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Augmented Reality

A Literature Review

By, TheWEIRD Group

( W ise E ducators I ncreasing R eality D ramatically)

Joe Crouchman, Marty Felesena, Tamara Henry, Sharon Morris, Steve Rego
What is Virtual Reality or VR???
Computer-simulated environments that can
simulate physical presence in places in the real
world, as well as in imaginary worlds. Virtual

Augmented Reality or
reality replaces the real world with a simulated
What is

A live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world
environment whose elements are augmented by
computer-generated sensory input, such as sound or
graphics or GPS. As a result, the technology functions
by enhancing ones current perception of reality.
History of AR
Began in 1957 by Morton Heilig
Cinematographer who added visuals, sound, vibration, and smell to movies

1966 First Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Ivan Sutherland

1975 Videoplace virtual object interaction Myron Krueger
1977 Star Wars AR in Star Wars in 1977
1990 - Thomas Caudell of Boeing Corporation coined the phrase AR
1992 First functional AR system (Virtual Fixtures) created (L.B.
1994 First AR theater production, Dancing in Cyberspace

1998 AR first introduced in education (University of North

2000 First mobile AR game, ARQuake Bruce Thomas
2008 AR travel guide launched
2009 AR Toolkit brought AR to the web browser
2011 AR apps available for mobile devices
Augmented Reality

1.AR Field Trips

2.Participatory Simulations
3.Digital Object Manipulation
4.Social Interaction in Distance
5.Student Engagement
Familiar Examples of AR

NFL Yellow First-Down Line

NHL Hockey Puck Tracer
Heads-Up Display in Vehicles
First-Person Video Games
Nintendo Wii Interface
Not-So-Familiar Examples of AR
Lego AR (2008) Smart Grid (2009)

iPad AR (2011) Star Wars AR: TIE Fighters Attack NYC

AR Markers
AR Field Trips

Tamara Henry
AR Field Trips

Field trips have been an important

part of education for many years.
Unfortunately, rising costs and falling
revenues have caused many schools
to eliminate extra expenditures,
such as field trips.

(Klemm, & Tuthill, 2003)

Tamara Henry
Using AR, schools can either boost the
educational value of actual field trips or
provide a digital alternative when an
authentic field trip is not possible.

AR provides the opportunity for students to

be immersed in the learning experience
from within a culturally-relevant
perspective. This makes learning
educationally and personally relevant to
the student.
(Blase, 2007)
Tamara Henry
AR provides the opportunity for narrative
mapping, where events that have occurred
over time are shown in a way that examines
how the occurrences overlap and influence one
another. For example, the shifting battlefronts
at Gettysburg can be displayed in a way that
shows the interaction among the troops.

Because AR is computer and technologically-

driven, it is possible to explore places that are
inaccessible to students, such as locations in
space or on the ocean floor.
(Kitalong, Moody, Middlebrook, & Ancheta,
Tamara Henry
Participatory Simulations
Real-life environment
Practical skills can be mastered
Mistakes can be made
Sounds can be created
Algorithms can be managed
Direct patient to provider

Joseph A.
Medical Education
Cardiac Arrest
Chest pain
Respiratory distress
Shock trauma
Diabetic emergencies

Joseph A.
Medical Education
Blood pressure
Respiratory rate
Lung sounds
Oxygen saturation

Joseph A.
Medical Education
Patient interview
IV skills
Needle chest decompression
Needle cricothyrotomy

Joseph A.
Medical School Simulation
Realistic scenarios
True 3D structure
Assess, interact, and perform
More efficient
A smarter approach to learning
The students love it! Wow factor.
Digital Object Manipulation

The use of augmented reality tools where

virtual objects such as tables and graphs
can be displayed and be interacted with
in real scenes created from imaging
This digital object manipulation has the
potential to facilitate the opening up of
new learning spaces within
interdisciplinary core academic domains.
(Guven, 2003)

Sharon Morris
Academic Domains Include:
Basic science
Sports science
Physical education

Sharon Morris
Chris Dede, professor at Harvard Graduate
School of Education, on technology and
education believes the greatest challenge
facing educators is empowering students to
master such 21st Century skills as
understanding and resolving complex,
novel situationsproducing knowledge by
filtering and synthesizing information. He
asserts that immersive, situated learning
such as augmented learning can effectively
engage students in critical thinking to
prepare them for the future.
(Thatcher, 2005)

Sharon Morris
Augmented Reality by Hitlab


Sharon Morris
A national initiative in Singapore,
funded by the national Research
foundation has made the development
of such tools affordable and mobile so
that they can be used to scaffold

A.R. technology tools can facilitate

inquiry-based experiential and
authentic learning in mainstream
Sharon Morris
Most of the research shows that the
virtual learning environment help to
achieve higher learning results. The
analysis of the research data shows
that pupils achievement after use of
ARTP (Augmented Reality Technology)
significantly improved while
completing some tasks.
(Vilkoniene, 2009)
Sharon Morris
Social Interaction in Distance
Augmented Learning
One of the most important purposes of an educational
environment is to promote social interaction among users
located in the same physical space. (Kaufmann, 2003, p. 1)

Due to advances in pedagogical concepts, technology, and a

simultaneous decline in hardware costs, the use of small-scale
AR systems could become feasible for educational institutions
within this decade. (Kaufmann, 2003, p. 4)

Challenges within augmented learning environments (SL)

include: understanding oneself, preparing students, proper
technology, developing instructional components, and
creating a safe, predator-free environment. (OConnor &
Sakshaug, 2009)

Marty Felesena
Group Awareness Tools
Group awarenessis the knowledge and
perception of who is there, where other persons
are located, where they are looking, and what they
are doing. (Buder & Bodemer, 2008, p. 124)

Buders & Bodemers experimental study showed

that, groups using an augmented group
awareness tool showed higher performance in
terms of group decision and individual correctness
than unsupported groups. (Buder & Bodemer, 2008, p.

Marty Felesena
Augmented Lectures
Allows for rich, private communication between the
teacher and student without the rest of the classroom
noticing the communication. (Zarraonandia, et al., 2011)

Tangible Augmented Reality (TAR)

The 3-D virtualization of objects that can be
collaborated and manipulated by teachers and
students in a shared AR environment.
This allows the remotely located student to
interactively and collaboratively participate in
the AR-based study environment and acquire
knowledge in a natural and intuitive manner.
(Li, 2010)
Marty Felesena
3-D Live & AR Magic Land
3-D Live and Magic Land are technologies for
capturing a person and, at the same time,
displaying his/her 3-D images in a mixed-
reality environment in real time.
Reasons for AR technology in distance education:
Support of seamless interaction between real and virtual
Use of a tangible interface metaphor for object manipulation
Ability to switch smoothly between reality and virtuality

Interactivitypromises physical and sensor,

in addition to mental, activity and response.
(Liu, et al., 2009)
Marty Felesena
AR MagicMeeting (3-D
The MagicMeeting system presented is a
collaborative AR system designed to
support a scenario where a group of
people meet to discuss the design of a

MagicMeeting is looking to replace the

HMD-based approach with a projection-
based system.

(Regenbrecht, Wagner, & Baratoff, 2002)

Marty Felesena
Student Engagement
One concerned parent
I cant believe you let students access the Internet
without even talking to us parents about it. I dont see why
they need to be online. We didnt have these things when
we were in school and we got a good education. Kids are
just wasting their time online on websites like MySpace
and schools are doing nothing about it. How about you use
the taxpayer money you waste on expensive computers to
fix up the schools or pay the teachers more?
Reeve (2011)

Steve Rego
Engaging Augmented Reality
Next Generation Air Traffic Control

Steve Rego
Results of Engaging AR
Educators find Learners find
-Experiential -Interesting
-Authentic -Participating
-Critical thinking -Skill practicing
-Higher learning -Skill building
-Achievement -Challenging
-Measurable -Responsive
Steve Rego
Challenges to AR
Understanding NASAs
AR experience:
Designing AR
Integrating AR Ideas
Hardware Needs

Steve Rego
One you can try
Can you care for a pet?

Can you make decisions?

You see the results!

Diabetic Dog Game
Steve Rego
AR in Education
What Does This All Mean for
According to the 2011 Horizon Report, simple
augmented reality will be ready for educational
adoption in 2-3 years.
Challenges Include:
Technology Needs ($$$)
Learning Curves (Time and commitment)
Pedagogical Implementation (Creativity)
Research (Will it affect student achievement?)
Ready or
AR will impact