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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION TO
TO
MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT AND
AND
ORGANIZATIONS
ORGANIZATIONS
(Chapter-I)
(Chapter-I)

Dr.
Dr. Rafique
Rafique Ahmed
Ahmed Khan
Khan
03212386601
03212386601
rak@bimcs.edu.pk
rak@bimcs.edu.pk
Managers and their Job
A manager is a person who coordinates and
oversees the work of other people in order to
accomplish organizational goals.

Managers are the individuals who achieve goals


through other people.

Managerial
ManagerialActivities:
Activities:
Make
Makedecisions
decisions
Allocate
Allocateresources
resources
Direct
Directactivities
activitiesof
ofothers
othersto
toattain
attaingoals
goals
Classification of Managers
Top Managers: Managers at or near the upper level
of the organization structure who are responsible for
making organization-wide decisions and establishing
the goals & plans that affect the entire organization.

Middle Managers: Managers between lowest level


and top level of the organization, who manage the
work of first line managers.

First-line Managers: Managers at the lowest level


who manage the work of non-managerial employees
and are directly or indirectly involved in producing
products or rendering services.
What is Management?
Management refers to coordination and oversight of the
work activities of others so that their activities are
completed efficiently and effectively.

Efficiency: It refers to getting the most output from


the least amount of inputs; also known as doing
things right. It is concerned with means to ends.

Effectiveness: It refers to completing the task as per


expectations and quality standards so that
organizational goals are achieved; also known as
doing right things . It is concerned with end results.
Management strives for both Efficiency (low expense
of resources) and Effectiveness (high goal
achievement).
Management
Functions

Planning
Planning Organizing
Organizing

Management
Management
Functions
Functions

Controlling
Controlling Leading
Leading
Management Functions
Planning. A management function that involves
defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving
those goals, and developing plans to integrate and
coordinate activities.

Organizing. A management function that involves


determining what tasks are to be done, how tasks are
to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where
decisions are to be made.

Leading. A management function that includes


motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting
the most effective communication channels, and
resolving conflicts.
Managerial Functions

Controlling. A management function that involves


monitoring activities to ensure they are being
accomplished as planned and correcting any
significant deviations.
Managerial Roles
Roles are the specific categories of managerial
behaviors which are required to be displayed at work
place.

Interpersonal role: A managerial role that involves


people and other duties that are ceremonial and
symbolic in nature.

Informational role: A managerial role that involves


collecting, receiving and disseminating information.

Decisional role: A managerial role that revolves


around making choices.
Interpersonal Role
ROLE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
Figurehead A symbolic head; Handles ceremonies,
performs a number of signing of documents
duties of legal/ social
nature.

Leader Is responsible for Performs managerial


motivation & direction of activities involving
subordinates. subordinates

Maintains a network of Acknowledges mail,


Liaison outside contacts to get external board work.
favor & information.
Informational Role
ROLE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
Monitor Receives wide variety of Handles all mail &
information; acts as contacts related to
centre of internal/ receipt of information.
external information.

Disseminator Transmits info received Disseminates info to all


from outsiders or internally & makes
subordinate members of verbal contacts for it.
the organization.

Transmits info to Attends board meeting;


Spokesperson outsiders on org plans, handles contacts to
actions, policies, transmit info to outside.
results.
Decisional Role
ROLE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE

Entrepreneur Searches organization and its Holds strategy and review


environment for opportunities sessions involving initiation
and initiates projects to bring or design of improvement
out change. projects.

Disturbance Is responsible for corrective Holds strategy and review


action when organization faces sessions involving
handler important, unexpected disturbances and crisis.
disturbances.
Makes or approves significant Handles scheduling;
Resource organizational decisions. requests for authorization;
Allocator budgeting; the programming
of subordinates work.
Is responsible for representing
Negotiator the organization at major Handles contract and other
negotiations. similar negotiations.
Skills That Managers Need

Technical Conceptual Human


Managerial Skills
Technical Skills. The ability to apply specialized
knowledge, expertise & techniques needed to work
proficiently.

Conceptual Skills. The ability to think, analyze and


conceptualize about abstract & complex situations.

Human Skills. The ability to work well with others;


understand and inspire other people, both individually
and in groups.
Managerial Skills
What is an Organization?
A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish
some specific purpose. Hence three common
characteristics of an organization are, People,
Deliberate structure and Distinct purpose.

A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of


two or more people, that functions on a relatively
continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set
of goals, and where people have:
Structured patterns of interaction
Coordinated tasks
Work toward some purpose
Why Managers Job is Changing
Managers job is changing due unavoidable
environmental changes, as discussed below:

Changing Technology (Digitization):

Shifting organizational boundaries

Virtual workplaces

More mobile workforce

Flexible work arrangements

Empowered employees

Work life Personal life balance


Why Managers Job is Changing
Changing Securities Threats:

Risk management

Uncertainty over future energy resources/prices

Restructures workplace

Discrimination concerns

Globalization concerns

Employee assistance
Why Managers Job is Changing
Increased Emphasis on Organizational and Managerial
Ethics:
Redefined values
Rebuilding trust
Increased accountability

Increased Competitiveness:
Customer service
Innovation
Globalization
Efficiency / productivity
Why to Study Management?
Universality of Management: The reality that manage-
ment is needed in all types and sizes of organizations,
at all organizational levels, in all organizational areas,
and in organization no matter where located.
All Sizes
Small Large

All areas
Manufacturing,
Management All Types
Marketing, HR,
is Needed in Profit Not for profit
Accounting, IT
etc.

All levels
Bottom Top
Rewards and Challenges of a Manager
Rewards Challenges
Create a work environment where Do hard work.
employees can do their best. May have duties that are
Think creatively & use more clerical in nature
imagination. than managerial.
Help others find meaning & Have to deal with variety
fulfillment in work. of personalities.
Support, coach and nurture Often have to make do
others. with limited resources.
Work with a variety of people. Motive workers in
Receive recognition and status in chaotic and uncertain
organization and community. situations.
Rewards and Challenges of a Manager
Rewards Challenges
Play a role in influencing Blend knowledge, skills,
organizational outcomes. ambitions & experiences
of a diverse work group.
Receive compensation in the form
of salaries, bonuses and stock Success depends on
options. others work performance.

Good managers are needed by


organizations.
THANKS