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Chapter 19 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

1. Compare the basic organization and function of the ES and


the NS

2. Describe the structural and functional organization of the


hypothalamus and the pituitary and explain their relationship

3. Discuss the locations and structures of the thyroid,


parathyroid, and adrenal glands as well as the thymus and
the endocrine part of the pancreas.

4. List the hormones (and their function) produced by these


glands.

5. Briefly review the results of abnormal hormone production


Endocrine System Overview

Ductless glands produce


hormones
Gland may be entire organ or
interspersed bits of tissue
Chemical classification of
hormones
Target tissues are identified
by receptors
Hypothalamus
Control Center for internal
environment

Regulates nervous and endocrine systems via 3


mechanisms:
1. ANS centers exert nervous control on adrenal
medulla
2. ADH and Oxytocin production
3. Regulatory hormone production (RH and IH)
controls pituitary gland directly and all other
endocrine glands indirectly
Fig 19-3
Pituitary Gland (= Hypophysis)
Structure:
Infundibulum - connection to hypothalamus
In the sella turcica
Two parts with an embryonic double origin

Posterior Pituitary = neurohypophysis Storage shed for


ADH and Oxytocin (produced in ?)

Anterior Pituitary = adenohypophysis production of 7


peptide hormones, see fig 19.5

Histology

Fig 19-4
Hypophyseal Portal System

Portal systems: two


capillary networks in serial
arrangement Advantage?
Named after their
destination: . . .

Portal veins: blood


vessels that link two
capillary networks

Fig 19-6
Fig 19-7

Thyroid Gland
Anterior surface of trachea
just inferior of thyroid cartilage
(or Adams apple)
Two lobes connected by
isthmus
Microscopic thyroid follicles
produce thyroid hormone
C Cells - produce calcitonin
(Ca )
2+
Thyroid Gland Function

Thyroxin (T4) and


triiodothyronine (T3) speed
up metabolic rate
Goiter
Calcitonin lowers blood
Ca2+ levels
Exophthalmus

Thyroid pathologies: Hyper-


and Hypothyroidism
Four Parathyroid Glands
4 tiny glands embedded in the back of the
thyroid (superior and inferior)

Parathyroid hormone
(PTH; sometimes
also called
parathormone)

Function: antagonist
to Calcitonin Fig 19-9
Thymus Gland
Inside thoracic cavity
immediately posterior
to sternum above the
heart
Most active in infancy
and childhood - Largest
just before puberty
Thymosin - enhances
lymphocyte production
and competence.
(important for immune
system)
Adrenal or Suprarenal Gland
Cortex: corticosteroid production
aldosterone, cortisol, sexhormone
Medulla: modified sympathetic ganglion
produces adrenaline and noradrenaline
(parallels sympathetic division of ANS)

Histology

Fig 19-10
Pancreas
Part of endocrine and digestive
systems. (99% exocrine)
Pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
cells: glucagon ( blood sugar levels by stimulating
liver to convert glycogen to glucose)
cells: insulin ( blood sugar levels by causing the cells
to take up glucose for use by the mitochondria)

cells: somatostatin