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EVAPORATION &

EVAPORATORS
1 Prepared By:-
Kuldeep Bhatt
MECHANISM OF VAPORIZATION

Bubble formation:

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Effect of Surface Tension:

(a) Low Surface Tension


(b) Intermediate Surface Tension
(c) High Surface Tension

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Vapor Blanketing or Vapor Binding:

There is a predominance of vapor at the tube wall because of


high rate of heat throughput and very little amount of liquid
actually contacts the hot tube wall
Large amount of vapor formed served as a gas resistance to
the passage of heat into the liquid

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Factors affecting the rate of heat transfer is :

Nature of surface and distribution of bubbles


Properties of a fluid such as surface tension,
coefficient of expansion, and viscosity
The influence of temperature difference upon the
evolution and vigor of the bubble

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OBJECTIVE OF EVAPORATION
Objective is to concentrate a solution consisting of
non volatile solute and volatile solvent
In majority of cases solvent is water

Evaporation is conducted by vaporizing a portion


of the solvent to produce a concentration solution
of thick liquor
In evaporation the thick liquor is the valuable
product and the vapor is condensed and discarded
And in some cases water is evaporated to produce
solid-free product for boiler feed, for special
process requirements, or for human consumption. 6
This technique is called water distillation
LIQUID CHARACTERISTICS
Practical solution of evaporator is affected by the
particular properties of liquor to be concentrated
Some of the properties are as per below:

Concentration
Foaming
Temperature sensitivity
Scale
Material of Construction (MOC)

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TYPE OF EVAPORATORS
Long tube vertical evaporators:

Forced circulation
Falling film evaporator
Natural circulation
Rising film evaporator

Agitated Film Evaporators

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FORCED CIRCULATION
Steam in shell side and
concentrating liquor in tube side
Was developed for the processing

liquors which are susceptible to


scaling & crystallizing
Has higher velocity in the tube

side nearly 1.5 to 2.2 m/s


Because of high velocities in

forced circulation the residence


time in tubes is short
Main applications are: in

concentration of inversely soluble


materials, crystallizing duties and
in thermally degraded materials
Tubes side multiple passes is

possible
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FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR
Used for concentration of highly
heat sensitive materials such as
fruit juice, glucose solutions etc.
Flow in tube is based on

gravitational force. Generally in


single pass
Main problem in the falling film

evaporator is distribution of the


liquid inside tube
This distribution is done using

perforated plate positioned


above tube-sheet
This results in thinner faster

moving film and give higher


rate of heat transfer
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NATURAL CIRCULATION
Evaporation by
natural circulation is
achieved by use of
short tube bundle
inside the main shell
Larger evaporation

capacities may be
obtained
Most common

application is as a
reboiler in the
distillation 11
RISING FILM EVAPORATOR
Considered to be first
modern evaporator
used in industries
Higher heat transfer
coefficients and
residence time
This gives low heat
transfer areas

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AGITATED FILM EVAPORATOR
Modified falling film evaporator with single
jacketed section ad is spread out into a thin, highly
turbulent film by the vertical blades of agitator
Concentrate collected from the bottom and vapor

rises from vaporizing zone into a separator or


condenser
Main advantage is its ability to give high rates of

heat transfer with viscous liquids


Is effective in viscous heat sensitive products as

gelatin, rubber latex, antibiotics and fruit juices


Disadvantages are high cost, the internal moving

parts and small capacity of single units 13


PERFORMANCE OF EVAPORATOR
Performance of evaporator is measured in two
terms as per below:

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SINGLE AND MULTI EFFECT
EVAPORATOR
When a single evaporator is used, the vapor from
the boiling liquid is condensed and discarded .
This method is called single effect evaporator
system
Single effect system utilizes steam ineffectively.
To evaporate 1 kg of water it required 1 to 1.3 kg
of steam
The general method of increasing the evaporation
per kg of steam by using a series of evaporators
between the steam supply and the condenser is
called multiple-effect evaporation
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BOLING POINT ELEVATION AND
DUHRINGS RULE
Vapor pressure of the solution is less than that of pure
water at a same temperature
Same way at given pressure the boiling point of the

solution is higher than that of pure water and this


increase in boiling point over that of water is called
boiling point elevation of the solution
Small for dilute solutions; for concentrated solutions

and solutions of organic colloids may have higher BPE


For strong solutions BPE is best found by Duhrings

rule which states that the boiling point of a given


solution is a linear function of the boiling point of pure
water at same pressure
Different lines are obtained for different concentrations 16
METHOD OF FEEDING
Four types of feeding methods are there as per
below:

Forward feed
Backward feed
Mixed feed
Parallel feed

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FORWARD FEED

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BACKWARD FEED

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MIXED FEED

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PARALLEL FEED

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EVAPORATOR ECONOMY
Main factor influencing the economy of an evaporator
system is the number of effects
By proper design the enthalpy of vaporization of the
steam to the first effect can be used one or more times,
depending on the no of effects
Economy also is influenced by the temperature of the feed

If the temperature is below boiling point in the 1 st effect,

the heating medium uses a part of enthalpy of


vaporization of the steam and only a fraction is left for
evaporation;
If the feed temperature is above the boiling point, the
accompanying flash contributes some evaporation over
and above that generated by the enthalpy of vaporization 22
in the steam
VAPOR COMPRESSION
The energy in the vapor evolved from a boiling
solution can be used to vaporize more water
provided there is a temperature drop for heat
transfer in the desired direction
In multi effect evaporator this temperature drop
is created by progressively lowering the boiling
point of a solution in a series of evaporators
through the use of lower absolute pressure
The desired driving force obtained by increasing
the pressure of the evolved vapor by mechanical
or thermal recompression
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MECHANICAL RECOMPRESSION

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THERMAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION

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