Sei sulla pagina 1di 19

INTONATION

It is what you say but the way you say


it. Its not the choice of words that
conveys the speakers intention, but
rather the manner in which the words
are said
Souds FoundationsAdrian Underhill
Connected Speech
It deals with the idea of how
phonemes in isolation are moulded
into words and how isolated words
melt into the streem of speech
through a series of phonemic
changes called Simplifications
PROMINENCE AND ACCENT

Word Stress in connected speech will


be referred as Accent

Sentence Stress in connected speech


will be referred as Prominence
Intonation and learnability

It refers to the patterns of pich change


over an utterance or series of utterances
Such patterns may be partly personal
They are also conventional
They are also systematic
Important..

We are not in control of a practical,


workable and trustworthy system
through which we can make intonation
comprehensible to ourselves. This may
be due to the nature of intonation itself,
that it is somehow less perceptible and
less tangible than other areas of
language
The form of intonation
In speech the pitch of your voice
varies continuously so that your
speech is not heard as a tune.
This pitch variation extends over
single phonemes, sequences of
phonemes, and whole atterances.
Intonation refers to the pattern of pitch
variations
It is not the absolute pitch of any single
syllable that counts, but the overall pitch
pattern and the relative pitch heights within it
Prominence and rhythm are inseparable parts
of intonation as well
The meaning of intonation

Intonational meaning to attitude

To grammar

To discourse
Intonation as an indicator of attitude

It is a way of expressing our attitude at the


moment of speaking to the situatiion we are in, or
to what we are talking about, or to ourselves or to
our listener
This attitudinal approach usually isolates certain
intonational contours and gives them attitudinal
labels such as impressed, more casual, or
concerned
Not only are attitudes difficult to recognize in
ourselves, they are also difficult to label
objectively

Even if This can be done, a given tone choice


can be a manifestation of a number of
different attitudes of dubious connection
Intonation as a grammatical
indicator

The correlation between intonation


and sentence type

The correlation between tone unit


divisions and syntactic boundaries
Intonation and sentence type

DECLARATIVE: FALLING
WH QUESTIONS: FALLING
YES / NO QUESTIONS: RISING
MULTIPLE INTERROGATIVE: RISING
THEN FALLING
IMPERATIVE: FALLING
EXCLAMATION: FALLING
QUESTIONS TAGS:
EXPECTING COMFIRMATION: FALLING
LESS CERTAIN EXPECTATION: RISING
Intonation and Discourse

Discourse refers to the larger context of


the whole conversational interaction
between speakers, in which tone groups
and sequences of tone groups occur in
certain relationships to each other
A tone unit cannot be isolated from
its discourse context and make valid
statements about what the pitch
pattern means
Intonational meaning cannot be
separated from discourse
Proclaiming and referring tones
Proclaiming Tone

Information which is additional to the


common ground is marked by a pitch
that finishes with a falling movement
Referring Tone

Information which is given as already shared


and part of the common ground is marked by
a pitch that finishes with a rising movement. It
also refers back to something already shared
or negociated