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IBM Software Group

Enterprise Architecture and


TOGAF 9 Overview

Winton Huang
wintonjkt@gmail.com
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Agenda

Part I Overview of Enterprise Architecture


Part II TOGAF Overview
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Part I
Overview of Enterprise
Architecture
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The Concept of Enterprise Architecture - Defined

Enterprise Architecture: The analysis and documentation of


an enterprise in its current and future states from a strategy,
business, and technology perspective. EA = S + B + T
An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture 2005

N e tL wi n eo s r ok f B u s i n e s s L i n e s No ef Bt wu s oi n re ks s
NI n ef rt wa so t rr ku c t u r e INn ef r taw s ot rr uk c t u r e
C
I n f r a s t r u c t uG r oe a l s & U p d Iant ef rda Ss t r au t ce tg ui cr e O
I n Ni tei at wt iov rek s G o a l s & I n i t i a t iNv ee st w o r k
C
S e c u r ity / S ta n d a r d s / W o r k fo r c e

M
T e c h n o lo g y B u s in e s s S tr a te g y

O
NI n ef rt wa so t rr ku c t u r e M INn ef r taw s ot rr uk c t u r e P
I n fPr ar so t dr uu c ct ut sr e & P I m p r o v e d I nB fur sa isn ter su s c t u r e O
S Ne er vt wi co er ks P r o d u c t s a n d S e r vNi ce et sw o r k
O
N A r c h ite c tu r e N
N I en tf wr a os rt kr u c t u r e E M anagem ent & NI ne ftrwa so tr rku c t u r e E
I n f r a s t r uD c at ut ar e & N
T r a n s itio n P la n E n h a n c e dI nD f ar at as at rn ud c t u r e N
I n f o rNme tawt ioor nk I n f o r m a t i o n F l o wN se t w o r k
T T
S S
N I en tf wr a os rt kr u c t u r e NI ne ftrwa so tr rku c t u r e
I n f rSa ys st r tuec mt u sr e & I n t e g r a t e dI nS f yr as tse tmr us c t u r e
A p p l i Nc ae tt wi o onr ks a n d A p p l i c a t i o nN se t w o r k
N I en tf wr a os rt kr u c t u r e NI ne ftrwa so tr rku c t u r e
I n Nf r ae st wt r uo cr tku sr e & O p t i m i z e dI nN f er at ws ot r uk sc t u r e
In fr a s tr u c tu r e a n d In fr a s tr u c tu r e

CURRENT FUTURE
A R C H IT E C T U R E A R C H IT E C T U R E
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The Concept of Enterprise Architecture Overview


Enterprise Architecture helps to integrate and manage IT resources from a strategy
and business-driven viewpoint

Strategic
Initiative 1
Strategy Strategic
Initiative 2
IT

Business
Systems
Video
Network L i n e Ns oe f t Bwu os i rn ke s s
Process 1

Business
Strategic NI n ef rt wa so t rr ku c t u r e
Initiative 1 Business Process 2

EA = S+B+T
I n f r a s t r u c St ut r ea t e g i c
S e c u r ity , S ta n d a r d s , W o r k fo rc e

I n Ni tei at wt iov rek s


Process 1 C Process 3

&&Technology
O
NI n ef tr wa so t rr ku c t u r e M
Data
I n f r a Bs tur us ci nt ue r se s P

Technology Alignment
Network
S Ne er vt wi co er ks
Data O
Dictionary N Object
N I en tf wr aos rtkr u c t u r e
Process 2 I n If nr af so trr mu cat ut i roe n
E
N Information Data Reuse
Flows
Data
Dictionary
N eF t lwo ow r ks T
S
Applications N I en tf wr aos rtkr u c t u r e
Web I n f rSa ys st rtue cmt u sr e &

Alignment
Services
A p p l i Nc ae tt wi o onr ks Systems
Web
Strategic N I en tf wr aos rtkr u c t u r e
Initiative 2 I n Tf rea cs ht r nu oc tl uo rge y Systems Applications
Services
Voice
Network In fr a s tr u c tu r e EA
Object
Data Reuse
E n te r p r is e A r c h ite c tu r e C u b e
Data
Flows
Network
Voice
Networks Video
Network
Network
N o n - in t e g r a te d
p ro c e s s e s
a n d s y s te m s E n te r p r is e A r c h ite c t u r e
In te g ra te d p ro c e s s e s a n d s y s te m s
in d iffe r e n t p a r t s a c r o s s t h e e n t ir e e n t e r p r is e
o f th e e n te r p r is e
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Enterprise Architecture Domain

Define the Enterprise Strategy, goals and


Strategy Objectives: What to do, and how to do it?

Business Processes: support the strategy,


Business Operational organization

Mtier
The Applications support the Business,
Applications & Systems implement the business functions in the IT systems

The Information is key for the organization:


Information & Data It is the fuel that drives the architecture

Infrastructure that supports the IS:


Network & Infrastructure -Technical components: servers, networks, etc.
-Technology: platforms, etc.
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The Concept of Enterprise Architecture - Drivers


Executive input on strategic direction and priority

Business Manager input on process changes

Technology Manager input on supporting IT changes

New Direction & Goals


Strategic

(Leadership Team) Operating


Capabilities Scenarios Capabilities
of the New Business Priorities of the
(Management Team)
Current Future
Tactical

Enterprise Program Enterprise


Emerging Technologies
(IT Support Team) Plans
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Enterprise Architecture
A spectrum of goals, scopes, and entry points

Cost
CostReduction
Reduction Standardization
Standardization Broaden
BroadenScope
Scope Actionable
ActionableEA
EA
What do we have? Develop standards Meet business Develop business
What do we have? Develop standards Meet business Develop business
and
andrecommended
recommended needs
needsbybylinking
linkingITIT strategy
strategy
Need all of it?
Need all of it? best
best practices(e.g.
practices (e.g. totobusiness
business Value propositions,
Consolidate to technology
technologystacks,
stacks, Value propositions,
Consolidate to server
Managing
Managing capabilities,
capabilities,
reduce
reducecosts?
costs? serverplatforms)
platforms) architectures resources?
architectures resources?
Seeking outside
Desire for impact
Desire for impact Seeking outsideITIT Refine into to-be
analysis repeatability
repeatability Refine into to-be
analysis Increasing focus
Increasing focus Compare to as-is
Encourage IT
Encourage IT on
onbusiness
business Compare to as-is
evolution
evolution architecture
architectureand
and Create transition
business Create transition
Focusing on IT business plan
plan
Focusing on IT processes
processes
scope
scopeonly
only Execute
Execute

Enabling Organizations to Turn Change into a Competitive Advantage


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Value of Enterprise Architecture


Provides a clear view of how the business and technology resources will support and
achieve an organizations business goals and initiatives.
Understand the strategy, the business, the systems and the infrastructure and how
they interrelate.
Moving "need to know" information to those that "know they need" upstream and
down stream and in both directions.
Helps us prioritize and decide which things to do and in what order.
Doing the Right Things
Governs the change and building of things.
Doing the Things Right
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Result of Implementing Enterprise Architecture


Achieve strategic goals that depend on IT resources

Improve business performance by maximizing IT efficiency

Strategic priorities/business requirements drive IT solutions

Total visibility of multiple IT networks, systems, applications, services, and
databases across the entire enterprise

Share information between lines of business

Reduce duplicative IT resources across the enterprise

Protect data and IT assets that rely on enterprise-wide approaches

Maximize the effective use of limited budgets
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Part II
TOGAF
Overview
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Definition of TOGAF
The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a framework and detailed
method for building, maintaining, and gaining value from an enterprise architecture
for an organization.
TOGAF 9 is the latest evolution of the framework, and its accompanying Architecture
Development Method (ADM)
The TOGAF specification is an open standard that has been created and is
maintained by The Open Group (www.opengroup.org).
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Types of Architectures in TOGAF


Business Architecture -- addresses the needs of users, planners, and business
management,

Data/Information Architecture -- addresses the needs of database designers,


database administrators, and system engineers,

Application (Systems) Architecture -- addresses the needs of system and software


engineers, and

Information Technology (IT) Architecture -- addresses the needs of acquirers,


operators, administrators, and managers.
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Architecture Deliverables
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Deliverable is a work product that is contractually specified and in turn formally


reviewed, agreed, and signed off by the stakeholders. Deliverables represent the
output of projects and those deliverables that are in documentation form will typically
be archived at completion of a project, or transitioned into an Architecture Repository
as a reference model, standard, or snapshot of the Architecture Landscape at a point
in time.
Artifact is a more granular architectural work product that describes an architecture
from a specific viewpoint. Examples include a network diagram, a server
specification, a use-case specification, a list of architectural requirements, and a
business interaction matrix. Artifacts are generally classified as catalogs (lists of
things), matrices (showing relationships between things), and diagrams (pictures of
things). An architectural deliverable may contain many artifacts and artifacts will form
the content of the Architecture Repository.
Building block represents a (potentially re-usable) component of business, IT, or
architectural capability that can be combined with other building blocks to deliver
architectures and solutions.
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Architecture Repository
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Architecture Repository
The Architecture Metamodel describes the organizationally tailored application of
an architecture framework, including a metamodel for architecture content.
The Architecture Capability defines the parameters, structures, and processes that
support governance of the Architecture Repository.
The Architecture Landscape shows an architectural view of the building blocks that
are in use within the organization today (e.g., a list of the live applications). The
landscape is likely to exist at multiple levels of abstraction to suit different
architecture objectives.
The Standards Information Base (SIB) captures the standards with which new
architectures must comply, which may include industry standards, selected products
and services from suppliers, or shared services already deployed within the
organization.
The Reference Library provides guidelines, templates, patterns, and other forms of
reference material that can be leveraged in order to accelerate the creation of new
architectures for the enterprise.
The Governance Log provides a record of governance activity across the enterprise
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TOGAF Architecture Capability


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The Framework of TOGAF 9

The TOGAF framework


provides the core phases of the
Architecture Development
Method (ADM), presented as
circles surrounding
requirements.
Bidirectional lines are drawn
from each of the outer ADM
circles to the center
Requirements circle. This
represents how requirements
drive the creation of the
architecture, and how the
architecture is created to satisfy
requirements.
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Overview of TOGAF Phases


A. Define Architectural Vision
B. Business Architecture
C. Information Systems Architecture
D. Technology Architecture Start here
E. Assess Opportunity and Solution Alternatives

Finish
here
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Architectural Vision
In Phase A of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) you establish the
scope of the architecture effort, get buy in from senior management and line
management, and develop the vision of the architecture effort.
The phase starts with a Request for Architecture Work, delivered from the sponsoring
organization to the architecture organization, and results in a Statement of
Architecture Work.
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Objectives
Understand and learn how to define the
enterprises strategic context
La raison d'entre of the enterprise, it's
motivation and direction
Its scope and constraints
How it is going to achieve its goals

Value Statement
Guides the development and direction of the
enterprise and its architecture
Forms the basis and scope of all subsequent
work and usage of the architecture
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Define Architectural Vision


Enterprise Direction Diagram
J K E n te rp ris e s
provides the statements of * *
*
*

business motivation, business


*
*

*
*
*
*

goals, strategies, and tactic.


V is io n

It shows the end we want to M u l t i - C h a n n e l In t e g r a t i o n


G ro w C o m p a n y S iz e
achieve and the means of how to *

B u s i n e s s T r a n s fo r m a t i o n

get there.
*

G oal *

G ro w t h T h ro u g h A c q u is it o n G oal

G oal

C h a n n e l C o s t R e d u c tio n
T ra in P e rs o n n e l
S tra te g y O u t s o u r c e h i g h c o s t t a c t i c a l b u s i n e s s fu n c t i o n s

O b je c t iv e R e t a in C o re B u s in e s s
O b je c t iv e
D e liv e r y via C h a n n e l
O b je c t iv e
S h i ft fo c u s t o s t r a t e g i c fu n c t i o n s
S tra te g y
G ro w T u rn o ve r b y 1 7 % p e r Y e a r E x te n d R e a c h O ve rs e a s
O b je c t iv e

O b je c t iv e
In v e s t i n P e o p l e
O b je c t iv e S tra te g y C e n tra liz e d s h a re d s e rvic e s
In c r e a s e c r o s s - s e l l r a t i o

S tra te g y
O b je c t iv e

O b je c t iv e R e m o ve re d u n d a n c ie s
N e w C u s to m e rs

O b je c t iv e

O b je c t iv e O rg a n iz a t io n a n d P r o c e s s e s

O b je c t iv e
O p tim iz e th e n g ro w

O b je c t iv e
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Define Architectural Vision


Strategy Map Diagram
Visual representation of the key Business Objectives aligned with balancing perspectives.
F in a n c ia l M a x im is e S h a r e P r ic e a n d D iv id e n d s
G ro w T u rn o v e r b y In c r e a s e c r o s s - s e l l
Im p r o v e C o s t S t r u c t u r e C ha nnel C ost ra tio
17% p er Year
R e d u c tio n

C u s to m e r R e la tio n s h ip E x p e r ie n c e
O p tim is e p ric e ,
C u s to m e r a v a i la b i li t y ,
p ro d u c t
c h o ic e s

D e li v e r y v i a C h a n n e l

In te r n a l P r o c e s s e s In te r n a l O p e r a tio n s

O u ts o u r c e h ig h c o s t In t e g r a t e d C R M
ta c tic a l b u s in e s s S y s te m s
fu n c tio n s

P e r s o n n e l P r o fic ie n c y a n d M o r a le
P e rs o n n e l
T ra in P e rs o n n e l

In c r e a s e K n o w l e d g e E n h a n c e C u lt u r a l
o f S a le s W o rk in g
P e rs o n n e l E n v iro n m e n t
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Define Architectural Vision


Requirements
These define what capabilities the enterprise must
support or provide in its operations.
They are central to, define, and continuously drive the
enterprise's architecture.
Applicable to any and all phases of the lifecycle.
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Define Architectural Vision


Requirements
These exist in many guises, ones that are explicitly defined and are clearly catered for include
Business Goals and Objectives
Business Constraint
Critical Success Factors
Customer Needs Summary
Customer Requirement
Issue
Policy

Generic Requirements
These are handled as a Requirement definition and related to the architecture through either
explicitly defined or loose relationships.
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Overview of TOGAF Phases


A. Define Architectural Vision
B. Business Architecture
C. Information Systems Architecture
D. Technology Architecture Start here
E. Assess Opportunity and Solution Alternatives
Plus: Plan, Govern and Execute Solutions
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Definition of Business Architecture


In Phase B of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) you establish the
Business Architecture of the organization

The objectives of building the business architecture are to understand, describe, and
model the current (or baseline, or 'as is') business architecture, and then develop
target, or to-be business architectures. In System Architect, you may use
Workspaces to enable baseline and target architectures
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Objectives of Business
We intend to compare two businesses which:
Do similar things In different ways with different
resources
We will produce a conceptual model that is common
to both businesses in terms of
Business
Information
Application
Technology Infrastructure

Value Statement
Provide a framework in order to
compare similar resources
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Topics
Capturing Key Business Concepts
Conceptual Business Architecture
Conceptual Capability Model
Building the Business Activity Model
Conceptual Information Architecture
Conceptual Application Architecture
Conceptual Technology Architecture Take order

We do it this way We do it that way

JKE Enterprises ABC Enterprises


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Capturing Key Business Concepts


Some loose concepts important to support our understanding
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Conceptual Business Architecture


Eventually we want to understand
Business Capabilities
Processes
People
At the Conceptual level we are only interested in high level
Business Capabilities
Processes
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Business Capability
What does the business do?
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Business Activities
How does the business do these things?
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Conceptual Information Architecture


What are the key pieces of information
the business needs?
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Conceptual Application Architecture


What are the key functions our
applications must provide?
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Conceptual Technology Architecture


What are the key technologies our
applications and business need?
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Detailing the Service Component


Specifying business unit that uses the Service Specifying Services that the Service Component
Component provides
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Overview of TOGAF Phases


A. Define Architectural Vision
B. Business Architecture
C. Information Systems Architecture
D. Technology Architecture Start here
E. Assess Opportunity and Solution Alternatives
Plus: Plan, Govern and Execute Solutions

Finish
here
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Information Architecture
In Phase C of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) you model the
Information System Architectures of the organization.
This includes the Data Architecture and the Applications Architecture.
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Objectives
Understand how to develop a high level
Information architecture
Define Subject Areas
Drill down to next specification level

Value Statement
Define the data reference architecture
Communicate the information within the
organization
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Enterprise Data Model


Entity Relationship Diagram
Define the key information subject areas
based upon output from the business
architecture phase
Provide business descriptions for each
entity
Forms an information reference
architecture
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Refined Data Model


Drill Down from each subject area
into first level refinement
Create a child diagram for each EA
data entity to represent the next level
of abstraction
Provides the capability to navigate
the levels of abstraction
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Consolidate Reference Model


Consolidate refined model
Consolidate models belonging to the same
viewpoint
Provides comparative reference architecture
views for Baseline and Target models
Automatically updated when models are
changed
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Objectives
Understand and learn how to describe the
major types of applications systems required
to support the enterprise
How to use the Technical Architecture diagram to
capture the required system capabilities
Describe high level information flows
How to elaborate and expand the Technical
Architecture model

Value Statement
Define and detail the major application
systems as capabilities independent of the
supporting technologies
Used to perform gap, migration, and
integration analyses
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Refine Application Architecture


Technical Architecture Diagram
shows
System context
Participants engaged in
interacting with the business
systems
Functional capabilities of the
applications as Architecture
Building Blocks
Major information flows
Detailed by decomposition
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Refine Application Architecture


Technical Architecture Diagram
decomposes to a System
Architecture model, elaborates
Application Systems
Participants defined that are
engaged in interacting with the
business systems
Architecture Building Blocks
decompose into Application
Components
Information Flows elaborated as
necessary
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Overview of TOGAF Phases


A. Define Architectural Vision
B. Business Architecture
C. Information Systems Architecture
D. Technology Architecture Start here
E. Assess Opportunity and Solution Alternatives
Plus: Plan, Govern and Execute Solutions

Finish
here
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Technology Architecture
The Technology Architecture phase seeks to map application components defined in
the Application Architecture phase into a set of technology components, which
represent software and hardware components, available from the market or
configured within the organization into technology platforms.

As Technology Architecture defines the physical realization of an architectural


solution, it has strong links to implementation and migration planning.

Technology Architecture will define baseline (i.e., current) and target views of the
technology portfolio, detailing the roadmap towards the Target Architecture, and to
identify key work packages in the roadmap. Technology Architecture completes the
set of architectural information and therefore supports cost assessment for particular
migration scenarios
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Objectives
Relevance and use of the Technical
Reference Model
Understand and learn how to refine
technical architecture

Value Statement
Provides a single taxonomy that defines
terminology and provides a coherent
description of the components and conceptual
structure of the technical architecture
Forms the basis and scope of all logical and
physical implementations
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Refine Technical Architecture


M e s s a g in g a n d
E n d U s e r A p p lic a t io n s

L O B A p p lic a tio n s C a le n d a r a n d T im e
Technical Reference Model
C o m m u n ic a t io n s M anagem ent
Modeled as a Technical Architecture diagram
L a p to p & D e s k t o p C o lla b o ra t io n T o o ls
S y s te m s
Is an architecture of generic services and
functions that provides a foundation on which
C o re In fra s tru c tu re more specific architectures and architectural
U ser M anagem ent N e t w o rk
M anagem ent
A p p lic a tio n s
U s e r L o g g in g
components are built and detailed in the
Business Architecture diagram
A p p lic a t io n
M e s s a g in g S h a re d IT
D e p lo y m e n t

S e c u rit y & A u t h e n t ic a t io n

In t e rn a l E x t e rn a l C o m p lia n c e
A u t h e n t ic a tio n A u t h e n t ic a tio n M anagem ent

E n c y p tio n

D a t a S e rve rs

S e rve rs a n d F ile S e rve rs V irt u a l S e rve rs


S t o ra g e
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Compare Architectures

Differences between
technical architectures of
the two enterprises
shown by comparing and
overlaying.

Differences highlighted
between the
architectures must be
addressed.
Use in migration plans
and gap analyses
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Overview of TOGAF Phases


A. Define Architectural Vision
B. Business Architecture
C. Information Systems Architecture
D. Technology Architecture Start here
E. Assess Opportunity and Solution Alternatives

Finish
here
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Objectives
Enterprise Architecture used for
knowledge capture; learn how to apply
enterprise architecture to support
Analysis and decision making
Gap analysis and migration planning
Risk evaluation and mitigation

Value Statement
Understand impact of changes
Consolidate
Application portfolios
Services
Technologies
Information
Plan scope of integrations
Plan changes and prioritize actions
Understand Business Products, Services, and
Partners
Ensure IT and Business decisions aligned with
strategic business intent and delivered
architecture
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The end --- thank you and questions welcome or email me at wintonjkt@gmail.com