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HYDRAULIC

BRAKE S

SUBMITTED TO: S U B M I T T ED BY:

NAME :ANKIT KUMAR


ROLLNO.:1313240020
SESSION:2013-2017
AIM

TO ACQUAINT THE CLASS WITH THE CONSTRUTION


AND WORKING OF A HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM.
CONTENTS
o INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION
PRINCIPLE
CONSTRUCTION
a) MASTER CYLINDER..
b) WHEEL CYLINDER.
c) BRAKE SHOES.
d) BRAKE DRUM.
e) BRAKE FLUID.
f) BRAKE LINES AND HOSES.
) SYSTEM OPERATION
) ADV AND DISADV OF HYD BRAKES
INTRODUCTION
HYDRAULIC BRAKES:
The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism
which uses brake fluid, to transfer pressure from the
controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the
vehicle, to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or
near the wheel of the vehicle.
HISTORY:
In 1918 Malcolm Lockheed developed a hydraulic brake
system.
CLASSIFICATION OF
BRAKES
On the Basis of Method of Actuation
(a) Foot brake (also called service brake) operated by foot
pedal.
(b) Hand brake it is also called parking brake operated by
hand.
On the Basis of Mode of Operation
(a) Mechanical brakes
(b) Hydraulic brakes
(c) Air brakes
(d) Vacuum brakes
(e) Electric brakes.
On the Basis of Action on Front or Rear Wheels
(a) Front-wheel brakes
(b) Rear-wheel brakes.
On the Basis of Method of Application of Braking Contact
(a) Internally expanding brakes
(b) Externally contracting brakes.
PRINCIPLES OF
HYDRAULIC BRAKING
Hydraulic brakes work on the principle of
Pascals law which states that pressure at a
point in a fluid is equal in all directions in space.
According to this law when pressure is applied
on a fluid it travels equally in all directions so
that uniform braking action is applied on all
four wheels.
CONSTRUCTION
CONTD..
Brake pedalor lever
A pushrod
Amaster cylinder assemblycontaining
apistonassembly
Reinforced hydraulic lines
Brake calliper assemblyusually consisting of
one or two hollow aluminium or chrome-plated
steel pistons (calledcalliper pistons), a set of
thermally conductivebrake padsand
arotor(also called a brake disc)
ordrumattached to an axle.
The system is usually filled with aglycol-
etherbased brake fluid
A)MASTER
CYLINDER
The master cylinder is the heart of the brake's hydraulic system.
It converts the force exerted on the brake pedal into hydraulic
pressure to apply the brakes.
Depressing the brake pedal moves a push rod in the
master cylinder. Mounted on the push rod are a pair of pistons
(primary and secondary) in tandem (one after the other) that
exert force against the fluid in the master cylinder bore.
The pressure created displaces fluid through the various brake
circuits and lines to each of the wheels and applies the brakes.
Since brake fluid is incompressible it acts like a liquid linkage
between the master cylinder's pistons and the calipers and
wheel cylinders.
MASTER CYLINDER
DIAGRAM
I. TANDEM MASTER
CYLINDER
if a leak develops in the front brake system:
a) Piston 1 will move forward until it contacts Piston 2. Force
from the brake pedal will be transmitted mechanically
through Piston 1 to Piston 2.
b) Although overall braking performance will be severely
compromised, the rear brakes will still be functional
provided sufficient pedal travel is available.
c) The pedal will need to travel further than normal to fully
engage the rear brakes. Also, it should be appreciated that
trying to stop quickly with just the rear brakes is very
tricky because the rear tires will easily reach the point of
lock-up
If a leak develops in the rear brake system,
a) Piston 2 will move forward until it contacts the closed
end of the master cylinder housing.
b) Once Piston 2 becomes stationary, pressurization of fluid
between the two pistons will apply the front brakes.
c) Although overall braking performance will be
significantly compromised, the front brakes will still be
functional provided sufficient pedal travel is available.
The pedal will need to travel further than normal to fully
engage the front brakes.
B) WHEEL
CYLINDER
A wheel cylinder is a component in a drum brake system.
It is located in each wheel and is usually at the top, above
the shoes.

Its responsibility is to exert force onto the shoes so they


can contact the drum and stop the vehicle with friction.
The wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder that has two
pistons, one on each side.

Each piston has a rubber seal and a shaft that


connects the piston with a brake shoe.

When brake pressure is applied, the pistons are


forced out pushing the shoes into contact with the
drum
C) BRAKE SHOES
Brake shoes are made of two pieces of sheet steel welded
together.
The friction material is attached to the Lining table either by
adhesive bonding or riveting.
The crescent shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes
and slots in different shapes for return springs.
All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied
through the web to the lining table and brake lining.
Each brake assembly has two shoes, a primary and secondary.
The primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and
has the lining positioned differently than the secondary shoe
D) BRAKE DRUM
The brake drum is generally made of a special type
of cast iron. It is positioned very close to the brake
shoe without actually touching it, and rotates with
the wheel and axle.
As the lining is pushed against the inner surface of
the drum, friction heat can reach as high as600
F(316C). The brake drum must be:
a) Accurately balanced.
b) Sufficiently rigid.
c) Resistant against wear.
d) Highly heat-conductive.
e) Lightweight.
E) BRAKE FLUID
Brake fluids are used to transfer force into pressure. It works
because liquids are incompressible.
Since oils damage rubber seals and hoses in the braking
system, brake fluids are not petroleum-based.
Most brake fluids used today are glycol-ether based, but
mineral oil and silicone (DOT 5) based fluids are also
available.
It is a special type of fluid named SAE-1703J and must meet
the following requirements:
CHARACTERISTICS
Boiling point:
a) Brake fluid is subjected to very high temperatures, especially in
the wheel cylinders of drum brakes and disk brake calipers.
b) It must have a high boiling point to avoid vaporizing in the
lines. This vaporization is a problem because vapor is
compressible and negates hydraulic fluid transfer of braking
force.
)Viscosity
a) For reliable, consistent brake system operation,
brake fluid must maintain a constant viscosity
under a wide range of temperatures, including
extreme cold. This is especially important in
systems with ananti-lock braking system(ABS),
traction control, and stability control (ESP).
Corrosion
a) Brakes fluids must not corrode the metals used
inside components such as calipers, master
cylinders, etc.
)Compressibility
a) Brake fluids must maintain a low level of
compressibility that remains low, even with
varying temperatures.
F) BRAKE LINES AND HOSES

The connections between the master cylinder and wheel


cylinders are made of copper coated ,tin plated, annealed,
steel tubings and flexible hoses.
A flexible hose is made up of alternate layers of rubber and
fabric sheets wound over each other. these are used to
connect the steering front wheels.
OPERATION OF A
HYDRAULIC BRAKE
SYSTEM
a) as the brake pedal is pressed,
i. a pushrod exerts force on the piston(s) in the master
cylinder causing fluid from the brake fluid reservoir to
flow into a pressure chamber which results in an
increase in the pressure
ii. This forces fluid through the hydraulic lines toward
calipers where it acts upon one or two caliper pistons
iii. The brake caliper piston(s) then apply force to the
brake pads. This causes them to be pushed against
the spinning rotor, and the friction between the pads
and the rotor causes a brakingtorqueto be
generated, slowing the vehicle.
ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULIC
BRAKES

Advantages
a) Equal braking action on all wheels.
b) Increased braking force.
c) Simple in construction.
d) Low wear rate of brake linings.
e) Flexibility of brake linings.
f) Increased mechanical advantage.
Disadvantages
a) Whole braking system fails due to leakage
of fluid from brake linings.
b) Presence of air inside the tubings ruins the
whole system.
THANK
YOU