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Digital Microwave

Communication Principles

www.huawei.com

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Foreword
This course is developed to meet the requirement of Huawei
Optical Network RTN microwave products.

This course informs engineers of the basics on digital microwave


communications, which will pave the way for learning the RTN
series microwave products later.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 2
Learning Guide
Microwave communication is developed on the basis of the
electromagnetic field theory.
Therefore, before learning this course, you are supposed to have
mastered the following knowledge:
Network communications technology basics
Electromagnetic field basic theory

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 3
Objectives
After this course, you will be able to explain:
Concept and characteristics of digital microwave communications
Functions and principles of each component of digital microwave
equipment
Common networking modes and application scenarios of digital
microwave equipment
Propagation principles of digital microwave communication and
various types of fading
Anti-fading technologies
Procedure and key points in designing microwave transmission
link

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 4
Contents
1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3. Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 5
Transmission Methods
in Current Communications
Networks Coaxial cable communication

Microwave TE Optical fiber communication

Microwave TE
MUX/DEMUX Microwave MUX/DEMUX
communication

Satellite communication

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 6
Microwave Communication
vs. Optical Fiber
Communication
Microwave Optical Fiber
Communication
Powerful space cross ability, little land Optical Communication
fiber burying and land
occupied, not limited by land privatization occupation required

Small investment, short construction Large investment ,long construction period


period, easy maintenance

Strong protection ability against natural Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required
disaster and easy to be recover and hard to recover from natural disaster

Limited frequency resources (frequency Not limited by frequency, license not


license required) required

Transmission quality greatly affected by Stable and reliable transmission quality


climate and landform and not affected by external factors

Limited transmission capacity Large transmission capacity

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 7
Definition of Microwave
Microwave
Microwave is a kind of electromagnetic wave. In a broad
sense, the microwave frequency range is from 300 MHz to
300 GHz. But In microwave communication, the frequency
range is generally from 3 GHz to 30 GHz.
According to the characteristics of microwave propagation,
microwave can be considered as plane wave.
The plane wave has no electric field and magnetic field
longitudinal components along the propagation direction. The
electric field and magnetic field components are vertical to
the propagation direction. Therefore, it is called transverse
electromagnetic wave and TEM wave for short.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 8
Development of Microwave Communication
Transmissio
n capacity SDH digital microwave
155M bit/s/ch) communication
system

34/140M PDH digital microwave


communication
system
2/4/6/8M Small and medium
capacity digital microwave
communication system
Late 1990s to now
480 voice
channels Analog microwave
communication
system 1980s

1970s

1950s
Note:
Small capacity: < 10M
Medium capacity: 10M to 100M
Large capacity: > 100M

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 9
Concept of Digital
Microwave Communication
Digital microwave communication is a way of transmitting digital
information in atmosphere through microwave or radio frequency (RF).
Microwave communication refers to the communication that use microwave as
carrier .
Digital microwave communication refers to the microwave communication that
adopts the digital modulation.

The baseband signal is modulated to intermediate frequency (IF) first . Then
the intermediate frequency is converted into the microwave frequency.
The baseband signal can also be modulated directly to microwave frequency,
but only phase shift keying (PSK) modulation method is applicable.
The electromagnetic field theory is the basis on which the microwave
communication theory is developed.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 10
Microwave Frequency Band
Selection and RF Channel
Configuration (1)in digital microwave transmission:
Generally-used frequency bands


7G/8G/11G/13G/15G/18G/23G/26G/32G/38G (defined by ITU-R Recommendations)

1.5 2.5 GHz


GHz
Regional network

3.3 GHz Long haul 11 GHz


trunk
network Regional network, local
2/8/34
Mbit/s network, and boundary
network
34/140/155
Mbit/s
2/8/34/140/155
Mbit/s GHz

1 2 3 4 5 8 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 11
Microwave Frequency Band
Selection and RF Channel
Configuration (2) frequency ranges, transmitting/receiving
In each frequency band, subband

spacing (T/R spacing), and channel spacing are defined.

Frequency range

Low frequency f0 (center frequency) High frequency


band band
T/R spacing
Protectio T/R spacing
n
spacing

Channe Adjacent Channel


l channel T/R spacing
spacing spacing
f1 f2 fn f1 f2 fn

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 12
Microwave Frequency Band
Selection and RF Channel
Configuration (3) Frequency range (7425M7725M)
f0 (7575M)
T/R spacing: 154M

28M

f1=7442 f2=7470 f5 f1=7596 f2 f5

7G F0 (MHz) T/R Spacing Channel Primary and


Frequency (MHz) Spacing (MHz) Non-primary
Range Stations
Fn=f0-161+28n,
74257725 7575 154 28 Fn=f0- 7+28n,
(n: 15)
7575 161 7
71107750 7275 196 28
7597 196 28
72507550 7400 161 3.5

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 13
Digital Microwave
Communication Modulation (1)
Digital baseband signal is the unmodulated digital signal. The

baseband signal cannot be directly transmitted over microwave radio


channels and must be converted into carrier signal for microwave
transmission.

Channel bandwidth
Baseband signal

Modulati
rate

on

Digital baseband signal IF signal

Service
signal
transmitted

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 14
Digital Microwave
Communication Modulation (2)
The following formula indicates a digital baseband signal being converted
into a digital frequency band signal.

A*COS(Wc*t+) PSK and QAM


are most
frequently used
in digital
Amplitud Frequenc Phase microwave.
e y

ASK: Amplitude Shift Keying. Use the digital baseband signal to change the
carrier amplitude (A). Wc and remain unchanged.
FSK: Frequency Shift Keying. Use the digital baseband signal to change the
carrier frequency (Wc). A and remain unchanged.
PSK: Phase Shift Keying. Use the digital baseband signal to change the
carrier phase (). Wc and A remain unchanged.
QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. ). Use the digital baseband signal
to change the carrier phase () and amplitude (A). Wc remains unchanged.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 15
Microwave Frame Structure (1)
RFCOH

171.072 Mbit/s

15.552 Mbit/s STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s

RFCOH SOH Payload

MLCM DMY XPIC ATPC WS RSC INI ID FA


11.84 64 16 64 2.24 864 144 32 kbit/s 288
Mbit/s kbit/s kbit/s kbit/s Mbit/s kbit/s kbit/s kbit/s
RFCOH: Radio Frame Complementary Overhead
RSC: Radio Service Channel
MLCM: Multi-Level Coding Modulation
INI: N:1 switching command
DMY: Dummy
ID: Identifier
XPIC: Cross-polarization Interference Cancellation
FA: Frame Alignment
ATPC: Automatic Transmit Power Control
WS: Wayside Service

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 16
Microwave Frame Structure (2)
RFCOH is multiplexed into the STM-1 data and a block multiframe is
formed. Each multiframe has six rows and each row has 3564 bits. One
multiframe is composed of two basic frames. Each basic frame has 1776
bits. The remaining 12 bits are used for frame alignment.
Multiframe 3564 bits
FS Basic frame 1 FS Basic frame 2
6 bits
6 6
1776 bits 148 words 1776 bits (148 words)
bits bits

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I b I I C2 I I I I I a I I b I I C2
I I C1 I I C1 I I C1 I I C1 I I C1 I I C1 I I C1 I I C1

12 bits (the 1st word) 12 bits (the 148th word)


I: STM-1 information bit
C1/C2: Two-level correction coding monitoring bits
FS: Frame synchronization
a/b: Other complementary overheads

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 17
Questions
What is microwave?

What is digital microwave communication?

What are the frequently used digital microwave frequency


bands?

What concepts are involved in microwave frequency setting?

What are the frequently used modulation schemes? Which are


the most frequently used modulation schemes?

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 18
Contents
1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3. Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 19
Microwave Equipment Category

System Digital microwave Analog


microwave
MUX/DEMU
X Mode PDH SDH

Small and medium Large capacity


Capacity capacity (216E1, (STM-0, STM-1, 2xSTM-
34M) 1)
(Discontinued)

Trunk radio

Structure
Split-mount radio

All outdoor radio

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 20
Trunk Microwave Equipment

High cost, large BRU: Branch RF Unit


transmission
capacity, more
stable performance, MSTU: Main Signal
applicable to long Transmission Unit
(transceiver, modem,
haul and trunk
P SDH electrical
transmission interface, hitless
M1 switching)
RF, IF, signal SCSU: Supervision,
processing, and M2 Control and Switching
MUX/DEMUX units Unit

are all indoor. Only


the antenna system BBIU: Baseband
is outdoor. Interface Unit
(option) (STM-1
optical interface, C4
SDH microwave PDH interface)
equipment

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 21
All Outdoor Microwave
Equipment
All the units are RF processing unit
outdoor.

IF cable
Installation is
easy.
IF and baseband
processing unit

The equipment
room can be Service and power cable
saved.

All outdoor microwave equipment

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 22
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
(1)
The RF unit is an outdoor unit
(ODU). The IF, signal processing, Antenna
and MUX/DEMUX units are
integrated in the indoor unit
IF cable
(IDU). The ODU and IDU are
connected through an IF cable.
ODU
The ODU can either be directly (Outdoor
mounted onto the antenna or Unit)
connected to the antenna
through a short soft waveguide. IDU
(Indoor Unit)
Although the capacity is smaller
than the trunk, due to the easy
installation and maintenance, fast
network construction, its the Split-mount
most widely used microwave microwave equipment
equipment.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 23
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment (2)
Unit Functions
Antenna: Focuses the RF signals transmitted by ODUs and increases the

signal gain.

ODU: RF processing, conversion of IF/RF signals.

IF cable: Transmitting of IF signal, management signal and power supply

of ODU.

IDU: Performs access, dispatch, multiplex/demultiplex, and

modulation/demodulation for services.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 24
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
Installation
Separate
Mount
Direct
Mount
antenna
(direct mount)

antenna
(separate
ODU
mount)

Soft
waveguide

OD IF cable IF cable
U

IDU IF port
IDU IF port

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 25
Microwave Antenna (1)

Parabolic antenna

Antennas are used to send and receive microwave signals.


Parabolic antennas is common type of microwave antennas.
Microwave antenna diameters includes: 0.3m, 0.6m, 1.2m, 1.8m,2.0m, 2.4m, 3.0m,

3.2metc.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 26
Microwave Antenna (2)
Different frequency channels in same frequency band can share one
antenna.

Chann Chann
el el
1 1
T
x 1 1
R
x

n n
T
x n n
R
x

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 27
Antenna Adjustment (1)

Side lobe
Side view

Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe

Side lobe
Top view
Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 28
Antenna Adjustment (2)
During antenna adjustment, change the direction
vertically or horizontally. Meanwhile, use a
multimeter to test the RSSI at the receiving end.
Usually, the voltage wave will be displayed as
shown in the lower right corner. The peak point of
the voltage wave indicates the main lobe position in
the vertical or horizontal direction. Large-scope
adjustment is unnecessary. Perform fine adjustment
on the antenna to the peak voltage point.

AGC
Voltage
When antennas are poorly aligned, a small detection
voltage may be detected in one direction. In this point
VAGC
case, perform coarse adjustment on the antennas at
both ends, so that the antennas are roughly aligned.
Angle
Side lobe position
The antennas at both ends that are well aligned Main lobe position
face a little bit upward. Though 12 dB is lost,
reflection interference will be avoided.
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 29
Antenna Adjustment (3)
During antenna adjustment, the

two wrong adjustment cases are

show here. One antenna is aligned

to another antenna through the side

lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot

meet the requirements.

Wrong Wrong Correct

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 30
Split-Mount Microwave Equipment

Antenna
Antenna gain

(1)
Definition: Ratio of the input power of an isotropic antenna Pio to the input power
of a parabolic antenna Pi when the electric field at a point is the same for the
isotropic antenna and the parabolic antenna.
2
Calculating formula of antenna gain: P D

G io
Pi

Half-power angle
Usually, the given antenna specifications contain the gain in the largest radiation
(main lobe) direction, denoted by dBi. The half-power point, or the 3 dB point is
the point which is deviated from the central line of the main lobe and where the
power is decreased by half. The angle between the two half-power points is called

the half-power angle. 0.5 (650 ~ 700 )
Calculating formula of half-power angle: D

Half-power angle

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 31
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
Cross polarization discrimination
Antenna (2)

Suppression ratio of the antenna receiving heteropolarizing waves, usually, larger


than 30 dB.
XdB 10lgPo/Px
Po: Receiving power of normal polarized wave
Px: Receiving power of abnormal polarized wave


Antenna protection ratio

Attenuation degree of the receiving capability in a direction of an antenna


compared with that in the main lobe direction. An antenna protection ratio of
180 is called front-to-back ratio.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 32
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
ODU (1) ODU system architecture Uplink IF/RF conversion

IF
Frequency Sideband Power RF
amplificat
mixing filtering amplification attenuation
ion

Local
oscillation Power
ATPC
(Tx) detection

Local
oscillation RF loop
(Rx)

IF Frequency Low-noise Bandpass


Filtering
amplification mixing amplification filtering
Supervi
sion and
control Downlink RF/IF conversion
signal
Alarm and control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 33
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
Specifications

ODU (2) of Transmitter


Working frequency band

Generally, trunk radios use 6, 7, and 8 GHz frequency bands. 11, 13 GHz and

higher frequency bands are used in the access layer (e.g. BTS access).

Output power

The power at the output port of a transmitter. Generally, the output power is
15 to

30 dBm.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 34
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
Local

ODU (3)stability
frequency
If the working frequency of the transmitter is unstable, the demodulated
effectived
signal ratio will be decreased and the bit error ratio will be increased. The
value
range of the local frequency stability is 3 to 10 ppm.

Transmit Frequency Spectrum Frame


The frequency spectrum of the transmitted signal must meet specified
requirements, to avoid occupying too much bandwidth and thus causing too
much
interference to adjacent channels. The limitations to frequency spectrum is
called transmit frequency spectrum frame.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 35
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
Specifications of Receiver
ODU (4)

Working frequency band


Receivers work together with transmitters. The receiving frequency on


the local
station is the transmitting frequency of the same channel on the
opposite station.

Local frequency stability


The same as that of transmitters: 3 to 10 ppm

Noise figure
The noise figure of digital microwave receivers is 2.5 dB to 5 dB.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 36
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
ODUPassband
(5)

To effectively suppress interference and achieve the best transmission quality, the

passband and amplitude frequency characteristics should be properly chosen. The

receiver passband characteristics depend on the IF filter.


Selectivity

Ability of receivers of suppressing the various interferences outside the passband,

especially the interference from adjacent channels, image interference and the

interference between transmitted and received signals.


Automatic gain control (AGC) range

Automatic control of receiver gain. With this function, input RF signals change
within a

certain range and the IF signal level remains unchanges.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 37
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
ODU (6)Frequency range (7425M7725M)
f0(7575M)
T/R spacing: 154M ODUs are of rich
types and small
volume. Usually,
ODUs are
Subband Subband Subband Subband Subband Subband produced by
A B C A B C small
manufacturers
and integrated
by big
manufacturers.
7442 7498
Non-primary station Primary station
ODU specifications are related to radio
frequencies. As one ODU cannot cover an
entire frequency band, usually, a frequency Types of ODUs =
Number of frequency
band will be divided into several subbands
bands x Number of T/R
and each subband corresponds to one ODU. spacing x Number of
Different T/R spacing corresponds to subbands x 2
different ODUs. (ODUs of some
manufacturers are also
Primary and non-primary stations have
classified by capacity.
different ODUs.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 38
Split-Mount Microwave
Equipment
IDU Service
channel
IF unit
Tributary
unit Microwave
Tx IF
frame Modula
multiplexi tion
Cross- ng
conne

Cable interface
ction Microwave From/to ODU
frame Rx IF
Demod
demultiplexi
ng ulation
Line unit

Service
O&M channel
interface
Supervision and control

Power
interface
DC/DC conversion

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 39
Questio
ns
What types are microwave equipment classified into?

What units do the split-mount microwave equipment have?


And what are their functions??

How to adjust antennas?

What are the key specifications of antennas?

What are the key specifications of ODU transmitters and


receivers?

Can you describe the entire signal flow of microwave


transmission?

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 40
Summary
Classification of digital microwave equipment
Components of split-mount microwave equipment and
their functions
Antenna installation and key specifications of antennas
Functional modules and key performance indexes of ODU
Functional modules of IDU
Signal flow of microwave transmission

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 41
Contents
1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3. Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 42
Common Networking Modes of
Digital Microwave
Ring network Chain network

Add/Drop
network
Hub network

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 43
Types of Digital Microwave
Stations
Digital microwave stations are classified into Pivotal stations, add/drop
relay stations, relay stations and terminal stations.

Relay Add/Drop
station relay
station
Terminal
station

Pivotal Terminal
station station

Terminal
station

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 44
Types of Relay Stations

Passive Back-to-back antenna


Plane reflector

Relay station

Regenerative repeater
Active IF repeater
RF repeater

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 45
Active Relay Station
Radio Frequency relay station
An active, bi-directional radio repeater system without frequency
shift. The RF relay station directly amplifies the signal over radio
frequency.

Regenerator relay station


A high-frequency repeater of high performance. The regenerator

relay station is used to extend the transmission distance of microwave


communication systems, or to deflect the transmission direction of the
signal to avoid obstructions and ensure the signal quality is not
degraded. After complete regeneration and amplification, the received
signal is forwarded.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 46
Passive Relay Station
Parabolic reflector passive relay station
The parabolic reflector passive relay station is composed of two
parabolic antennas connected by a soft waveguide back to back.
The two-parabolic passive relay station often uses large-
diameter antennas. Meters are necessary to adjust antennas,
which is time consuming.
The near end is less than 5 km away.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 47
Plane Reflector Passive Relay
Station
Plane reflector passive relay station: A metal board which has smooth
surface, proper effective area, proper angle and distance with the two
communication points. It is also a passive relay microwave station.

Full-distance free space loss:


d1(km)
Ls 142.1 20 log d1d 2 20 log a
d 2(km)

a A cos 2
a is the effective area (m2) of the flat reflector.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 48
Passive Relay Station (Photos)

Passive relay station Passive relay station


(plane reflector) (parabolic reflectors)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 49
Application of Digital Microwave

Complementary
networks to optical
networks (access
the services from
the last 1 km)
Special transmission
BTS backhaul conditions (rivers,
transmission lakes, islands, etc.)

Microwave
application
Emergency
communications
Redundancy (conventions,
backup of activities, danger
important links elimination, disaster
relief, etc.)
VIP customer
access

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 50
Questio

ns
What are the networking modes frequently used for digital
microwave?

What are the types of digital microwave stations?

What are the types of relay stations?

What is the major application of digital microwave?

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 51
Contents
1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3. Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading


Technologies

5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 52
Contents
4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading
Technologies

4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation
4.2 Various Fading in Microwave Propagation

4.3 Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 53
Key Parameters in
Microwave Propagation (1)
Fresnel Zone and Fresnel Zone Radius
Fresnel zone: The sum of the distance from P to T and the distance
from P to R complies with the formula, TP+PR-TR= n/2 (n=1,2,3, ). The
elliptical region encircled by the trail of P is called the Fresnel zone.

Fresnel zone radius: The vertical distance from P to the TR line in the
Fresnel zone. The first Fresnel zone radius is represented by F1 (n=1).

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 54
Key Parameters in
Microwave Propagation (2)
d1 (km) d 2 (km)
Formula of the first Fresnel zone radius:
F1 17.32
f (GHz ) d (km)

The first Fresnel zone is the region where the microwave transmission

energy is the most concentrated. The obstruction in the Fresnel zone


should be as little as possible. With the increase of the Fresnel zone
serial numbers, the field strength of the receiving point reduces as per
arithmetic series.
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 55
Key Parameters in
Microwave Propagation (3)
A
Clearance
M
h3
hc B
h1 hp
hs
h5
h2
h4 h6

d1 d2
d
Along the microwave propagation trail, the obstruction from buildings, trees,
and mountain peaks is sometimes inevitable. If the height of the obstacle
enters the first Fresnel zone, additional loss might be caused. As a result, the
received level is decreased and the transmission quality is affected. Clearance
is used to avoid the case described previously.
The vertical distance from the obstacle to AB line segment is called the
clearance of the obstacle on the trail. For convenience, the vertical distance hc
from the obstacle to the ground surface is used to represent the clearance. In
practice, the error is not big because the line segment AB is approximately
parallel to the ground surface. If the first Fresnel zone radius of the obstacle is
F1, then
Copyright hc/ Huawei
2006 F1 is the relative clearance.
Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 56
Factors Affecting Electric Wave
Propagation
Terrain
The reflected wave from the ground surface is the major factor that affects the

received level.

Straight line
Straight line

Reflection Reflection

Smooth ground or water surface can reflect the part of the signal energy transmitted
by the antenna to the receiving antenna and cause interference to the main wave
(direct wave). The vector sum of the reflected wave and main wave increases or
decreases the composite wave. As a result, the transmission becomes unstable.
Therefore, when doing microwave link design, avoid reflected waves as much as
possible. If reflection is inevitable, make use of the terrain ups and downs to block the
reflected waves.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 57
Factors Affecting Electric Wave
Propagation
Terrain
Different reflection conditions of different terrains have different effects

on electric wave propagation. Terrains are classified into the following four
types:
Type A: mountains (or cities with dense buildings)
Type B: hills (gently wavy ground surface)
Type C: plain
Type D: large-area water surface

The reflection coefficient of mountains is the smallest, and thus the


mountain terrain is most suitable for microwave transmission. The hill terrain
is less suitable. When designing circuits, try to avoid smooth plane such as
water surface.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 58
Factors Affecting Electric Wave
Propagation Atmosphere
Troposphere indicates the low altitude atmosphere within 10 km from
the ground. Microwave antennas will not be higher than troposphere, so
the electric wave propagation in aerosphere can be narrowed down to that
in troposphere. Main effects of troposphere on electric wave propagation
are listed below:

Absorption caused by gas resonance. This type of absorption can


affect the microwave at 12 GHz or higher.
Absorption and scattering caused by rain, fog, and snow. This type
of absorption can affect the microwave at 10 GHz or higher.
Refraction, absorption, reflection and scattering caused by
inhomogeneity of atmosphere. Refraction is the most significant
impact to the microwave propagation.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 59
Contents
4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading
Technologies

4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation
4.2 Various Fading in Microwave Propagation

4.3 Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 60
Fading in Microwave Propagation

Fading: Random variation of the received level. The variation is


irregular and the reasons for this are various.

Influence of
Fading Fading Receive
fading on
mechanis time d level
signal
m

fading
Frequency selective
Free space propagation

Down fading
K-type fading
Absorption fading

Slow fading
Fast fading
Scintillation

Flat fading
Rain fading

Up fading
Duct type fading
fading
fading

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 61
Free Space Transmission Loss

Free space loss: A = 92.4 + 20 log d + 20 log f


(d: km, f: GHz). If d or f is doubled, the loss will increase by 6 dB.

d PTX = Transmit
GTX GRX power
PRX = Receive
power
G = Antenna gain

Power level
f A0 = Free space loss

M = Fading margin
G
PTX A0
PRX
G
M
Receiving threshold

Distance

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 62
Absorption Fading
Molecules of all substances are composed of charged particles. These
particles have their own electromagnetic resonant frequencies. When the
microwave frequencies of these substances are close to their resonance
frequencies, resonance absorption occurs to the microwave.
Statistic shows that absorption to the microwave frequency lower than 12
GHz is smaller than 0.1 dB/km. Compared with free space loss, the
absorption loss can be ignored.
10dB

1dB

0.1dB

0.01dB
60GHz 23GHz 12GHz 7.5GHz 1GHz
Atmosphere absorption curve (dB/km)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 63
Rain Fading

For frequencies lower than 10 GHz, rain loss can be ignored. Only a few
db may be added to a relay section.

For frequencies higher than 10 GHz, repeater spacing is mainly


affected by rain loss. For example, for the 13 GHz frequency or higher, 100
mm/h rainfall causes a loss of 5 dB/km. Hence, for the 13 GHz and 15 GHz
frequencies, the maximum relay distance is about 10 km. For the 20 GHz
frequency and higher, the relay distance is limited in few kilometres due to
rain loss.

High frequency bands can be used for user-level transmission. The


higher the frequency band is, the more severe the rain fading.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 64
K-Type Fading (1)
Atmosphere refraction
As a result of atmosphere refraction, the microwave propagation trail
is bent. It is considered that the electromagnetic wave is propagated
along a straight line above the earth with
R anR equivalent earth radius of
e e
, = KR (R: actual earth radius.)
The average measured K value is about 4/3. However, the K value of a
specific section is related to the meteorological phenomena of the
section. The K value may change within a comparatively large range. This
can affect line-of-sight propagation.

Re
R

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 65
K-Type Fading (2)
Microwave propagation

k > 1: Positive refraction

k = 1: No refraction

k < 1: Negative refraction

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 66
K-Type Fading (3)
Equivalent earth radius
In temperate zones, the refraction when the K value is 4/3 is
regarded as the standard refraction, where the atmosphere is the
standard atmosphere and Re which is 4R/3 is the standard
equivalent earth radius.
k=
4/3
1
2/3

Ground surface

Actual earth radius (r)

2/3 Ground surface


1
4/3
k=
Equivalent earth radius (rk)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 67
Multipath Fading (1)
Multipath fading: Due to multipath propagation of refracted waves,
reflected waves, and scattered waves, multiple electric waves are
received at the receiving end. The composition of these electric waves
will result in severe interference fading.
Reasons for multipath fading: reflections due to non-uniform
atmosphere, water surface and smooth ground surface.
Down fading: fading where the composite wave level is lower than
the free space received level. Up fading: fading where the composite
wave level is higher than the free space received level.

Non-uniform
atmosphere
Water surface
Ground
Smooth ground surface
surface.
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 68
Multipath Fading (2)
Multipath fading is a type of interference fading caused by multipath
transmission. Multipath fading is caused by mutual interference between the
direct wave and reflected wave (or diffracted wave on some conditions) with
different phases.

Multipath fading grows more severe when the wave passes water surface
or smooth ground surface. Therefore, when designing the route, try to avoid
smooth water and ground surface. When these terrains are inevitable, use
the high and low antenna technologies to bring the reflection point closer to
one end so as to reduce the impact of the reflected wave, or use the high
and low antennas and space diversity technologies or the antennas that are
against reflected waves to overcome multipath fading.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 69
Multipath Fading
Frequency Selective Fading

Received power (dBm)

Flat Selective fading

Normal

Frequency (MHz)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 70
Multipath Fading Flat Fading

Up fading

Received
level in free
space

Threshold level
(-30 dB)

1h
Signal
interruption

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 71
Duct Type Fading
Due to the effects of the meteorological conditions such as ground cooling
in the night, burnt warm by the sun in the morning, smooth sea surface,
and anticyclone, a non-uniform structure is formed in atmosphere. This
phenomenon is called atmospheric duct.
If microwave beams pass through the atmospheric duct while the receiving
point is outside the duct layer, the field strength at the receiving point is
from not only the direct wave and ground reflected wave, but also the
reflected wave from the edge of the duct layer. As a result, severe
interference fading occurs and causes interruption to the communications.

Duct type fading

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 72
Scintillation Fading
When the dielectric constant of local atmosphere is different from the
ambient due to the particle clusters formed under different pressure,
temperature, and humidity conditions, scattering occurs to the electric wave.
This is called scintillation fading. The amplitude and phase of different
scattered waves vary with the atmosphere. As a result, the composite field
strength at the receiving point changes randomly.

Scintillation fading is a type of fast fading which lasts a short time. The level
changes little and the main wave is barely affected. Scintillation fading will
not cause communications interruption.

Scintillation
fading

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 73
Summary
The higher the frequency is and the longer the hop distance is, the more
severe the fading is.
Fading is more severe at night than in the daylight, in summer than in
winter. In the daylight, sunshine is good for air convection. In summer,
weather changes frequently.
In sunny days without wind, atmosphere is non-uniform and atmosphere
subdivision easily forms and hardly clears. Multipath transmission often
occurs in such conditions.
Fading is more severe along water route than land route, because both the
reflection coefficient of water surface and the atmosphere refraction
coefficient above water surface are bigger.
Fading is more severe along plain route than mountain route, because
atmosphere subdivision often occurs over plain and the ground reflection
factor of the plain is bigger.
Rain and fog weather causes much influence on high-frequency microwave.
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 74
Contents
4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading
Technologies

4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation
4.2 Various Fading in Microwave Propagation

4.3 Anti-fading Technologies for Digital
Microwave

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 75
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (1)
Category Effect

Adaptive equalization Waveform distortion

Equipment
level Automatic transmit power
Power reduction
countermeasu control (ATPC)
re
Forward error correction
Power reduction
(FEC)

System level
Diversity receiving Power reduction and
countermeasu
technology waveform distortion
re

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 76
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (2)
Frequency domain equalization

Multipath fading
Slope equalization
Signal frequency Frequency spectrum
spectrum after equalization

The frequency domain equalization only equalizes the amplitude


frequency response characteristics of the signal instead of the phase
frequency spectrum characteristics.
The circuit is simple.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 77
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (3)
Time domain equalization

Time domain equalization directly counteracts the


intersymbol interference.

T T T

C-n C0 Cn
After
Before

-2Ts -Ts Ts Ts
-2Ts -Ts

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 78
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (4)
Automatic transmit power control (ATPC)
Under normal propagation conditions, the output power of the transmitter
is always at a lower level, for example, 10 to 15 dB lower than the normal
level. When propagation fading occurs and the receiver detects that the
propagation fading is lower than the minimum received level specified by
ATPC, the RFCOH is used to let the transmitter to raise the transmit
power.
Working principle of ATPC
Modulato Transmitte Receiver Demodulat
r r or

ATPC ATPC

Demodulat Receiver Transmitter Modulato


or r

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 79
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (5)
ATPC: The output power of the transmitter automatically traces and
changes with the received level of the receiver within the control range of
ATPC.

The time rate of severe propagation fading is usually small (<1%). After
ATPC is configured, the transmitter works at a power 10 to 15 dB lower than
the nominal power for over 99% of the time. In this way, adjacent channel
interference and power consumption can be reduced.

Effects
of ATPC:
Reduces the interference to Reduces up fading
adjacent systems and over-reach
interference Improves residual BER

Reduces DC power consumption

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 80
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (6)
ATPC adjustment process (gradual change)

Transmitter output level (dBm)


Received level (dBm)

-25

High level
-35 31

-45 Low level


21

-55

ATPC dynamic range


-72

45 75 85 102
Link loss (dB)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 81
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (7)
Cross-polarization interference
680MHz
cancellation (XPIC)
30MH 340MHz
z 80MHz
In microwave transmission, 60MHz
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
XPIC is used to transmit two
V (H)
different signals over one
frequency. The utilization ratio of
H (V)
the frequency spectrum is
doubled. To avoid severe 680 MHz
interference between two 30MH 80MHz
340MH
z
different polarized signals, the z 60MHz
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
interference compensation
direction
Electric field

V
technology must be used. (H)
Horizontal
polarization H
(V)
1X 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X 8X
1X 2X 3X' 4X 5X 6X 7X
Vertical polarization 8X
Frequency configuration of U6 GHz frequency band (ITU-R F.384-
Shape of waveguide interface

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 82
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (8)
Diversity technologies
For diversity, two or multiple transmission paths are used to transmit the same
information and the receiver output signals are selected or composed, to reduce the
effect of fading.
Diversity has the following types, space diversity, frequency diversity, polarization
diversity, and angle diversity.
Space diversity and frequency diversity are more frequently used. Space diversity
is economical and has a good effect. Frequency diversity is often applied to multi-
channel systems as it requires a wide bandwidth. Usually, the system that has one
standby channel is configured with frequency diversity.
f1
H
f2

Space diversity (SD) Frequency diversity (FD)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 83
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (9)
Frequency diversity

Signals at different frequencies have different fading characteristics.


Accordingly, two or more microwave frequencies with certain frequency
spacing to transmit and receive the same information which is then
selected or composed, to reduce the influence of fading. This work mode
is called frequency diversity.
Advantages: The effect is obvious. Only one antenna is required.
Disadvantages: The utilization ratio of frequency bands is low.
f1

f2

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 84
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital
Space diversity Microwave System
(10) Signals have different multipath effect over different paths and thus have

different fading characteristics. Accordingly, two or more suites of antennas at


different altitude levels to receive the signals at the same frequency which are
composed or selected. This work mode is called space diversity. If there are n
pairs of antennas, it is called n-fold diversity.
Advantages: The frequency resources are saved.
Disadvantages: The equipment is complicated, as two or more suites of
antennas are required.
Antenna distance: As per experience, the distance between the diversity
antennas is 100 to 200 times the wavelength in frequently used frequency
bands. f1

f1

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 85
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System
Dh calculation in space diversity Rx
(11)


Tx nl
l/2
Dh
h1

d
Approximately, Dh can be calculated according to this formula:

(nl l/2)d
Dh =
l: wavelength 2h 1
d: path distance
h1: height of the antenna at the transmit end

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 86
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System (12)
Apart from the anti-fading technologies introduced previously, here are
two frequently used tips:
Method I: Make use of some terrain and ground objects to block reflected
waves.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 87
Anti-fading Technologies
for Digital Microwave System
(13)
Method II: high and low antennas

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 88
Protection Modes of
Digital Microwave Equipment (1)

Hybrid coupler

With one hybrid coupler added between The 1+1 HSB can also be realized
two ODUs and the antenna, the 1+1 HSB in the configuration of two antennas.
can be realized in the configuration of one In this case, the FD and SD
antenna. Moreover, the FD technology can technologies can both be adopted,
also be adopted. which improves the system
availability.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 89
Protection Modes of
Digital Microwave Equipment (2)
N+1 (N3, 7, 11) Protection
In the following figure, Mn stands for the active channel and P stands for the
standby channel. The active channel and the standby channel have their
independent modulation/demodulation unit and signal transmitting /receiving
unit.
When the fault or fading occurs in the active channel, the signal is switched
to the standby channel. The channel backup is an inter-frequency backup.
This protection mode (FD) is mainly used in the all indoor microwave
equipment.
Products of different vendors support different specifications.

ch1 M1 M1 ch1
ch2 M2 M2 ch2
ch3 M3 M3 ch3

chP P P chP
Switching Switching
control unit RFSOH control unit

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 90
Protection Modes of
Digital Microwave Equipment (3)
Configurati Remark
Protection Mode Application
on s

1+0 NP Non-protection Terminal of the


network

1+1 FD Channel protection Inter-


frequency Select the proper
mode depending on
1+1 SD Equipment protection Intra- the geographical
and channel frequency condition and
protection requirements of the
customer
1+1 FD+SD Equipment protection Inter-
and channel frequency
protection

N+1 FD Equipment protection Inter- Large-capacity


and channel frequency backbone network
protection

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 91
Questions

What factors can affect the microwave propagation?

What types of fading exists in the microwave propagation?

What are the two categories is the anti-fading technology?

What protection modes are available for the microwave?

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 92
Summary
Importance parameters affecting microwave propagation
Various factors affecting microwave propagation
Various fading types in the microwave propagation (free space
propagation fading, atmospheric absorption fading, rain or fog
scattering fading, K type fading, multipath fading, duct type fading, and
scintillation type fading)
Anti-fading technologies
Anti-fading measures adopted on the equipment: adaptive equalization,
ATPC, and XPIC
Anti-fading measures adopted in the system: FD and SD
Protection modes of the microwave equipment

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 93
Content
s
1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3. Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 94
Contents
5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

5.1 Basis of Designing a Microwave
Transmission Line
5.2 Procedures for Designing a Microwave
Transmission Line

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 95
Basis of Designing a Microwave
Transmission Line
Requirement on the point-to-point line-of-sight communication

Objective of designing a microwave transmission line

Transmission clearance

Meanings of K value in the microwave transmission planning

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 96
Requirement on a Microwave
Transmission Line
Because the microwave is a short wave and has weak ability of
diffraction, the normal communication can be realized in the line-of-sight
transmission without obstacles.

Line propagation Irradiated wave


Antenna

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 97
Requirement on a Microwave
Transmission Line
In the microwave transmission, the transmit power is very small, only the
antenna in the accurate direction can realize the communication. For the
communication of long distance, use the antenna of greater diameter or
increase the transmit power.

Direction demonstration of the microwave antenna

Microwave antenna

Half power angle of


the microwave 3 dB
antenna

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 98
Objective of Designing a Microwave Transmission Line

In common geographical conditions, it is recommended that there


be no obstacles within the first Fresnel zone if K is equal to 4/3.
When the microwave transmission line passes the water surface or
the desert area, it is recommended that there are no obstacles
within the first Fresnel zone if K is equal to 1.

The first Fresnel zone

k = 4/3

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 99
Transmission Clearance (1)
The knife-edged obstacle blocks partial of the Fresnel zone. This also
causes the diffraction of the microwave. Influenced by the two reasons,
the level at the actual receive point must be lower than the free space
level. The loss caused by the knife-edged obstacle is called additional
loss.

Diff
rac
t ion

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 100
Transmission Clearance (2)
When the peak of the obstacle is in the line
connecting the transmit end and the receive
8
end, that is, the HC is equal to 0, the 6
4
additional loss is equal to 6 dB. 2
When the peak of the obstacle is above the 0

Additional loss (dB)


-2
line connecting the transmit end and the -4

receive end, the additional loss is increased -6


-8
greatly. -10
-12
When the peak of the obstacle is below the -14

line connecting the transmit end the receive -16


-18
end, the additional loss fluctuates around 0 -20
-22
dB. The transmission loss in the path and the -24
signal receiving level approach the values in -26
-28
the free space transmission. -2.5-2.0-1.5-1.0-0.5 0 0.51.0 1.52.02.5 HC/F1
Loss caused by block of knife-edged obstacle
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 101
Transmission Clearance (3)
Clearance calculation
Calculation formula for path clearance

h1d 2 h2 d1
hc hb hs
d
hc
The value of clearance
is required greater than h2
that of the first Fresnel
hs
Zones radius.
h1
hbstands for the d1 hb d2
projecting height of the d
earth.
d1d 2
hb 0.0785
K
K stands for the atmosphere refraction factor.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 102
Transmission Clearance (4)
To present the influence of various factors on microwave transmission, the
field strength fading factor V is introduced. The field strength fading factor V
is defined as the ratio of the combined field strength when the irradiated
wave and the reflected wave arrive at the receive point to the field strength
when the irradiated wave arrives at the receive point in the free space
transmission.
E 2

hce
2

V 1 2 cos
E0 F1

wave E : Combined field strength when the irradiated wave and reflected
arrive
: Field at the receive
strength point
when the irradiated wave arrives at the
E
received0 point in

the free space transmission


: Equivalent ground reflection factor

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 103
Transmission Clearance (5)


The relation of the V and can be
represented by the curve in the figure on
the right. V dB
In the case that is equal to 1, with
the influence of the earth considered,
HC/F1 is equal to 0.577 when the signal
receiving level is equal to the free space
level the first time.
In the case that is smaller than 1,
HC/F1 is approximately equal to 0.6 when
the signal receiving level is equal to the
free space level the first time.
When the HC/F1 is equal to 0.577, the
clearance is called the free space HC/F1=N
clearance, represented by H0 and
expressed in the following formula: Relation curve of V and Hc/F1

H0 = 0.577F 1 = (d1d2/d)1/2
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 104
Meaning of K Value in Microwave
Transmission Planning (1)
To make the clearance cost-effective and reasonable in the engineering,
the height of the antenna should be adjusted according to the following
requirements.
In the case that is not greater than 0.5, that is, for the circuit that
passes the area of small ground reflection factor like the mountainous
area, city, and hilly area, to avoid over great diffraction, the height of
the antenna should be adjusted according to the following
requirements:

When K = 2/3, HC 0.3F1 (for common obstacles)

HC 0 (for knife-shaped obstacles)


The diffraction fading should not be greater than 8 dB in this case.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 105
Meaning of K Value in Microwave
Transmission Planning (2)
In the case that is greater than 0.7, that is, for the circuit that passes
the area of great ground reflection factor like the plain area and water
reticulation area, to avoid over great reflection fading, the height of the
antenna should be adjusted according to the following requirements
When K = 2/3, HC 0.3F1 (for common obstacles)

HC 0 (for knife-edged obstacles)

When K = 4/3, HC F1

When K = , HC 1.35F1 (The deep fading occurs when HC = 21/2


F1.)
If these requirements cannot be met, change the height of the antenna
or the route.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 106
Procedure for Designing a
Microwave Transmission Line
Step 1 Determine the route according to the engineering

map.

Step 2 Select the site of the microwave station.

Step 3 Draw the cross-sectional chart of the terrain.

Step 4 Calculate the parameters for site construction.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 107
Procedure for Designing a
Microwave Transmission Line (1)
Step 1 Determine the route according to engineering map.
We should select the area that rolls as much as possible, such as the hilly area.
We should avoid passing the water surface and the flat and wide area that is
not suitable for the transmission of the electric wave. In this way, the strong
reflection signal and the accordingly caused deep fading can be avoided.
The line should avoid crossing through or penetrating into the mountainous
area.
The line should go along with the railway, road and other areas with the
convenient transportation.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 108
Procedure for Designing a
Microwave Transmission Line (2)
Step 2 Select the site of the microwave station.
The distance between two sites should not be too long. The distance
between two relay stations should be equal, and each relay section
should have the proper clearance.
Select the Z route to avoid the over-reach interference.
Avoid the interference from other radio services, such as the satellite
communication system, radar site, TV station, and broadcast station.

f1 f1 f1

f2 f2 f2
The signal from the
first microwave
Over-reach station interferes
with the signal of the
interference
same frequency
from the third
microwave station.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 109
Procedure for Designing a
Microwave Transmission Line (3)
Step 3 Draw the cross-sectional chart of the terrain.
Draw the cross-sectional chart of the terrain based on the data of each site.
Calculate the antenna height and transmission situation of each site. For the
line that has strong reflection, adjust the mounting height of the antenna to
block the reflected wave, or have the reflection point fall on the earth surface
with small reflection factor.
Consider the path clearance. The clearance in the plain area should not be
over great, and that in the mountainous area should not be over small.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 110
Procedure for Designing a
Microwave Transmission Line (4)
Step 4 Calculate the parameters for site construction.
Calculate the terrain parameters when the route and the site are already
determined.
Calculate the azimuth and the elevation angles of the antenna, distance
between sites, free space transmission loss and receive level, rain fading
index, line interruption probability, and allocated values and margin of the
line index.
When the margin of the line index is eligible, plan the equipment and
frequencies, make the approximate budget, and deliver the construction
chart.

There is special
network planning
Input
software, and the
commonly used is CTE
Pathloss.
Input

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 111
Questions
What are the requirements for microwave communication?

What is the goal of microwave design?

What extra factors should be taken into consideration for


microwave planning?

Can you tell the procedure for designing a microwave transmission


line?

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 112
Thank You
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