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Atomic Structure

History of Atomic Theory


Democritus (460 - 370 BC)
Was the first person to come up with the
idea of atom
Believed that all matter was
composed of indivisible particles he
called ATOMS
Which is derived from the Greek word
Atomos meaning indivisible
He also believed that different atoms:
Are different sizes

Have different properties

Other philosophers of that time did not


agree with his theories.
John Dalton (1766-1844)
Dalton is the Father
of Atomic Theory
Daltons ideas were
so brilliant that they
have remained
essentially intact up
to the present time
and has only been
slightly corrected.
Daltons Atomic Theory
(1803)
aka: 5 Postulates
1. All matter is composed of extremely
small particles called atoms. (I agree with
Democritus!)
2. All atoms of a given element are
identical, having the same:
- size
- mass
- chemical properties.
3. All atoms of different elements are
different.
Daltons Atomic Theory
(1803)
aka: 5 Postulates
4. Atoms cannot be created, divided
into smaller particles, or
destroyed.
**In a chemical reaction, atoms of different
elements are separated, joined or
rearranged. They are never changed into
the atoms of another element. We will learn
more later**
5. Atoms combine in definite whole
number ratios to make
compounds (you cant have a of a
Carbon bonding with Oxygen; its a whole
atom or no atom)
Daltons Atomic Model
Based on Daltons Atomic
Theory (5 postulates),
most scientists in the
1800s believed that the
atom was like a tiny solid
ball that could not be
broken up into parts.
Dalton was credited for
the three Atomic Laws that
were proven after his time.
Daltons Atomic Laws
1. Law of Conservation of
Mass
Matter cannot be created or
destroyed in any physical or
chemical process, just
2. Law of Constant
transferred.
Composition
When atoms combine to form
molecules, the ratio of atoms is
constant.
Example H2O will always have 2
Daltons Atomic Laws
3.Law of Multiple Proportions if two
elements can combine to form more than
one compound, then the ratio of the second
element combined with a certain mass of
the first element is always a ratio of small
whole numbers.
Example:
CO vs. CO2
Formula

Ratio of
N:O
The Law of Conservation of
Mass
Whenachemicalreactionoccurs,mass
isneithercreatednordestroyedbutonly
changed.
JJ Thomson (1856-
1940)
Used cathode rays
to prove that Daltons
Solid-ball model could
be broken into smaller
particles
Thomson is credited
with discovering
electrons
Cathode Ray Tubes
Cathode rays had been
used for some time before
Thompsons experiments.
A cathode ray is a tube that
has a piece of metal, called
an electrode, at each end.
Each electrode is connected
to a power source (battery).
When the power is turned on, the electrodes
become charged and produce a stream of
charged particles. They travel from cathode,
across the tube to the anode.
Cathode Ray Tubes
Thomson put the tube
in a magnetic field. -----------------------------
He predicted that the
stream would travel in
a straight path. ++++++++++++++
Instead, he found that
the path curved away
from a negatively Like charges repel each
charged plate and other, and objects with unlike
toward a positively charges attract each other,
charged plate Thomson concluded that the
Why? stream of charged particles
had electrons in them.
Cathode Ray Tube
Experiment Video Clip
Cathode Ray Tube
Experiment
Thompson Concluded:
Cathoderaysaremadeupof
invisible,negativelycharged
particlescalledElectrons.
These electrons had to come from the matter
(atoms) of the negative electrode.

Since the electrodes could be made from a


variety of metals, then all atoms must contain
electrons!
Thomsons Plum Pudding
Model
Thomsons Plum Pudding model is a
+ charge sphere that has (- )charged
electrons scattered inside, like
raisins in plum pudding.
Overall, the atom is neutral atom
because the atom had the same
number of positive and negative
charges.
From Thomsons experiments, scientists concluded
that atoms were not just neutral spheres, but
somehow were composed of electrically charged
particles.
The balance of positive and negative charge
Rutherford (1871-1937)
Took Thomsons Plum
Pudding Model and
added to it
Used the Gold Foil
Experiment to discover
the existence of:
An atomic Nucleus

Protons (in later experiments)

You must be able to


explain the Gold Foil
Experimentit will be on
the CST
Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford directed a
narrow beam of alpha
particles (+ charges) at a
thin piece of gold foil.

Based on observations
from other experiments
involving alpha particles,
he predicted that the (+)
charges would go
through the foil
Results from Gold Foil
Experiment

Rutherford found that


every once and a while, a
+ particle was deflected
bounced back. (about 1%
of the time)
Why?
Because the + charge hit
a central mass of positive
charge and was repelled.
The Gold Foil Experiment
The Nuclear Model of the Atom

Toexplaintheresultsoftheexperiment,
Rutherfordsteamproposedanewmodelof
theatom.
Conclusions from
Rutherfords Gold Foil
Experiment
The atom contains a positivelythis!)
(memorize
charged nucleus
This nucleus contains almost all of the
mass of the atom, but occupies a very
small volume of the atom.
The negatively charged electrons
occupied most of the volume of the atom.
The atom is mostly empty space.
Rutherfords Planetary
Model
To explain his
observations,
Rutherford
developed a new
model
The electrons
orbit the nucleus
like the planets
revolve around the
Bohr (1885-1962)
Worked in Rutherfords
lab
Wondered why electrons
are not attracted to the +
nucleus and cluster
around it
Disproved Rutherfords
Planetary Model
Experimented with light
and its interaction with
matter to develop a new
model.
Bohrs Energy Level Model
Energy Level Model: Electrons
are arranged in circles around
the nucleus. Each circle has a
different energy.
Electrons are in constant
motion, traveling around the
circle at the speed of light.
Electrons can jump from one
circle to the next
But they cant go to the nucleus
they traveling too fast to be fully
attracted.
Bohrs Energy Level Model
He proposed the following:
1. Protons and neutrons are in the
nucleus
2. Electrons can only be certain distances
from the nucleus.
3. The electrons orbit the nucleus at fixed
energy levels.
4. The electrons must absorb or emit a
fixed amount of energy to travel between
these energy levels
Review
Who is the father of atomic theory?
Dalton
What was the first model of the atom?
Daltons Tiny Ball Model
What are Daltons 3 Laws?
Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of
Constant Composition, Law of Multiple
Porportion
Review
How were Thomsons and Daltons model
different?
Daltons model was 1 sphere that cannot
be divided, Thomson had the plum pudding
where electrons are randomly spread
throughout a positively charged sphere.
What did Thomson find out?
Atoms have electrons, they have a - charge
Review
What were Rutherfords conclusions from
the Gold Foil Experiment?
Atom has a positively charged nucleus

electrons are outside,

atoms are mostly empty

Nucleus contains most of the mass.