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Nama: Khairani

3061524001 KULIAH

Pengertian mollusca
Molluscs (in Latin, molluscus = soft) is
soft-bodied animals. Soft body
protected by a shell, although some
are not shelled. These animals belong
triploblastik selomata. Generally,
animals belonging to the phylum
have shells, but there are also no
shell. This animal phyla shells made
of calcium. Generally, there are shells
on animals outside the body.
Ciri-ciri Mollusca
Molluscs body soft and not jointed, an animal
triplobastik selomata. When cut into two parts,
is the bilateral symmetry. If you observe, at run
time the body can expel mucus, thus the mucus
will ease when walking.
Walking used to adapt to survive in the
substrate, dig and drill the substrate or perform
the movement. Molluscs body consists of three
main parts, namely the foot, visceral mass and
mantle, can be a shell / graft. As you can see,
the members of these animals have the shell /
outer graft containing lime (calcium carbonate),
which can protect the body.
Struktur Tubuh
The animal's body is composed of three main
parts: legs, body, and coats. Walking is penjulur
ventral muscular body. Serves to move edging
foot or dig. In some molluscs her feet were
modified into tentacles that serve to capture
prey. Visceral mass is soft body parts molluscs.
Massa is a collection of a large part of the
visceral organs such as digestion, excretion, and
The coat forming mantle cavity filled with fluid.
The liquid is a gill holes, holes excretion, and
anus. In addition, the coat can secrete a shell
building blocks on shelled molluscs.
Molluscs nervous system consists of a nerve ring
that surrounds nerve fibers of the esophagus
with a widened. The digestive system is full
molluscs consists of the mouth, esophagus,
stomach, colon, and anus. There also have jaw
and tongue in certain molluscs. Backward curved
toothed tongue called a radula. Radula function
to pulverize food. Molluscs that live in the water
to breathe with gills. While living on land does
not have gills. Molluscs air exchange is done on
blood vascular mantle cavity that serves as the
lungs. Organs of excretion in the form of a pair of
nephridial which act as kidney.
Anatomy of molluscs are relatively similar to
vertebrate. This led many experts predict that
vertebrates and mollusks still have a close
evolutionary relationship. This is reinforced by
the fact that mollusks, especially cephalopod,
has a well-developed brain and some of them
proved to have a strong ability to remember.

Cara hidup dan Habitat Mollusca

Molluscs living heterotrophic by eating algae,
shrimp, fish or the remains of organisms.
Habitat in fresh water, at sea and on land.
Some are living as a parasite
Molluscs reproduce sexually and
each sexual organs apart from
each other on another
individual. Fertilization is done
internally and externally to
produce eggs. The eggs develop
into larvae and develop further
into mature individuals
Animals of this class always has a pair
of shell valves then called bivalves.
Animals also called Pelecypoda derived
from the Greek, meaning that pelecys
small ax and podos which means foot.
So Pelecypoda mean flat-footed
animals such as axes. Animals of this
class was berinsang multilayered then
often called Lamellibranchiata.
Body structure Pelecypoda
This class includes clams nation.
Bilaterally symmetrical body,
protected by a hard shell lime. The
body shell consists of the dorsal
and ventral. In the dorsal part are:
1. Dental joints, as the shaft when
the valve opens and closes and the
second rectifying valves
2. The joint ligaments, uniting
function valve separates the dorsal
and ventral side valve.
3. Umbo, bulge in the dorsal shell
Many species Pelecypoda which can be exploited by
humans, such as oysters (Ostrea), fur shellfish and
mussels (Corbicula) is used as a food ingredient.
Pelecypoda shells can be used as wall hangings,
jewelery or buttons. Even as aadanya necre coating
on the shell, some types can plecypoda
menghasilakn pearl, pearl oyster Pinctada example
margaritifera and P. maxima. Pearl jewelry is a
material that is very expensive woman.
There are several types of such adverse Pelecypoda
"ship worms" (Tredo Navalis) causing major damage
to the dock and timber ships. The organism is not
caing, but a kind Pelecypoda that uses its shell to
create tunnels on wood submerged in the sea. In
addition, certain types of shellfish (Anadara) is a
carrier of typhoid carriers of Salmonella Typhi.
Gastropods comes from the word meaning gastric
stomach and podos which means the foot. So
gastropods means soft-bodied animals that these
animals are herbivores, often eat vegetables
cultivation to the detriment of man to run in the
There gastropod shells that have single, double,
or without a shell. Bervaiasi shell shape There are
round, rectangle, round or rounded rough spiral.
Generally spiral shells asymmetry. Shell functions
to protect the head, legs, and tools inside. In case
of danger, the shell closed by epifragma.
On the inside of the shell there is a coat that
wraps around the body of gastropods. The coat is
thick, except at the feet of typically thin. Coat
serves to form excretion to form a new shell.
Snail body consists of head and body. The
structure of the head is already apparent. In this
section there are two pairs of tentacles and
mouth. Tentacles found in the head includes a
pair of tentacles with eyes (especially land-
dwelling) and a pair of tentacles to the sense of
Gastropods mouth has progressed well. Located
at the anterior end, equipped with jaws of horn
substance and tongue, or radula scar at the base
of her stomach. The anus is located in the
anterior part of body
Example gastropods namely, Achantia achantia
(conch largest, growing up to 30 cm), Bellamy
javanica (Tutut), Vaginula sp (snails nude / limus),
Limnea trunchatula (snails as an intermediate
host of Fasciola hepatica) and Achantia fulica
Cephalpopda derived from the Greek
meaning chepalo podos meaning head
and legs. So Cephalopods are molluscs
legged on the head or the head circled
by legs that are modified into
tentacles. Generally, they also have
the ink sac, except nutilus which
produces liquid black ink to be ejected
in case of danger to escape from his
enemies. Cephalopod benapas with
gills dn have sensory organs and
nervous system are developing well.
In the mouth there is a radula. His size varies from
a few centimeters to tens of meters. All members
of the cephalopod's body not protected by a shell,
unless the Nautilus. To protect himself from enemy
attacks, can be a way to change the body color by
color environment. This is possible because the
skin there is a color carrier or chromatophores.
Some species defend themselves by secreting a
substance ink
Examples of animal cephalopod class are:
1. Loligo indica (squid). Has the ink bag, a shell
made of chitin natural body.
2. Octopus vulgaris (octopus). Has the ink bag, no
3. Sepia sp. (cuttlefish). Has the ink bag, inside the
body shell is made of limestone.
4. Nautilus pampilus. Not having the ink sac, the
shells are made out of chalk.
All Amphineura class members live
in the sea and are generally
attached to the bottom of the
water. This animal has a
characteristic flat-shaped
elongated body, no head, no
bertentakel, and on the back there
is a shell composed of several
plates coated with overlapping like
tiles. In the mouth there is a
Examples of animals that include this
class is Chiton and Neopilina. Chilton
chiton-like slug shells shells live in
coastal areas consist of several (usually
eight plates arranged in overlapping).
While it seems jointed but not internal
organs. Kiton (Cryptochiton sp.) Which
are found in the Pacific region, but there
are also living at a depth of 4,600
meters. Sticking on the rocks (coral)
cengan wrapped her body. Females lay
up to 200,000 eggs. In some areas,
people eat Kiton.
These molluscs have similar homes
elephant ivory perforated at both ends.
An elongated body, dorsoventral.
Rudimentary head, foot taper, lobulated
and useful for digging mud or sand.
Development through trokofor and
veliger larvae. Inhabit the beach to a
depth of 5000 meters. Near the mouth
are kaptakula (contractile ciliated
tentacles) is the organ of touch, to
capture the microflora and miokrofauna.
There are no gills, and breathe with the
Scaphopoda is the smallest class of
molluscs. These animals have a habit of
immersing themselves in the sand.
Schapopoda class also known as slugs or
snails ivory teeth. His trademark is a shell
shaped or cylindrical pipe (tube) elongated
or cone and is open at both ends.
Individual adult life immersed in the sand,
bercangkok like a cone or horn. Legs are in
the mouth area. His body was surrounded
by a coat.
Schapopoda have separate sexes. Eggs
that hatch develop into trokofor or veliger.
Examples are Dentalium elephantium,
Dentalium vulgare, and Sipnodentalium.
Peranan Mollusca bagi
Molluscs generally beneficial to humans, but
some are harmful. Molluscs beneficial role are
as follows:
Source of high protein foods, such as oysters
rock (Aemaea sp.), Mussels (Anadara sp.),
Mussels (Mytilus viridis), Tridacna sp.,
Cuttlefish (Sepia sp.) Squid (Loligo sp.),
Clams (Corbicula javanica), and the snail
(Achatina fulica).
Jewelry, such as pearl oysters (Pinctada
Trimmings and buttons, for example of rock
oyster shell, Nautilus, and pearl oysters.
Terrazzo raw materials, such as shell
Tridacna sp.
Fodder (vivipara)
Vector diseases (Lymnaea
trunchatula, l. Rubiginosa, etc.)
Pets (Octopus bimaculoides)
Molluscs harmful to humans, such as
snail and slug pests of rice is a plant
(Helix Astrea and Achantina fulica),
wood destroying (Tredo Navalis) and
water snails are an intermediary
worm Fasciola hepatica