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Chapter 7

Confucianism and Daoism


Introduction: Early Chinese
Beliefs
Respect for Ancestors
Yang and Yin. Universe in opposite
but complementary principles
Divination. System of knowing the
future
Reading lines in bones and tortoise
shells. Oldest tradition
I Ching. Book of Changesan ancient
book that interprets life through an
analysis of hexagrams.
Section I.

DAOISM
Definition
The Way
Combination of the
1. early philosophical version of
Daoism and;
DaoChia prevalent in 300 B.C.E
2. its later development as a
religion
DaoChiao emerged after 100
C.E., ritualistic Daoism
Origins: Laozi
old master
Wise man
Produced Daodejing or Classic of
the Dao
Scripture of Daoism
Laozi
Ssu-ma Chiens Schi Chi or
Records of the Historian
REAL NAME: Li Erh
BIRTHPLACE: Chu Kingdom
OCCUPATION: Keeper of the
archives
Daodejing
5000 Chinese characters dictated by
Laozi
1973, 168 B.C.E two silk scrolls
containing the text of the Daodejing
was found
1993, 300 B.C.E three bundles of
bamboo was found in a tomb
81 chapters in verse form
Short, catchy statements, speculatively
based on popular sayings based on
common folk wisdom
Daodejing
Be content with what you have; rejoice
in the way things are. When you realize
nothing is lacking, the whole world
belongs to you.
When you are content to be simply
yourself and don't compare or compete,
everyone will respect you.
When I let go of what I am, I become
what I might be
Those who know do not speak. Those
who speak do not know.
Daodejing
Knowing others is intelligence;
knowing yourself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength;
mastering yourself is true power.
The truth is not always
beautiful, nor beautiful words the
truth.
A man with outward courage
dares to die; a man with inner
courage dares to live.
Daodejing
Do you have the patience to wait until
your mud settles and the water is
clear?
If you try to change it, you will ruin it.
Try to hold it, and you will lose it.
The wise man is one who, knows, what
he does not know.
If you realize that all things change,
there is nothing you will try to hold on
to. If you are not afraid of dying, there is
nothing you cannot achieve.
Zhuangzi
Lived around 300 B.C.E
His book, named after him,
contains developments of the
Daoist philosophy
Filled with stories highlighting the
themes of early Daoism
Daoist Beliefs and
Practices
Teaches people to view human
strife from the perspective of the
whole universe
People draw endless struggle and
conflict and comfort themselves
when suffering spiritually
Seeks to prolong human life
Two core topics
Longevity
Immortality
Chuan Chen Daoism
Selfcultivation according to inner
alchemy theories
How something common may be
transformed into something precious
Threefoldpurposes of Rituals/Rites
performed by Daoist priests
For the adept mystical union and
immortality
For the community blessings and renewals
For the dead salvation and release from
the punishment of hell
Dao
Undefinable, as the saying in the first chapter of
the book Daodejing
Cannot be put into words
nameless, No form
Source of everything and manifests itself through
everything
What makes the nature be what it is, therefore,
could be considered the natural rhythm of things
Both the Way of Nature and Way of Life

Live a life patterned after the Way


of Nature
Wu Wei
It behaves so naturally that it is even
called non-action
People are encouraged to act
spontaneously; according to the rhythm
of nature
Nature works to accomplish only what
is necessary, but no more.

Adopt simplicity of
lifestyle
Longevity and Chi
More concerned with human life
Human life is of the highest value, a
worthy goal for people to pursue forever
Human beings can control their lives
through self exercise and moral behavior,
instead of waiting to be delivered by God
To live the longest possible natural life by
living in harmony with ones social and
natural environment
Internal alchemy
Prolong and enhance the life force or the chi of a
person
Ways to pursue Longevity
1. Inner alchemy
1. Prolong and enhance the life force or the
chi of a person
2. Fu-chl (inhaling)
3. Hsing-chl (circulation of life force)
4. Dao-yin (a free maintaining tranquility)
5. Tsun-ssu (focusing mind)
6. Tai-his (fetus breath)
7. Pi-ku (avoiding eating grain)
8. Fu-shih (taking herbs and medicine)
Longevity and Chi
Move the life from its origin at the
base of the spine upwards to the
head. From there it circles back,
via the heart, to its origin. This
movement is accomplished
through certain postures, muscular
exercise, and practices of mental
imagery. Some Daoists have held
that these techniques of internal
alchemy can create an entity- the
immortal embryo- that can
The Yin Yang
Complimentaries
The yang moves upwards, represents the
heaven, pure and light
The yin moves downwards, forms the
earth, and so turbid and heavy
One is not better than the other; the
yin is not the negative or the yang the
positive
Constantly intertwine
In the yang there is yin; in the yin there is
yang
The Yin Yang
Not in conflict with each other
Complimentary qualities, thus, one must
be both receptive and active, feminine
and masculine, light and heavy
Constant cycle of change
E.g., cycle of seasons, in the life patterns of
creatures, in the warning and growing of the
moon
Naturalflow of wu wei, exhibit fluid
dynamicity of one state arising from the
other
The Yin Yang
Natural flow of wu wei, exhibit fluid
dynamicity of one state arising from
the other

It is when a true
understanding of this process
is realized within us when loss
and gain have the same
meaning-that we can achieve
true tranquility of the spirit
The Yin Yang
Our health depends on the flow of chi
through our body, and so subject to the
balance of yang (energy) and yin (rest)
Stillthe mind to relax the tense
mind in order to moderate ones
desires and control ones
emotions, so that the chi flows
harmoniously.
Acupuncture, meditation, internal
martial arts tai chi are inspired by the
yin-yang
Varieties of Daoism
Daoist Philosophy
Primarily philosophical
Started by Laozi in the 6th century B.C.E and
developed in the 2nd century B.C.E
Includes the Zhuangzi school, Huanglao school,
Hsuanhsueh school
Essential Doctrine
Dao is the unique source of the universe and
determines all things, that everything in the
world is composed of positive and negative
parts, that opposite always transform in each
other, and that people should take no unnatural
action (wu wei) but follow the natural law
Daoist religion
Chang Dao-Ling (c. 150 C.E)
Organized Daoism into a hierarchical
structure
Chinese organized movement that,
including Buddhism and
Confucianism, forms part of the
Three Teachings of China
Way of the Heavenly Masters,
Active in Taiwan and southeast
mainland China
Daoist religion:
Characteristic
Influenced by Buddhism but
representing indigenous
Chinese religion
Polytheistic
Not concerned with life after
death
Pursues longevity and
physical immortality
Daoist religion: Two Main
Sects
Cheng-I Sect
Orthodox Unity
Originated from the Five Pecks of Rice
Sect (Wu-tou-mi Dao)
Founded by Chang Dao Ling in the later
Han Dynasty (25-220 C.E.)
Prominent in Taiwan
Priests are allowed to eat a regular diet,
not forced to cover their hair or leave
home
Daoist priests living at homes
Daoist religion: Two Main
Sects
Chuan Chen Sect
Complete Purity Sect
Founded by Wang Che, a Daoist
reformer in the Chin Dynasty (1115-
1234)
Prominent in Mainland China
Priests live in monasteries and
convents, wear robes, and have
restricted diet
Section II:

CONFUCIANISM
Definition
Learning to be human
Entails a broadening and deepening
of thought and being that
acknowledge the interconnectedness
of all the modalities of existence
defining the human condition
Seeking to realize humanity in its all-
embracing fullness
Self-cultivation end
Self-realization primary purpose
Definition
Faith in the creative
transformation of our human
condition as a communal act and
as a dialogical response to
Heaven.
Integration of the four
dimensions of humanity:
Self
Community
Nature
Definition
Four Dimensions of Humanity
Self Understanding the self as a
creative transformation
Community The community as a
necessary vehicle for
human flourishing
Nature Nature as the proper home
for our form of life
Heaven Heaven as the source of
ultimate self-realization
1. Self Realization
Learning is for the sake of the
self rather than for the sake of
others
Predicated on the conviction that
self-cultivation is an end rather
than a means to an end
Self cultivation can create inner
resources for self-realization
unimaginable to those who view
self-cultivation merely as a tool
Self Realization
Personal sense of worth leads to
commitment in improving the
world from within, taking the
status quo as the point of
departure for their spiritual
journey
Learning for character building
Self Realization:
Confucian Self
Open, dynamic, and
transformative process
Tapping spiritual resources from
the cumulative symbolic tradition
(culture), the sympathetic
resonance of society, the vital
energy of nature, and the
creative power of Heaven
2. Human Community
Integral part of the quest for self-
realization
Cutting loose from gender, ethnicity,
language, and others as precondition
for our salvation
Begin journey at home
Cultivate ourselves in a vacuum
Constant human interaction
Thoughts and ideas are personal but
they are public goods as well
First Chapter of the Great
Learning
The ancients who wished to illuminate
brilliant value all under Heaven first
governed their states. Wishing to govern
their states, they first regulated their
families. Wishing to regulate their families,
they first cultivate their personal lives.
Wishing to cultivate their personal lives,
they first rectified their hearts and minds.
Wishing to rectify their hearts and minds,
they first authenticated their intentions.
Wishing to authenticate their intentions,
they first refined their knowledge.
First Chapter of the Great
Learning
The refinement of knowledge lay in the study of
things. For only when things are studied is
knowledge refined; only when knowledge is refined
are intentions authentic; only when intentions are
authentic are hearts and minds rectified; only
when hearts and minds are rectified are personal
lives cultivated; only when personal lives are
cultivated are families regulated; only when
families are regulated are states governed; only
when states are governed is there peace all under
Heaven. Therefore, from the Son of Heaven to the
common people, all, without exception, must take
cultivation as the root
First Chapter of the Great
Learning
Not only broadening, but
deepening
The community is embodied in
our self-transformation
3. Nature
Home
Hospitable environment for our
existence
Revered for its generosity and its
grandeur
Awe-inspiring presence enables
us to appreciate its fecundity and
sanctity
Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter
26
The sky before us is only bright, shining
mass; but when viewed in its unlimited
extent, the moon, the stars, and
constellations are suspended in it and all
things are covered by it.
The earth before us is but a handful of
soil; but in its breadth and depth, it
sustains mountains like Hua and Yueh
without feeling their weight, contains the
rivers and seas without letting them leak
away, and sustains all things.
Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter
26
The mountain before us is but a fistful
of straw; but in all the vastness of its size,
grass and trees grow upon it, birds and
beasts dwell on it, and stores of precious
things (minerals) are discovered in it.
The water before us is but a spoonful of
liquid, but in all its unfathomable depth,
the monsters, dragons, fishes, and turtles
are produced in them, and wealth
becomes abundant because of it.
4. Heaven
Source of
1. Moral creativity
2. Meaning of life
3. Ultimate self-transformation
Origin
Confucius
Real Name: Kung Chiu
A.K.A: Kung Fu Tzu or Great Master Kung
Fu respect
Tzu master
Date of 551 B.C.E.
Birth:
Occupation: Government Official, later on, Teacher
Two Ideals: 1. Producing individuals who could be
social leaders
2. Creating a harmonious society
Book: Analects
Goal: To become the trusted adviser of one of
the kings who were vying to re-establish
a unified China
Confucian Beliefs, Practices and
Values
Analects
Consists of advices on what to do in order
to become a good individual and to
harness an orderly society
Ethical Philosophy
Often thought of as a system for
regulation of social groups, but also a
system for the transformation on the
individual
The Junzi ideal of a perfect human
being
Five Great Relationships
1. Father-son
Represents the family
Authority of the father over the son is based on
irreversible biological linkage
Respect for age
Ideal relationship is nourished by affection, but the
sons cultivated sense of veneration serves as a
basis for his tender care of the aging father
2. Elder brother-younger brother
Elder must assume the responsibility for raising
younger siblings
Power of the adult son to provide for his dependent
father than in the authority over the son
Five Great Relationships
3. Husband-wife
Each person is responsible for the others care
Patriarchal conditioning
Confucian acknowledges divorce as an unhappy
eventuality in some marriages
No worldly sanctions
Rules for divorce are specific and are often based on social
conventions designed to preserve family harmony
Spirit of mutuality
Confucian wife
Known for her forbearance, patient restraint as a sign of inner
strength
Purposiveness appears to be covertly and subtly manipulative, she
has both power and legitimacy to ensure vision of the proper way
to maintain the well-being of the family prevails
Not subservient to the husband but is his equal
Domestic affairs
Authority of the husband recognized
Wife depends on the husband to enhance her public status
Five Great Relationships
3. Husband-wife
Each person is responsible for the others care
Patriarchal conditioning
Confucian acknowledges divorce as an unhappy eventuality in some
marriages
No worldly sanctions
Rules for divorce are specific and are often based on social conventions designed to
preserve family harmony
Spirit of mutuality
Confucian wife
Known for her forbearance, patient restraint as a sign of inner strength
Purposiveness appears to be covertly and subtly manipulative, she has both
power and legitimacy to ensure vision of the proper way to maintain the
well-being of the family prevails
Not subservient to the husband but is his equal

Elder-younger
Older people have responsibility for the younger
Ruler-subject
Virtue: Ren
goodness or benevolence
Cardinal virtue
Represents perfection of what it
means to be human
humanity or humaneness
chuntzu (junzi)
Person dedicated to the cultivation of
ren
Translated as gentleman or
superior man
Virtue: Hsiao
Filial piety starting point in
love for others
might we not say that filial piety
and respect for elders constitute
the root of benevolence?
(Analects 1:2)
Not only about ones parents and
siblings, but also about respect
for elders, and veneration for
ones ancestors
Virtue: Shu
Reciprocity
That which you want to realize
for yourself, you must also help
others realize for themselves
(Analects 6:30)
Famous reformulation of the
Golden Rule:
Do not do unto others what
you do not want to be done
unto you
Virtue: Li
Propriety
Used to refer only to observing rituals
of sacrifice to ancestors properly
Li is putting ren into practice
Proper behavior is useless without
benevolence:
A man who is not benevolentwhat
has he to do with rituals?
(Analects 3:3)
Understanding humanness
Emphasis on education as the human
approach
Learning as character building
Involving existential commitment to the task
of self-realization through the conscientious
cultivation of the great body
Unceasing process of learning for acquiring
knowledge
Self-reflexivity is constantly practices as part of
the daily routine
Confucian self is never static, but is a dynamic
ever-changing process.
Sense of this-worldliness
Commitment to the intrinsic
reasonableness and
meaningfulness of this world here
and now
Not a mere submission to status
quo, but desire to transform the
world from within the self
THE FIVE CLASSICS
The Book Shu Anthology of historical
of History Jing material about kings
from earliest times up
until Zhou period
(c.1100-256 B.C.E)
The Book Shi Collection of 300 poems
of Poetry Jing of the Zhou period
The Book Yi Jing Speaks of the basic
of patterns of the universe
Changes
The Book Li Ji Lists ancient ceremonies
of Rites and their meanings
The Spring Chun Comprises historical
and Qui records of the state of Lu,
Autumn where Confucius lived,
Confucian Family
Politicalauthority as an essential
factor in the maintenance of
social order
Respect is an important virtue