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CC608 BUILDING

SERVICES

Prepared By :

YUSNITA BINTI YUSOF


MAI AZUNA BINTI MEOR YUSUF
At the end of this unit you should be
able to:


It covers the topics of such as the advantages

of the single phase and the three phase

electrical supply, the electrical supply, the

sketching of the graphics symbols and its

standard installation in the building. Safety

procedures andrules by local authority.


Good, safe residential wiring job important


Poorly installed wiring - very hazardous to owner @ renter to
his personal property.

A good & safe wiring installation - source of satisfaction to


electrician, owner @ renter.

Planning for the future growth of electrical usage

This will involve - small amount of money

If customer later find the wiring inadequate for his needs,


many dollars will be required .

TRANSMISSION
SYSTEM

Transmission lines are sets of wires, called conductors, that carry
electric power from generating plants to the substations that
deliver power to customers.
A high voltage cable: 66kV, 132kV or 275kV.
At a generating plant, electric power is stepped up to several
thousand volts by a transformer and delivered to the transmission
line.
At numerous substations on the transmission system, transformers
step down the power to a lower voltage and deliver it to
distribution lines. Distribution lines carry power to farms, homes
and businesses.

PREPARED BY : JUNA 2011 7


ELECTRIC POWER

Electricity supply to a building are divided to two:

Single phase
Three phase

Single Phase power refers to two wire power circuits with:
i. one power conductor and
ii. one neutral conductor

In the Malaysia, 240V is the standard single phase


voltage with one 240V power conductor and one neutral
conductor.
Power flows from power conductor through the load to the
neutral conductor.
Method 1 : See the metre

There are only 2 wires only


Method 2 : See the main switch /Distribution Box
(DB)

Three Phase power has three power conductors (120V, 120V,
120V) out of phase with one another and one neutral conductor.
Three Phase supplies are much more efficient and are used to drive
larger electric devices when more power is required with better
response.
Colour code of three phase system in Malaysia:
L1: Red
L2: Yellow
L3: Blue
Neutral: Black


In the Malaysia, the three phase voltage is 415V.

Three-phase systems may have a neutral wire. A neutral wire allows


the three-phase system to use a higher voltage while still supporting
lower-voltage single-phase appliances.

In high-voltage distribution situations, it is common not to have a


neutral wire as the loads can simply be connected between phases
(phase-phase connection). Suitable to use at factories supporting
higher-voltage appliances.
Method 1 : See the metre

There are four wires,


including red, blue & yellow
Jika DB/Circuit Breaker hanya ada 1 suis utama
sahaja (biasanya berwarna merah) dan bila peti
DB dibuka terdapat 3 warna pendawaian iaitu
merah, kuning dan biru
Features Single phase 3 phase

Use
In the area & building a In area & industrial
small number of users building
gunakuasa
sederhana
Power Low power 120V ke 240 V Medium power
240 V 415 V

Load Limited quantity of load High quantity of


load

PREPARED BY : JUNA 2011 17


Features Single phase 3 phase

Wire Only one live wire Three live wires


Cable ( penghubung kpd Use 2 cables : Live Usually do not use
bekalan elektrik dr 1 punca cable & neutral cable the neutral cables
ke punca lain)

Live cable

Cost Low-cost construction Expensive


& installation

PREPARED BY : JUNA 2011 18


Wiring System Selection Factors:

Type of supply voltage



We know that supply company is recommended the 220 volts for single-
phase wiring system and 440 volts for three-phase wiring system.
Therefore the design of an installation is all depend upon the supply
voltages. So, it is better to design a wiring system according to easily
available rating of voltages.

Now, we know that the chose of wiring system upon the voltages that are
available from the serving utility at the building site location. The also
includes the size of building, type, size and character of the electrical load.

Economy and efficiency can be achieved by selecting the voltages which


are most applicable to electrical loads to be served. According to selecting
voltages we design an electrical wiring system.
Nature of work in building
It is recommended that always choose the wiring system
according to nature of work in building.

Example:

i. If we use the batten wiring in foundry factory (a factory
that produces metal castings) then after some duration
the insulation of cables to be damaged.
ii. If we use the lead wiring in chemical factory we see that
after some duration the vapour of the acid damaged the
lead wiring.
As a result, whole wiring system is replaced and new
wiring is installed. Economically this is not good.
Therefore always choose the wiring system according to
nature of work, where this wiring system is to be
installed.

Weather condition:

The regulation relates to weather conditions, always exposed to


hazardous environments.

It is seen that if the humidity of the air is not affected on wiring then it is
better but if humidity is effected then always choose the that wiring
system on which the humidity of the air can not effected.

For example if we install a batten or casing capping wiring on a wet


place then we see that after some duration the batten absorb the
humidity and become a conductor.

If the joints of wiring are loosed then short circuit is occurred through
this dumpy wood or wet batten.

So, always choose the wiring system according to weather conditions.


Durability:
The recommended wiring systems have a durable and also have a well
strength.


The design of wiring system is selected according to nature of work.

If we install a wrong wiring system then the durability is decreased. If we


choose the wiring system according to nature of working place, where this
wiring system is installed then the durability and life of wiring system is
maintained in specified duration.

Beauty of building/aesthetic value:


The wiring must provide a good look after its installation. In case of
conduit wiring is used in a modern, beautiful homes then it will spoil the
beauty of the building.

So, these places concealed conduit wiring is best.


Safety:
Always choose the correct size of cable because if you choose
the correct size of cable then this cable easily handles the load
current and no any risk of fire and leakage are present in wiring
system.


The regulation about safety provides a good knowledge related
to safe electrical installation.

If the designing engineer have a sound knowledge then the


wiring system easily follow the possibilities of future expansion,
no risk of fire, good looking according to nature of work and
future power capabilities.

The installation of the cable must be able to withstand the


applied voltage and also any transient of over voltage which
may occur. The connection must be sound and suitable for
purpose, whether in permanent or temporary installations.

Also, where any equipment has been disconnected in wiring, a


cheek should be made as to confirm that the connection must
be insulated after replacement of equipment for safety purpose.
Economical:
It is recommended that the selected wiring system must be
economical, well looking and also have a good efficiency.


The consumer easily affords the wiring cost and the wiring is
also equal to its requirements.

If a temporary installation is required then the material which


is used for this wiring system is not costly, because after
some duration this installation is replaced.

Switch Gears:
The switch gear used in wiring system must be with standing
the fault condition.

If we install a switch gear according to correct rating of circuit


then our system work properly and in abnormal condition
disconnect the wiring system through supply.
Flexibility:
A good electrical system provides flexibility. The wiring system
accommodates future physical changes.


The increased demand of load in electrical system must be
rearranged quickly and economically.

Flexibility can be maintained only if adequate additional space


is easily available.

Availability of material:
Always confirm, before starting wiring system that the material
for selected wiring system is easily available in market.

If it is easily available then this wiring system is installed in


building.

But, if the complete material of wiring is not easily available in


market then any other wiring system whose material is easily
available in market.
TYPES OF ELECTRICAL WIRING


Three types of wiring systems that are commonly
used:

Open wiring
Conduit wiring
Hidden wiring
Open Wiring

Figure: Figure:
Open wiring Open wiring
with aluminium with lead clip
clip
Open Wiring continue..


Horizontal Clip
distance Vertical
distance

Figure:
Distance between clips
Open Wiring continue..


Install directly to walls & ceilings of timbers.

for concrete walls on a wooden base.

Cable types of coated insulation (PVK) mechanical damage

Surrounding temperature not exceeding 65 0 C.

Cabling done with the support of the clip to the surface of the wall /
ceiling copper clip, aluminium @ lead ( not metal surface )

If the surface are brick or concrete , the cable will be clip on board
that was nailed to the wall.

Requires a single phase supply


Advantages & Disadvantages of
open wiring
Advantages Disadvantages
Good looking & well-arranged
Exposed to mechanical damage &
do not have a high safety value

Suitable for small installation Does not hold heat & moisture
( residence home )

Installation is easy & quickly prepared Impair views (pandangan


- damage could easily be detected mencacatkan)

Maintenance / extension work easy Non-durable


& does not affect the existing wiring.

The most expensive wiring costs Not suitable for oily places such as
workshop
CONDUIT WIRING

Conduit wiring system is best for domestic and
commercial installations.

Electrical conduit is metal or plastic pipe


through which electrical wires are run.

This conduit protects the wires and is usually


used in exposed locations, such as along the
outer surface of a wall.
CONDUIT WIRING

It provide proper protection to the installation against
fire hazards, shock, mechanical damage and
dampness.
Installed in place there is a danger of mechanical
damage, exposed to a chemical reaction, fluid and
outside the building.
Conduit is used materials made of :
i. galvanized steel
ii. PVC
iii. aluminium
CONDUIT WIRING

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a) Load / watt usage large.

b) Requiring a voltage supply - single phase and 3


phase.

c) Buildings & factories, workshops, commercial


buildings & stalls.

d) The wiring system is exposed to the danger of


mechanical damage
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Advantages & Disadvantages of
conduit wiring
Advantages Disadvantages
1. Conduit provides protection 1. It is costly system of wiring
against mechanical injury and
fire & is shock proof
2. Conduit provides protection 2. It requires more time for
against chemicals erection
3. The whole system is water 3. It requires highly skilled labour
proof
4. Conductors are safety secured 4. Internal condensation of
from moisture moisture may cause damage to
the insulation unless the system
5. This wiring has far better look outlets are drained and
ventilated
6. It has a longer life
Example : light gauge steel ( galvanic )
(tolok keluli ringan)

require special equipment, such as bending tools to


bend or offset (pengimbang) & mould tool (alat acuan) for making
threads (bebenang)

All conduit chips must be cleaned to avoid the injured


cable.
Conduit Standard sizes: 19mm/20mm, 25mm, 32mm,
40mm & 50mm.
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Advantages Disadvantages

1. Good mechanical protection 1.


Not well-arranged
kemas)
(btk tidak

2. Weatherproof (kalis cuaca) & 2. Requires skilled workers


good in hot condition

3. Durable & long-lasting (tahan


3. need special equipment
lasak) bending machine.

4. Can be planted directly into


4. Expensive / high cost
the ground.

5. Longer preparation period 42


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Advantages Disadvantages

1. Does not provide


1. Corrosion resistant
mechanical protection.
2. Easily damaged if
2. Safe from electrical
exposed to the sun &
shock (PVK-insulator)
rain

3. Cost - cheap
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Advantages
Disadvantages
1. Quick installation 1. Mudah terlucut /
tidak perlu benang tercabut

2. Easy to design follow


2. Tidak boleh dipasang
the form required (no
pada jarak jauh
special tools)

3. Avoid from fire spread


3. Easy broken (mudah patah)
(elak dari rebakan api)
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Advantages

1. Good mechanical
Disadvantages

1. Easy exposed to dust &


protection dirt
2. Can accommodate a lot of
2. Need skilled workers
cable

3. Look untidy [trunking


3. Quick installation work
propruding out (tertonjol keluar) ]

4. Not easily damaged by


changed in temperature & 4. High / expensive cost
weather.
50
Hidden Wiring

Hidden Wiring

Hidden Wiring

Hidden Wiring

Single phase voltage supply.

Entire building made of stone/brick @


cement.

Requires clean & beautiful buildings


environment.

Mechanical damage can be minimized.


Hidden Wiring

The number of cables to be installed much (banyak) .

Long-lasting cable usage (perlukan tempoh ketahanan kabel lebih lama) .

The rate of load install is small (kadar kuasa beban yang

dipasang adalah kecil) .


Advantages & Disadvantages of
hidden wiring
Advantages Disadvantages
1. Well-arranged & beautiful 1. Additional works hard to
office
2. Secure (selamat) - not
performed.

exposed to mechanical 2. Difficult to determine the


damage & climate cause of damage - repair
change.
3. Exposed to impact
3. Do not need a extra
examples :nail , gas @
equipment (alat tambahan khas)
water
4. Installation should be
4. Durable (tahan lama) done when the building is
being constructed
FITMENTS OF ELECTRICAL
WIRING

Conductor
Insulator
Fuses
Grounding/Earthing WIRING
PROTECTION
Lightning
CONDUCTOR
(Pengalir /konduktor)

example of
metal
FUNCTION OF
CONDUCTORs

Copper is the best
conductor of the
electricity

Conductor used to flow


the electricity to light up
bulb or switch on the
electrical appliances.
CONDUCTOR
(Pengalir /konduktor)


EXAMPLE OF
CONDUCTORs
Copper

Aluminum

Platinum

Gold

Silver

Water

People and Animals

Trees
CONDUCTOR


INSULATOR
(Penebat)


Electrical insulators are materials that do not
allow electric current to flow through.
Insulators A material that heat does not
move through easily is an insulator.
Has a high resistance to prevent the outflow.
Examples of good insulator: plastics, wood,
rubber, glass. plastic rubber.
EXAMPLE OF
INSULATOR

Glass

Porcelain

Plastic

Rubber
INSULATOR
(Penebat)


They help protect wires from getting messed
up, and they help us from getting hurt.
Many cooking utensils and handles are made
out of plastic, wood, or rubber.
Other good insulators are leather and
ceramics.
Will an insulator make a light
bulb light? Why or why not?
No, because it does not
conduct electricity. It
protects the wires.
INSULATOR


FUNCTION OF
INSULATOR

Ceramic insulator used
in railway

3-core copper wire power cable,


each core with individual colour-
coded insulating sheaths all
contained within an outer
protective sheath

PVC-sheathedMineral
insulated copper cable
with 2 conducting
cores

Power lines with


ceramic insulators in
California, USA
FUSE




- Kadar fius dikenali melalui warna

5A putih 13A coklat


15A biru 30 A merah

60A ungu

- Tidak mudah rosak, kadar arus tepat

- Harga mahal , tidak sesuai untuk arus litar pintas


yg tinggi.


- Kebaikan: daya pemutusnya lebih cekap diguna
pada litar berarus tinggi , boleh membezakan antara
arus berlebihan & ketepatan nilai kadar fius
terjamin .

- Keburukan : mahal

Simbol fius Fius katrij Fius dawai

D = fius

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Method of controlling the leakage
current to earth

78

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ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS

ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS continues.


ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS continues.


General guidelines for electrical safety
Turn off power and unplug from the wall before working on
electric or electronic circuits, except when absolutely
necessary.

Do not use extension cords as a permanent power source.

Do not work on electrical equipment in a wet area or when


touching an object that may provide a hazardous earth ground
path.

Turn off power and unplug equipment before checking or


replacing fuses. Locate and correct the cause of a blown fuse
or tripped circuit breaker before replacing the fuse or resetting
the circuit breaker.

Replace defective cords and plugs. Inspect cabling for defects


such as frayed wiring, loose connections, or cracked insulation.
PREPARED BY : JUNA 2011 86
Remove metal jewelry, watches, rings, etc. before working on electrical
circuits.

Always check the electrical ratings of equipment you use and be sure

Never overload circuits.



you use that equipment within its ratings.

Never leave unprotected systems unattended

Never place containers of liquid on electrical systems.

Never defeat the purpose of a fuse or circuit breaker.

Never install a fuse of higher amperage rating than that specially listed
for your circuit.

Make sure equipment chassis or cabinets are grounded. Never cut off or
defeat the ground connection on a plug.

Safely discharge capacitors in equipment before working on the


IEE STANDARD SAFETY
PROCEDURES AND RULES
DURING INSTALLATION
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Make sure
there are no oil
spills on the
floor during
installation
Use proper
clothes and
use thick
soled shoe
Joking around
are not allowed
and avoid
playing sharp
instrument
Ensure Earth
wire installed
effectively and
avoid rusted wire
Additional circuit
must be avoided
.
unless get
approval from the
officers only
If any accident
occur report to
the officer on
duty
immediately
Turn off the
power supply
before during
the installation
Never separate
electrical materials
usedAdditional
in the circuitry must be
avoided unless the approval
experiment
of the officers. without

the knowledge of
the officer on duty.