
markets do not necessarily make the India or
world economy any larger or wealthier. The
basic wealth, expected returns, and risks of
the economy would be about the same
without these markets. Derivatives simply
create lower cost opportunities for investors to
align their risks at more satisfactory levels.
This may not necessarily make them
wealthier, but to the extent that it makes
them more satisfied with their positions, it
serves a valuable purpose.
2/21/2015 135
Myths & Realities about
Derivatives
In less than three decades of their coming in
to vogue, derivatives markets have become
the most important market in the world. Today
Derivatives have become the part and parcel
of the day-to-day life for ordinary people in
major parts of the world. While, this is true for
many countries, there are still apprehension
(fear/uneasiness) about the introduction of
derivatives.

There are many myths for derivatives but the


realities are different especially for the
exchange traded derivatives, which are well
2/21/2015 136
What are these myths behind
this derivative?
Derivatives increase speculation and
do not serve any economic purpose.
Indian market is not ready for
Derivative trading.
Disasters are proved that
Derivatives are very risky and highly
leveraged instruments.
Derivatives are very complex and
exotic
2/21/2015 137
THANK YOU

VISIT THE PAGE: http://www.investopedia.com/exam-guide/cfa-level-


1/derivatives/criticisms-derivatives.asp
2/21/2015 138
Forwards:
Forwards are futures, which are not
standardized. They are not traded on
a stock exchange. The contracts are
customized / Tailor-made contracts
between two entities or parties,
where settlement takes place as a
specific date in the future at
predetermined price.

Normally traded outside the


2/21/2015 139
Futures:
Futures are contracts that represent an
agreement to buy or sell a set of assets at
a specified time in the future for a
specified amount.
The contracts details are the quality and
quantity of the underlying asset and the of
expiry date etc.,
They are standardized to facilitate trading
on a futures exchange. Some futures
contracts may call for physical delivery of
the asset, while others are settled in cash.
Some of the most popular assets on which
2/21/2015 140
Pricing options:

Explained with the help of following


Model
THE BLACK SCHOLES MODEL:

COV = MPS [N (d)] EP [antilog (-rt)] [N (d2)]


Where;
COV= Call option value
MPS = Current price of underlying asset
N(d) = Cumulative density function
EP = Exercise price of option
R = Continuity compounded risk less rate of
interest on an annual basis.
T = Time remaining before the expiration of option
N(d2) = Cumulative density function of d2
UNIT - II

FUTURE AND FORWARD


MARKET

2/21/2015 142
BY
USING FUTURES
Business outcomes are surprising and have
risk and uncertainty elements. To avoid the
risk arising out of price fluctuations in future,
various strategies are devised keeping in view
the timing and pricing dimensions of the
instruments.

Ex:1:- Suppose a farmer anticipates fall in


prices of his crop three months hence. He will
try to cover his future risk by entering into a
future contract at a price set on todays date.
2/21/2015 143
Ex:2:- Suppose a textile manufacturer
anticipates future losses due to
government policy, he will lock his future
position by entering into two simultaneous
contracts of buying raw material from one
country and to export the finished product
to another country.
These are examples of hedging where an
investor in anticipation of some price
change (adverse or favourable) enters into
a future contract/s and lock in the position

2/21/2015 144
In broader sense, a hedging is an act of
protecting one from future losses due to some
reason. In a future market, the use of future
contracts/instrument in such a way that risk is
either avoided or minimized is called hedging.
The anticipated future losses may occur due
to fluctuations in the price, foreign exchange
or interest rate.
This concept considers that hedging activity is
based on price risk.

2/21/2015 145
Hedging Types
There are two categories of:

Short
Hedging Hedge
types Long
Hedge
2/21/2015 146
Short Hedge
Having a short position (selling a futures) in
futures is known as a short hedge. It happens
when an investor plans to buy or produce a
cash commodity sells futures to hedge the
cash position.
It is appropriate when hedger owns an asset
and expects to sell in future on a particular
date.
Generally, Selling some asset without having
the same is known as short-selling. Which
means having a net sold position, or a
commitment to deliver.
2/21/2015 147
For example suppose a US exporter expects
to receive Euros in three months. He will gain
if the euro increases in value relative to the
US dollar and will sustain loss if the euro
decreases in value relative to US dollar.

2/21/2015 148
Supposing an oil producer made a contract on
10 Oct, 2006 to sell 1 million barrel crude oil
on a market price as on 10 Jan 2007.
The oil producer supposing that spot price on
10 Oct, 2006 is $ 50 per barrel and Jan crude
future price on NYMEX is $ 48.50 per barrel.
The company can hedge its position by short
selling October futures.
If the oil borrower closed his position on 10
Jan 2007 the effect of the strategy should be
to lock in a price close to $ 48.50 per barrel.

2/21/2015 149
Suppose the spot price on 10 Jan 2007 be $
47.50 per barrel. The company realizes the
gain/profit:
$ 48.50 $ 47.50 = $ 1.00 per barrel
Total profit = $ 1.00 X 1 million
$ 1 million in total from the short future
position.

2/21/2015 150
Long hedge

A long hedge is taking long position in


futures contract. A long hedge is done
in anticipation of future price increases
and when the company knows that it
will have to buy a certain asset in the
future at anticipated higher price and
wants to lock in a price now.

2/21/2015 151
The objective of a long hedge is to
protect the company against a price
increase in the underlying asset prior
to buy the same either in spot or
future market.
A net bought position is actually
holding an asset which is known as
inventory hedge.
2/21/2015 152
Cross Hedging
A cross hedge is a hedge where
characteristics of futures and spot prices do
not match perfectly which is known as
mismatch, may occur due to following reasons:
The quantity to be hedged may not be equal
to the quantity of futures contract.
Features of assets to be hedged are different
from the future contract asset.
Same futures period (maturity) on a particular
asset is not available.
2/21/2015 153
Ex:1:- Suppose a wire manufacturer requires
copper in the month of June but in exchange
the copper futures trade in long delivery in Jan,
March, July, Sept. in this case hedging horizon
does not match with the futures delivery date.

Ex:2:- Suppose that the copper required by the


manufacturer is substandard quality but the
available trading is of pure 100% copper and in
quantity aspect too, copper may be traded in
different multiples than required actually.
These are examples of cross hedging.

2/21/2015 154
Basis:
The difference between the spot
price and future price is known as
basis.

Basis = Cash (spot price)


Future price
Basis is said to be positive if the spot
price is higher than the future price
and negative in case of reverse.
2/21/2015 155
In case of difference in future price and spot
price, basis risk is bound to occur.
Strengthening of the basis occurs when
change in the spot price is more than the
change in the future price.
If the change in spot price is less than the
change in futures price, the basis is known as
weakening of basis.

The following Table gives the clear picture of


the price changes.
2/21/2015 156
BASIS POSITION OF CRUDE OIL ($
PER BARREL)

CASH CASH FUTURE BASI


PRICE PRICE S
OCT 10, 65 68 -3
2016
NOV 15, 67 71 -4
2016
CHANGE +2 +3 -1
PG.36 IN FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES BOOK FILE

2/21/2015 157