00 mi piace00 non mi piace

2 visualizzazioni53 pagine(Axial and Shear Stresses)

Mar 27, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PPT, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

(Axial and Shear Stresses)

© All Rights Reserved

2 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

(Axial and Shear Stresses)

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 53

Introduction Concept of Stress

Both the analysis and the design of a given

structure involve the determination of stresses

and deformations.

Stress and strain is the study of relationship

between the external forces applied to a

deformable body which causes strain, and the

development of the internal forces within the

body, which causes stress.

2

For a body to be in equilibrium with its external

forces:

F = M = 0.

This, however, applies to structures like truss and

frame only, which is a rigid body system.

For any general three-dimensional body to be in

equilibrium, we need to satisfy two conditions

simultaneously:

i. Kinetic admissibility study of

relationship between stress and force

ii. Kinematic admissibility (the study of

displacement and strain)

3

Stresses

The force per unit area, or intensity of the

forces distributed over a given section, is

called the stress on that section and is denoted

by the Greek letter (sigma). This is written as

4

When an arbitrary body is acted upon by

external forces, internal stress will develop

immediately if the body is in equilibrium,

otherwise, the body will experience rigid body

motion.

Unit for stress is either (N/m2) or pascal (Pa).

Multiples of this unit is usually used, namely

kPa, MPa and GPa.

1 kPa = 103 Pa = 103 N/m2

1 MPa = 106 Pa = 106 N/m2

1 GPa = 109 Pa = 109 N/m2

5

Stress in an elemental volume can be

represented schematically in the diagram

below.

6

Types of stresses:

i) When a member is subjected to axial

loading it is under normal stress.

ii) The shearing stress is caused by the

application of equal and opposite transverse

forces.

iii) Bearing stress is created by bolts, pins and

rivets in the members they connect.

7

Axial Loading: Normal Stress

The resultant of the internal forces for an axially

loaded member is normal to a section cut

perpendicular to the member axis.

The force intensity on that section is defined as the

normal stress.

P

ave

A

The normal stress at a particular point may not be

equal to the average stress but the resultant of the

stress distribution must satisfy

8

Note: The detailed distribution of stress is statically

indeterminate, i.e., can not be found from statics alone.

9

Centric and Eccentric Loading

A uniform distribution of stress in a

section infers that the line of action for

the resultant of the internal forces

passes through the centroid of the

section.

A uniform distribution of stress is only

possible if the concentrated loads on the

end sections of two-force members are

applied at the section centroids. This is

referred to as centric loading.

10

If a two-force member is

eccentrically loaded, then

the resultant of the stress

distribution in a section

must yield an axial force

and a moment.

The stress distributions in

eccentrically loaded

members cannot be

uniform or symmetric.

11

Shear Stress

member AB.

Corresponding internal forces act in the plane of

section C and are called shearing forces.

12

The resultant of the internal shear force

distribution is defined as the shear of the section

and is equal to the load P.

The shearing stress is denoted by the Greek letter

(tau) and the corresponding average shear

stress is,

P

ave

A

13

Single and Double Shear

P F P F

ave ave

A A A 2A

Note that the area, A, is the cross-section of the bolt. 14

Bearing Stress

contact or bearing surfaces of the members they

connect.

The resultant of the force distribution on the surface

is equal and opposite to the force exerted on the pin.

15

The corresponding

average force intensity is

called the bearing stress,

computed as

P P

b

A td

Bearing stress can also

occur on a foundation

that rests on a surface

as shown in the figure.

16

Shear Resistance Caused by Axial Load

If the structural member is built into a wall e.g.

cantilever beam, and is subject to axial force, the

surface area in contact with the wall will generate

shear stress and the formula is given by

P

allow

dl

17

Stress in Two-Force Members

Axial forces on a two force member result in

only normal stresses on a plane cut

perpendicular to the member axis.

18

Transverse forces on bolts and pins result in

only shear stresses on the plane perpendicular

to bolt or pin axis.

19

Stress on an Oblique Plane

Average stress

If a plane of angle is cut through the cross

section of a member subject to axial forces at its

ends, the force P on the inclined plane can be

decomposed into a normal and tangential

component, with respect to the plane.

Resolve P into components normal and tangential

to the oblique section,

F = P cos , V = P sin

20

The average normal

and shear stresses on

the oblique plane are

21

Maximum stress

The maximum normal stress occurs when the

reference plane is perpendicular to the member

axis,

45 with respect to the axis,

22

23

Factor of Safety

Structural members or machines must be designed

such that the working stresses are less than the

ultimate strength of the material.

fail failure stress

FS

all allowable stress

stress or the ultimate tensile stress.

Any appropriate stress value can be used provided

that the definition is given for fail. Typically for

safety reason, we use yield stress for design, i.e.

fail = yield.

24

Stress-strain diagram of low carbon steel 25

Factor of safety considerations:

Uncertainty in material properties

Uncertainty of loadings

Uncertainty of analyses

Number of loading cycles

Types of failure

Maintenance requirements and deterioration effects

Importance of member to structures integrity

Risk to life and property

Influence on machine function

Note: A structure designed with high factor of safety does not mean

that the structure is safe.

26

Deformation and Strain

Deformation is the ability of the body to change its shape

and size due to the action of external agents.

In the most simplistic setting of one-dimensional strain, it

is defined as

l l l o deformed length

xx

lo lo original length

(delta).

27

The quantity is termed the displacement of the

material. In a general three-dimensional setting, there

are six components of strains

xx, yy, zz (normal strain)

xy, xz, yz (shearing strain)

28

Constitutive Law

Strain is related to stress via constitutive

hypothesis or material model. This relationship

is usually written as

= f()

The simplest material model you have learnt is

the one-dimensional, perfectly linear, elastic

model or the Hookes model, which relates

axial stress to axial strain via Youngs

modulus, E, i.e.

= E

29

Note that there are other constitutive models, for

example, a non-linear elastic model or the Henkys

elastic material,

= En

On the other hand, shear stress, , is related to shear

strain, , via the shear modulus, G, in the form

= G

Apart from the linear and non-linear elastic

constitutive models, there are also viscous and plastic

constitutive models. These constitutive models are

phenomenological models that describe material

behavior at visible macroscopic scale.

30

Example

that the bar has constant width of 35 mm and a

thickness of 10 mm.

31

Solution:

Using the method of section, we compute forces in region

AB, BC and CD.

32

Example:

Given that AB has diameter of 10 mm and BC has

diameter of 8 mm; determine which rod is subjected to

greater normal stress. The mass of the lamp is 80kg.

33

1

0

34

Example:

The casting shown is made of steel having specific weight

st = 490 lb/ft3. Determine the average compressive stress

acting at points A and B.

35

Note: This value acts on point A and B. It is the average

compressive stress.

36

Example:

Determine x so that the compressive stress at C is equal to

the tensile stress in the tie rod AB. The rod has cross-

sectional area of 400 mm2 and contact area at C is 650 mm2.

37

Solution:

at C equals tensile stress in AB.

Thus,

38

Example:

The bar shown has a square cross-section for which the depth and

thickness are 40 mm. If an axial force of 800 N is applied along the

centroidal axis of the bars cross-sectional area, determine the

average normal stress and average shear stress acting on the material

along (a) section plane a-a and (b) section plane b-b.

39

a)

40

b)

41

Frames and Machines

Frames are generally stationary and are used to

support loads.

Machines contain moving parts and are designed to

transmit and alter the effect of forces.

Frames and machines are two common types of

structures which are often composed of pin-connected

multi-force members .

The forces acting at the joints and supports can be

determined by applying the equations of equilibrium.

42

Example:

The structure is designed to support a 30 kN load. It consists of a

boom AB and a rod BC joined by pins (zero moment connections)

at the junctions and supports. Perform a complete static design

analysis to determine the internal force in each structural member

and reaction forces at the supports and pins.

43

44

Step 1: Draw the free-body diagram & calculate the support reactions

45

Ay and Cy cannot be determined from these equations. In addition to the

complete structure, each component must satisfy the conditions for static

equilibrium. Consider a free-body diagram for the boom:

Results:

Ax = 40kN

Cx = 40kN

Cy = 30kN

The boom and rod are 2-force

members.

46

For equilibrium, the force must be parallel to an axis between the

force application points, equal in magnitude but opposite in

directions. Using the graphical method, we analyze joint B:

47

2

The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN. At the rod

center, the average normal stress in the circular cross-section

(A = 314 x 10-6m2) is BC = +159 MPa

48

At the flattened rod ends, the smallest cross-sectional area occurs

at the pin centerline,

The boom is in compression with an axial force of 40 kN and

average normal stress of 26.7 MPa. The minimum area sections at

the boom ends are unstressed since the boom is in compression.

The cross-sectional area for pins A, B, and C

2

49

The force on the pin at C is equal to the force exerted by the rod BC.

50

Pin A:

The pin at A is in double shear as shown:

The total force on the pin is equal to the force exerted by the boom AB.

51

Pin B:

50 kN

section with the largest shear force,

PE = 15 kN

PG = 25 kN (largest)

52

Pin Bearing Stress:

the boom AB, we have t= 30mm and

d=25mm.

in the bracket, we have t = 2(25) =

50 mm and d = 25 mm

53

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.