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Submitted by:
Jeewan 13102001
Vidhun 13102019
Submitted to: Prof. Sovina Jewel 13102057
Sood Ashish 13102068
Amish 13102069
Paurush 13102073
Visual Aids
Land marks which are required so as to provide an aid to the pilots
Ensures the smooth operating of the air craft
Required both in good weather and bad weather as well as during day and
The runways of the conventional aircraft appears as long and narrow strip
with straight sides and free of obstacle
Marked in such a way they can be easily distinguishable from other areas
The perspective view of the runways along with the landmarks like
horizon, runway edges, runway threshold and centreline of the runway are
the most important elements for pilot to see.
Centre line for aligning aircraft, horizon for flying, maintaining specific
height from different elements like approach zone and similarly other
things are needed to be identified
Hence, to enhance visual information land marks are painted in standard
formats using colour or by using lights
Visual Aids Importance and Uses

Avoids accidents during landing of aircraft

Convey pilot the ground to air information
Direct the during landing
Touch down points, lift off points etc are conveyed
Enable the pilot to locate and identify a particular feature
Grant safety to personnel and properties
Maintain an orderly flow of aircrafts
Helps during the takeoff and taxiing
Airport Markings

Markings are provided on any of the component of airport in different

forms mentioned below
Solid lines
Hollow lines
Cart lines

Arrangement can be inclined, perpendicular to runway or a component or

any other shape
Groups of Airport Markings

Runway Marking
Taxiway marking
Runway and taxiway shoulder
Apron Marking
Wind direction indicator
Landing direction indicator
Marking Colours

Markings on runways are white

Markings defining the landing area on a heliport are also

white except for hospital heliports which use a red "H" on a
white cross

Markings for taxiways, areas not intended for use by aircraft

(closed and hazardous areas), and holding positions (even if
they are on a runway) are yellow.
Different Runway Markings

Runway Threshold Marking

Runway Touchdown zone or landing zone marking

Runway Edge Strip Marking

Runway Centre line Marking

Runway Number Marking

Runway Number
Runways are numbered (designated) to the nearest 10 in relation to magnetic north based on
approach direction
Example: 084 is marked 08
Example: 085 is marked 08 or 09
Example: 086 is marked 09
This number becomes the runway's name, and is how it is referenced by Air Traffic Control
(ATC) and other pilots
The opposite end of the runway is then marked with the reciprocal heading
Reciprocal heading is determined by adding or subtracting 180 from the runway heading
You must therefore add 180 to any runway 180 or below, and subtract 180 to anything 180
or above
Example: (using runway 26) 260 - 180 = 080
Example: (using runway 08) 080 + 180 = 260
If your answer comes out to be greater than 360, or negative, then you added when you
should have subtracted or vice versa
Parallel Runways
Parallel runways are designated with numbers but also as "L," "C," and/or "R"
which stand for left, centre, and/or right
Example: 21L, 21C, and/or 21R

While 3 parallel runways will be labelled with all 3 designators, just 2 parallel
runways will omit the "centre" and become just "left" and "right(As shown in fig.)

Note wind directions are reported in degrees magnetic, to provide an applicable

reference to the runway direction
Runway Markings
Runway Centre Line Marking

Runway centreline markings identify the centre of the

runway for guidance on take-off and landing

Painted white in colour

One centreline marking is 35m in length and the gap

between markings is 25m giving 60m for a full set
Runway Aiming Point

Aiming point markers serve as a visual target for landing


Consists of two broad white stripes located on each side of

the runway, about 300m from the landing threshold
Runway Touchdown Zone
These are 1.80m wide stripes spaced at 1.50m clear distance and are of
22.5m in length.

Thin white stripes identifying the touchdown zone for landing operations
and are spaced in 150m increments

3, 2 and then 1 thin stripe symmetrical bars arranged in pairs on each side
of runway centreline.
Runway Edge Strip Marking

Runway edge strip consists of 2 stripes on along each edge

of runway

If width of runway is greater than 60m, the stripe should be

located 30m away from the runway centreline

The thickness of stripes is normally 90cm

Runway Shoulder Markings

Markings are in the form of yellow stripes , 90cm wide and 30m apart (15m at
The markings extend up to a maximum 1.5m from the outer edge of shoulders
Runway shoulders are marked with diagonal lines with 45 degrees angle.
Runway Threshold Markings

Runway threshold markings consists of a pattern of

longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions placed
symmetrically about the centreline of a runway

They extend laterally within 3m of the edge of the runway

They are 1.80m/3.60m wide with a spacing of 1.80/0.90m

between them and are 45m long.

Usually provided to clear the obstructions in the flight path

A taxiway is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting runways
with aprons, hangars, terminals and other facilities.
Centre-Line Markings
Centreline markings provide a visual cue to permit taxiing along a
designated path
Ideally, pilots should maintain centreline but be aware, this does not
guarantee wingtip clearance of obstacles on either side

Normal Centreline Enhanced Centreline

Consists of a single, continuous yellow Used at the larger commercial service airports,
line 6 to 12 inches wide.(15-30cm) the enhanced taxiway centreline marking
consists of a parallel line of yellow dashes on
either side of the normal taxiway centreline.
Located a maximum of 150 (46m) prior to a
runway holding position marking.
Taxiway Edge Markings
Used to define the edge of the taxiway when the edge does not correspond
with the edge of the pavement

Continuous Markings Dashed Markings

They consist of a continuous double yellow They consist of a broken double yellow
line, with each line being at least 15 cm (6 in) line, with each line being at least 6 inches
in width, spaced 15 cm (6 in) apart. They (15cm) in width, separated by 6 inches.
divide the taxiway edge from the shoulder or They are used when there is an operational
some other abutting paved surface not intended need to define the edge of a taxiway or taxi
for use by aircraft. lane on a paved surface where the adjoining
pavement to the taxiway edge is intended
for use by aircraft (e.g., an apron)
Surface Painted Signs
Surface Painted Taxiway Direction Signs
Written with yellow background with black inscription
Provided when it is not possible to provide taxiway direction signs at intersections,
or when necessary to supplement
Located adjacent to the centreline on the side the turn is to be executed to. (Turns to
the left being on the left side of the taxiway centreline, right being on the right side)
Surface Painted Location Signs
Written with a black background and yellow inscription
Supplement location signs, located along side the taxiway and assist the pilot in
confirming the designation of the taxiway on which the aircraft is located, on the
right side of centreline
Geographic Position Markings
Located at points along low visibility taxi routes designated in the airport's Surface
Movement Guidance Control System (SMGCS) plan
Identifies the location of taxiing aircraft when Runway Visual Range (RVR) is
below 1200' (360m)
Positioned to the left of the centreline in the direction of taxi
Comprise of a black circle contiguous to a white ring with a pink circle in the
Designated with a number or a number and letter to correspond to the consecutive
position of the marking on the route
Runway Holding Position Markings
These show where an aircraft should stop when approaching a runway from a
taxiway. They consist of four yellow lines, two solid and two dashed, spaced
six or twelve inches (15 or 30 cm) apart, and extending across the width of the
taxiway or runway. The solid lines are always on the side where the aircraft is
to hold.
Surface Painted Holding Position Signs
Red background signs with a white inscription to supplement the signs
located at the holding position.
Operational Guidance Signs
Location signs yellow on black background. Identifies the runway or
taxiway the aircraft is currently on or is entering.
Direction/Runway exit signs black on yellow. Identifies the intersecting
taxiways the aircraft is approaching, with an arrow indicating the direction
to turn.
Stop Bar signs white on blue background. The designation consists of the
letter S followed by designation of the taxiway on which the Stop Bar is
positioned. This sign is not standard.
Other many airports use conventional traffic signs such
as stop and yield signs throughout the airport.
Mandatory Instruction Signs
Mandatory instruction signs are white on red. They show entrances to
runways or critical areas. Vehicles and aircraft are required to stop at these
signs until the control tower gives clearance to proceed.
Runway signs White text on a red background. These signs identify a
runway intersection ahead, e.g. runway 12-30 in the photo above.
Frequency change signs Usually a stop sign and an instruction to change
to another frequency. These signs are used at airports with different areas
of ground control.
Holding position signs A single solid yellow bar across a taxiway
indicates a position where ground control may require a stop.
For night operations, taxiways at many airports are equipped with lights,
although some small airports are not equipped with them.

Taxiway Edge Lights: used to outline the edges of taxiways

during periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions.
These fixtures are elevated and emit blue light.
Taxiway Centreline Lights: They are steady burning and emit
green light located along the taxiway centreline
Clearance Bar Lights: Three in-pavement steady-burning
yellow lights installed at holding positions on taxiways
Top Bar Lights: A row of red, unidirectional, steady-burning
in-pavement lights installed across the entire taxiway at the
runway holding position, and elevated steady-burning red
lights on each side used in low visibility conditions
Runway and Taxiway Shoulder
Runway and Taxiway Shoulder
It is done with yellow paint. Runway shoulders are marked with diagonal lines
each having a width of 0.90m (3ft.). Taxiway and holding apron shoulders
are marked with lines perpendicular to the direction of travel of aircraft. Blast
pad at the end of the runway is marked with a chevron pattern.


Purpose - The runway shoulder marking is used, when needed, as a supplement
to further delineate a paved runway shoulder that pilots have mistaken or are
likely to mistake as usable runway. This marking is used only in conjunction
with the runway side stripe marking.
Location - The runway shoulder marking is located between the runway side
stripe and the outer edge of the paved shoulder.
Colour - Runway shoulder markings are yellow.
Runway Markings
Blast Pad
Taxi Shoulder Markings
Taxiways, holding bays, and aprons are sometimes provided with paved
shoulders to prevent blast and water erosion. Shoulders are not intended
for use by aircraft, and may be unable to carry the aircraft load. Taxiway
shoulder markings are yellow lines perpendicular to the taxiway edge,
from taxiway edge to pavement edge, about 3 metres. They consist of
yellow lines perpendicular to the taxiway edge markings
Taxiway Shoulder Markings

The airport apron is the area of an

airport where aircraft are parked,
unloaded or loaded, refueled, or

An aerodrome must provide and maintain a wind indicator.

For each runway available for air carrier use, a supplemental wind cone must be

At the end of the runway, or

At least at one point visible to the pilot on final approach and prior to takeoff

Clearly visible and understandable from a height of at least 300 m.

FAA standard:

A wind cone should be surrounded

with :
Segmented circle
Landing strip indicator
Traffic pattern indicator
Wind Direction Indicator
The direction from which the wind blows is indicated by a wind cone.

Wind direction is measured in degrees clockwise from due north and so a wind
coming from the north has a wind direction of 180 degrees; one from the east is
270 degrees.
when air moves with the speed of at least 6 km/hour, the revolving system situated at
the top part of the pole on bearing will turn in direction of this movement

It is placed in a segmented circle together with the landing direction indicator.

The larger opening of a windsock faces the direction that the wind is blowing from; its
tail, with the smaller opening, points in the direction the wind is blowing
It should be placed away from buildings so that it is not effected by eddies.
It should be visible from a height of 30m

Wind sock

Rotate freely around a vertical shaft

In wind speeds of 3 knots or more, must indicate true wind

direction +/- 5

When fully extended, indicate approximately 15 knots of


White, yellow, or orange to contrast with surrounding

Primary wind socks - 8 or 12 feet long

Supplemental wind socks - 5 to 9 feet long

Support pole must be:
Perfectly vertical
Capable of supporting the wind sock in wind speeds up to 75 knots
Frangible and cause minimum damage if struck by aircraft
Provide no glare that would interfere with aircraft or ATCT operations

Primary wind indicators should

Be centrally located with respect to runways
Not violate any airport surfaces such as RSAs, OFZs or Part 77
Not have lettering or logos on the fabric

Supplemental wind indicators should

Be a low mass type
Be no more than 10 feet high
Not penetrate the OFZ
Provide wind information for a specific runway end
Be located 500' - 1500' from the runway end
Be on the left side of landing aircraft unless special
circumstances exist
Be no closer than 250' from the runway CL

A system of pilot aids and airtraffic control devices

Must be highly visible and conspicuous to the pilot

and lightning may not be required

May Consist of :

Segmented circle

Landing strip indicator

Traffic pattern indicator

Closed field signal

Wind direction indicator

Landing direction indicator (wind tee)


Aids the pilot in locating obscure airports

Indicates where traffic and wind indicators are located

ICAO: The location of at least one wind direction indicator should be marked by
a circular band 15 m in diameter and 1.2 m wide. The band should be centered
about the wind direction indicator support and should be in a color chosen to give
adequate conspicuity, preferably white.

Installed in a position of maximum visibility

If possible, located around the primary wind cone


Necessary when a right hand traffic pattern exists or is required

Located outside the segmented circle

Laid out parallel to the runway


Used only on runways with right-hand traffic patterns

Segmented circle
Segmented circle