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In its simplest form ecommerce is the buying and selling of

products and services by businesses or consumers over the
World Wide Web.
People use the term "ecommerce" or "online shopping" to
describe the process of searching for and selecting products in
online catalogues and then "checking out" using a credit card
and encrypted payment processing

E-commerce describes the process of buying

and selling of products, services and
information via computer networks including
E-commerce is the means to complete online
transaction and integrate the supply chain
into the transaction management process
such as receiving orders, making payments
and tracking down the deliveries or order.
Limitation of Traditional
Paper work
Delay in transaction
Addition cost of paper, typing, documents storage and handling.
Time consuming
Delay in payment
Difficult to reach to remote customer
Distributor, agents, wholesaler.
E-commerce Benefits
Reduced costs by reducing labour,

Reduced paper work,

Reduced errors in keying in data,

Reduced time. Shorter lead times for payment

E-commerce Benefits

Faster delivery of product .

New Markets. The Internet has the potential to expand your business into
wider geographical locations
Role of E-Commerce

E-Commerce is used everywhere

On-line education
Online banking
Electronic fund transfer
Online auction
Travel reservation on internet
Online retailing(homeshop18, flip cart)
Three-tier Technical Model

Server side

Client side Service system Backend system

Architecture of Web-based E-
Commerce System
Service system Backend system

Web Server Application Server

Internet Database


Client side Server side


E-Commerce provides following features

Non-Cash Payment: E-Commerce enables use of credit cards,
debit cards, smart cards, electronic fund transfer via bank's
website and other modes of electronics payment.
24x7 Service availability: E-commerce automates business of
enterprises and services provided by them to customers are
available anytime, anywhere. Here 24x7 refers to 24 hours of
each seven days of a week.
Advertising / Marketing: E-commerce increases the reach of
advertising of products and services of businesses. It helps in
better marketing management of products / services.
Improved Sales: Using E-Commerce, orders for the products
can be generated any time, any where without any human
intervention. By this way, dependencies to buy a product reduce
at large and sales increases.
Support: E-Commerce provides various ways to provide pre
sales and post sales assistance to provide better services to
Inventory Management: Using E-Commerce, inventory
management of products becomes automated. Reports get
generated instantly when required. Product inventory
management becomes very efficient and easy to maintain.
Communication improvement: E-Commerce provides ways for
faster, efficient, reliable communication with customers and
Advantages:E-Commerce Advantages

E-Commerce advantages can be broadly

classified in three major categories:

Advantages to Organizations

Advantages to Consumers

Advantages to Society
Advantages to Organizations

Using E-Commerce, organization can expand their market to

national and international markets with minimum capital
investment. An organization can easily locate more customers,
best suppliers and suitable business partners across the globe.
E-Commerce helps organization to reduce the cost to create
process, distribute, retrieve and manage the paper based
information by digitizing the information.
E-commerce improves the brand image of the company.
Advantages to Organizations

E-commerce helps organization to provide better customer

E-Commerce helps to simplify the business processes and make
them faster and efficient.
E-Commerce reduces paper work a lot.
E-Commerce increased the productivity of the organization. It
supports "pull" type supply management. In "pull" type supply
management, a business process starts when a request comes
from a customer and it uses just-in-time manufacturing way.
Advantages to Customers

24x7 support. Customer can do transactions for the product or

enquiry about any product/services provided by a company any
time, any where from any location. Here 24x7 refers to 24 hours
of each seven days of a week.
E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker
delivery of products.
E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare
and select the cheaper and better option.
A customer can put review comments about a product and can
see what others are buying or see the review comments of other
customers before making a final buy.
E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.
Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant
detailed information within seconds rather than waiting for days
or weeks.
E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and
as result organizations provides substantial discounts to
Advantages to Society

Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic

on road and low air pollution.
E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent
people can also afford the products.
E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to
rural areas as well which are otherwise not available to them.
E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like
health care, education, social services at reduced cost and in
improved way.
E-Commerce Disadvantages

E-Commerce disadvantages can be broadly classified in two

major categories:
Technical disadvantages
Non-Technical disadvantages
Technical Disadvantages

There can be lack of system security, reliability or standards

owing to poor implementation of e-Commerce.
Software development industry is still evolving and keeps
changing rapidly.
In many countries, network bandwidth might cause an issue as
there is insufficient telecommunication bandwidth available.
Special types of web server or other software might be required
by the vendor setting the e-commerce environment apart from
network servers.
Sometimes, it becomes difficult to integrate E-Commerce
software or website with the existing application or databases.
There could be software/hardware compatibility issue as some E-
Commerce software may be incompatible with some operating
system or any other component.
Non-Technical Disadvantages

Initial cost: The cost of creating / building E-Commerce

application in-house may be very high. There could be delay in
launching the E-Commerce application due to mistakes, lack of
User resistance: User may not trust the site being unknown
faceless seller. Such mistrust makes it difficult to make user
switch from physical stores to online/virtual stores.
Security/ Privacy: Difficult to ensure security or privacy on online
Lack of touch or feel of products during online shopping.
E-Commerce applications are still evolving and changing rapidly.
Internet access is still not cheaper and is inconvenient to use for
many potential customers like one living in remote villages.
Types of Electronic commerce

Business - to - Business (B2B)

Business - to - Consumer (B2C)

Consumer - to - Consumer (C2C)

Consumer - to - Business (C2B)


Website following B2B business model sells its product to an

intermediate buyer who then sells the product to the final
customer. As an example, a wholesaler places an order from a
company's website and after receiving the consignment, sells the
end product to final customer who comes to buy the product at
wholesaler's retail outlet.
Business - to - Consumer(B2C)
Business - to - Consumer(B2C)

Website following B2C business model sells its product directly to

a customer. A customer can view products shown on the website
of business organization. The customer can choose a product and
order the same. Website will send a notification to the business
organization via email and organization will dispatch the
product/goods to the customer.
Consumer - to - Consumer (C2C)
Consumer - to - Consumer (C2C)

Website following C2C business model helps consumer to sell

their assets like residential property, cars, motorcycles etc. or
rent a room by publishing their information on the website.
Website may or may not charge the consumer for its services.
Another consumer may opt to buy the product of the first
customer by viewing the post/advertisement on the website.
Consumer - to - Business (C2B)
Consumer - to - Business (C2B)

In this model, a consumer approaches website showing

multiple business organizations for a particular service.
Consumer places an estimate of amount he/she wants to spend
for a particular service. For example, comparison of interest rates
of personal loan/ car loan provided by various banks via website.
Business organization who fulfills the consumer's requirement
within specified budget approaches the customer and provides
its services.
E-commerce definition

Business originating from . . .

Business Consumers

And selling to . . .


E-commerce categories

Business originating from . . .

Business Consumers

And selling to . . . Publishers


supplies from paper
supplies from paper
companies Consumers
Consumers aggregate
aggregate to
bulk purchasefrom
purchase fromAmazon
Amazon orders
orders from
Consumers publishers

Consumersbuy buythousands
of Consumers resell
of Harry Potter books from
Harry Potter books from copies on eBay

Single chain (or converging categories) of e-commerce

Elements of E-Commerce

Website(with all details)
SSL(secure sockets layer)
Secure Certificate
Electronic payment system.
Merchant Account
Payment Gateway
Example of Electronic Commerce

Measuring Benefits

Tangible benefits of electronic commerce initiatives include:

Increased sales
Reduced costs
Intangible benefits of electronic commerce initiatives include:
Increased customer satisfaction

A catalog represents a collection of products

that you group into categories.
You can then use this information to create,
within a Commerce Server-enabled Web site,
Web pages that let your customers browse your
collection of products.
The categories in your catalogs can have sub-
categories, and products may appear in
multiple categories.

You can define a product with variations, for example, the same
shirt can have different colors. These are called a product
You can also create catalogs that display on your Web site in
different languages and different currencies.
You can link two products together, so that when one is viewed,
the other appears somewhere on your Web site page as an
alternate suggestion..

Catalogs contain hierarchies and relationships that you use to

organize the products in the catalog
It is used to make it easier for customers to navigate to the
products that they want to buy.
You can create category hierarchies and relationships among
categories and products that are in the same catalog or in
different catalogs.


For example, if you have a large catalog, you can create a parent
category that includes several other categories, known as child
When customers navigate to the parent category, the child
categories appear; enabling customers to navigate quickly to the
category that contains the products they want.
For example, you could define an "alternate" relationship so that
when one product is viewed, another appears somewhere on
your Web site page as an alternate suggestion.
Merchant account

A merchant account is a type of bank account that allows

businesses to accept payments by payment cards, typically
debit or credit cards. A merchant account is established
under an agreement between an acceptor and a
merchant acquiring bank for the settlement of payment card
transactions. In some cases a payment processor,
independent sales organization (ISO), or member service
provider (MSP) is also a party to the merchant agreement.
Whether a merchant enters into a merchant agreement
directly with an acquiring bank or through an aggregator,
the agreement contractually binds the merchant to obey the
operating regulations established by the card associations .
What is an Internet merchant account?
It's an account with a bank that allows you to process credit
cards online.
DEFINITION of 'Merchant Account'
A type of business bank account that allows a business to accept
and process debit and credit card transactions. Merchant
accounts are necessary accounts for many businesses, and are
essential for online businesses. There are different types of
merchant accounts to choose from for businesses. For instance,
some merchant accounts are designed specifically to handle
online sales.
How it works

Your Online Shop

Payment Gateway
InternetMerchant Account
How it works

Your customer inputs credit card information in Your Online Shop.

The Payment Gateway encrypts data and sends it securely to
your Internet Merchant Account.
The transaction is reviewed for authorisation by the customers
issuing bank.
The result is encrypted and sent back through the gateway.
You get the results and decide whether or not to fulfil the order.
Supply chain management
Supply chain management is the integration of the
activities that procure(buy) materials and services,
transform them into intermediate goods and final
products, and deliver them through a distribution system.
But in general, Supplychain management means the
management of upstream and downstream relationships with
suppliers and customers to deliversuperior customer value at
less cost to the supply chain as a whole
What is Supply Chain Management?

Every product that reaches an end user represents the cumulative effort of
multiple organizations. These organizations are referred to collectively as
the supply chain.
The entire chain of activities that ultimately delivered products to the final
customer. The result was disjointed and often ineffective supply chains.
Supply chain management, then, is the active management of
supply chain activities to maximize customer value and achieve a
sustainable competitive advantage. Supply chain activities cover
everything from product development, sourcing, production, and logistics,
as well as the information systems needed to coordinate these activities.
They are the most visible piece of the supply chain. But just as important
are information flows. Information flows allow the various supply chain
partners to coordinate their long-term plans, and to control the day-to-day
flow of goods and material up and down the supply chain.
What is Supply Chain Management?
If you have ever checked out a newspaper advertisement, driven to the
store, and purchased your favorite product at a ridiculously low price,
then you can thank supply chain managers for a job well done! Supply
chain management (SCM) is all the activities that take place to get a
product in your hands from the time of raw materials extraction to the
minute you pull out your credit card and take the final product home.
SCM focuses on planning and forecasting, purchasing, product
assembly, moving, storing, and keeping track of a product as it
flows toward you and other consumers.
Supply chains include all of the companies that participate in the design,
assembly, and delivery of products for buyers like you. Retailers,
manufacturers, transportation companies, and distributors are some of
the key players.
Enterprise resource planning
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a business management
softwareusually a suite of integrated applicationsthat a company
can use to collect, store, manage and interpret data from many
business activities, including:-
Product planning, cost and development
Manufacturing or service delivery
Marketing and sales
Inventory management
Shipping and payment
ERP provides an integrated view of core business processes, often in
real-time, using common databases maintained by a database
management system
ERP software is considered an enterprise application as it is
designed to be used by larger businesses and often requires
dedicated teams to customize and analyze the data and to
handle upgrades and deployment.
So Generally there are lot of ERP package vendors in the
market like,SAP,Oracle,BANN,JD Edwards,SIEBEl etc.Each
vendor is specialized in one or many resources.SAP comes
under ERP Package which gives business solutions to a
business setup in all areas like Finance,Sales,Costing and
materials etc.

SAP stands for Systems Applications and Products in Data

SAP is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system by SAP AG,
company based out of Walldorf in Germany. AG is derived from
the German word AKtiengesellschaft. According to German
Language SAP Stands for Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte
in Der Datenverarbeitung.SAP software suite that is being
implemented as part of re-engineering and Provides end to end
solutions for financial, logistics, distribution, inventories. Present
scenario large number of companies are using sap software for
their day to day business activities.

SAP is beautifully and neatly integrated ERP software. SAP is a

leader when it comes to easy integration among all the
departments. It provides industry specific solutions for different
industries other then its basic SAP modules. SAP suit contains
SAP FI, CO, SD, MM, PP, HR, PA and other modules
The act of obtaining or buying goods and services. The process
includes preparation and processing of a demand as well as the
end receipt and approval of payment.

EDI stands for Electronic Data Exchange.

Example flip cart receipt send to customer when product is sent.
EDI stands for Electronic Data Exchange. EDI is an electronic way
of transferring business documents in an organization internally
between its various departments or externally with suppliers,
customers or any subsidiaries etc. In EDI, paper documents are
replaced with electronic documents like word documents,
spreadsheets etc.
EDI Documents

Following are few important documents used in EDI:

Purchase orders
Shipping Requests
Business Correspondence letters
Financial information letters

Electronic funds transfer (EFT) is the electronic exchange,

transfer of money from one account to another, either within a
single financial institution or across multiple institutions, through
computer-based systems.
Cardholder-initiated transactions, using a payment card such as a
credit or debit card
Question: What does "EFT (electronic funds transfer)" mean?
Answer: The transfer of money from one account to another by
Back-end EC solution

All ERP vendor Like SAP oracle have also announced Web Ec
strategies and products like.
Peachtree software: complete package for web front and
managing order.
SBT corp Web trader is another c2b web ec package work in LAN
Great plain software:
a: Dynamic merchant for c2b, dynamic order for b2b

A number of new startup vendor are starting to provide front end

Media convergence

(IT + Telecommunication + Media Technology) = Media Convergence

Mobile= telephone + high speed data + broadcast services.
You can watch television on Mobile and computer.
Now a days analogue and digital work together or analogue
becoming digital.

the fact that newspapers, television, radio, and the internet are
becoming less separate as technology develops: Media convergence
means that we can now watch a newspaper's video report on our
cellphone via the internet.
Four types of convergence:

1:-Network convergence: different types of networks becoming

capable of carrying multiple kinds of communication services.
2:-Terminal convergence:- making it possible to watch TV on mobile.
3:-Market convergence:- different kind of market like IT, Tele and
media working together.
Media convergence is the merging of mass communication outlets
print, television, radio, the Internet along with portable and
interactive technologies through various digital media platforms

What is a "tier"?
A "tier" can also be referred to as a "layer".
n the software world Tiers/Layers should have some or all of the
following characteristics:
Each tier/layer should be able to be constructed separately,
possibly by different teams of people with different skills.
Several tiers/layers should be able to be joined together to make
a whole "something".
Each tier/layer should contribute something different to the
whole. A chocolate layer cake, for example, has layers of
chocolate and cake.
There must also be some sort of boundary between one tier and
another. You cannot take a single piece of cake, chop it up into
smaller units and call that a layer cake because each unit is
indistinguishable from the other units.
Each tier/layer should not be able to operate independently
without interaction with other tiers/layers.
Presentation logic - the user interface (UI) which displays data to the user and
accepts input from the user. In a web application this is the part which
receives the HTTP request and returns the HTML response.
Business logic - handles data validation, business rules and task-specific
Data Access logic - communicates with the database by constructing SQL
queries and executing them via the relevant API.
Three tier ecommerce
E-commerce Framework

Framework tells about the detail of how e-commerce can take

It defines actually how e-commerce implemented, how online
trading or business can be done.
It defines important components that should be present to do
some transaction

However determining a right framework for ecommerce solutions

is a major challenge.
Most of the frameworks are quite general and usually depend on
the country or organization needs.
Four Layer Framework

Barua et al.6 proposed a four-layer framework.

The Internet infrastructure layer addresses the issue of backbone
infrastructure required for conducting business via the net.
It is Largely made up of telecommunication companies and other
hardware manufacturers such as computer and networking
The Internet applications layer provides support systems for the
Internet economy through a variety of software applications
The Internet intermediary layer includes a host of companies that
participate in the market making process in several ways.
Finally, the Internet commerce layer covers companies that
conduct business in an over all ambience provided by the other
three layers
Zwasss Hierarchical
Zwass (1998) presented a very comprehensive hierarchical
framework of E-Commerce, consisting of three meta-levels:

1:- Infrastructure,
2:- Services, and
3:- Products and structures
seven functional levels
This model clearly builds upon the work undertaken by
the developers of the various layered network protocols
or architectures, which have been developed to explain the
inter-connection of telecommunications networking, such as the
OSI Reference Model.
which use a similar layering approach, where each layer has a
clearly defined area of functionality.
This separation of tasks means that a change at one layer does
not normally affect the other layers, with significant positive
implications for software developers.
The 3-Tier Architecture

The 3-Tier Architecture

This is where the code for each area of responsibility can be cleanly split away from the others
Note here that the presentation layer has no direct communication with the
data access layer - it can only talk to the business layer.
Requests and Responses in the 3
Tier Architecture
The Rules of the 3 Tier Architecture

The code for each layer must be contained with separate files
which can be maintained separately.
Each layer may only contain code which belongs in that layer.
Thus business logic can only reside in the Business layer,
presentation logic in the Presentation layer, and data access logic
in the Data Access layer.
The Presentation layer can only receive requests from, and return
responses to, an outside agent. This is usually a person, but may
be another piece of software.
The Presentation layer can only send requests to, and receive
responses from, the Business layer. It cannot have direct access
to either the database or the Data Access layer.
The Business layer can only receive requests from, and return
response to, the Presentation layer.
The Business layer can only send requests to, and receive
responses from, the Data Access layer. It cannot access the
database directly.
The Data Access layer can only receive requests from, and return
responses to, the Business layer. It cannot issue requests to
anything other than the DBMS which it supports.
Disadvantage of this approach

The use of a similar approach to analysing E-Commerce would have

equivalent benefits in terms of separating out tasks and enabling
solutions to be developed without impact on other E-Commerce activities.
The disadvantage of this approach, however, is that there is less flexibility
because of the sequence of the layers. Why, for example, are there seven
We believe that the components of Electronic Commerce are
constantly changing over time and as particular technologies are
pressed into service.
The layering approach, which works very well for networking,
where the functions and activities can be fully described and do
not evolve outside the limits of the model, are thus less applicable
to the very mutable functions and activities of E-Commerce.
Kalakota and Whinston's
Pillars Framework
Kalakota and Whinston have also developed a generic approach
to providing a framework for Electronic Commerce (Kalakota &
Whinston 1996).
Using a very different scheme from that taken by Zwass, they
use the metaphor of pillars (public policy and technical
standards), to support four infrastructures
(network, multimedia content, messaging, and common
business services)
on top of which they place E-Commerce Applications.
These authors suggest that the elements of a framework for E-
Commerce are a convergence of technical, policy and business
concern. This model is simple to understand and visually
attractive but it lacks theoretical depth and
is not particularly useful for researchers endeavouring to
incorporate it into empirical research projects.

We believe that this model is useful for those who are

approaching Electronic Commerce for the first time
but do not feel that it can be used as a foundation for more
detailed analytical study.
Riggins and Rhee's Domain
Riggins and Rhee (1998) have used the Harvard matrix approach to
identify a view of E- Commerce based upon type of relationship and
internal/external focus.
This descriptive framework takes as its axes the location of the
application user and type of relationship,
thus essentially distinguishing between intranet-based applications and
those which use either an extranet or the public Internet to provide access
to the
applications concerned.
Such a model is clearly useful to companies which wish to classify their
trading partners into internal and external and, within these, into new and
ongoing relationships it categorises E-Commerce applications into four
which can be helpful in identifying relationships and technology
Despite these useful characteristics, however, the model is
limited in its identification of E-Commerce types being primarily
focused upon trading relationships.
It would be more difficult to use such a model in the development
of, say, a government-sponsored virtual community such as
Victorias Warrnambool on the Web project. (Warrnambool on the
Web 1999)
If you look carefully at those layers you should see that each one
requires different sets of skills:
The Presentation layer requires skills such as HTML, CSS and
possibly JavaScript, plus UI design.
The Business layer requires skills in a programming language so
that business rules can be processed by a computer.
The Data Access layer requires SQL skills in the form of Data
Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language
(DML), plus database design.
What is a Domain Name?

New computer users often confuse domain names with universal

resource locators, or URLs, and Internet Protocol, or IP, addresses.
The universal resource locator, or URL, is an entire set of directions,
and it contains extremely detailed information.
The domain name is one of the pieces inside of a URL.
An Internet Protocol, or IP, address is different than a domain name
The IP address is an actual set of numerical instructions.
domain name as a nickname for that code so that can remember easily.
Ip could be, for example. However, humans cannot
understand or use that code.
That why name given to numeric which difficult to remember.
For example, in the URL, the domain name is
Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which
top level domain (TLD) it belongs to. There are only a limited
number of such domains.
Because the Internet is based on IP addresses, not domain
names, every Web server requires a Domain Name System (DNS)
server to translate domain names into IP addresses
For example:
gov - Government agencies
edu - Educational institutions
org - Organizations (nonprofit)
mil - Military
com - commercial business
net - Network organizations
ca - Canada
th - Thailand
Difference between HTTP and
The "S" in HTTPS indicates a secure site.
If you visit a web site or web page, and look at the address in the
web browser.
it will likely begin with the following: http://. This means that the web
site is talking to your browser using the regular 'unsecured'
This is why you never ever enter your credit card number in an http
web site
But if the web address begins with https://, your computer is talking
to the web site in a secure code that no one can see.
Difference Between the Internet
and the WWW?
People commonly use the words "Internet" and "Web"
This usage is technically incorrect.
The Internet is the large container.
the Web is a part within the container.
the Net is the restaurant.
the Web is the most popular dish on the menu
The World Wide Web, or "Web" for short, is a massive collection
of digital pages.
the Web is based on hypertext transfer protocol.
But another protocol you can use like ftp etc.
Only http is www another is not.
The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on
SMTP, instant messaging and FTP.
So the Web is just a portion of the Internet
Characteristics of Domain Name

Domain names are restricted to

only the ASCII letters 'a' through 'z' (in a case-insensitive
the digits '0' through '9.
and the hyphen ('-').
Parts of a Domain Name

Each domain name consists of two parts.

Top Level Domain - A top-level domain (TLD) is the part of the
domain name located to the right of the dot. The most common
top-level domains are .COM, .NET, and .ORG. Some other popular
top-level domains are .BIZ, .INFO, .NAME and .IN etc.
Second Level Domain - . The second-level domain name is the
part of the domain name located to the left of the dot. Steps-to-
make-your-own-website is the second-level domain name and
represents the organization or entity behind the internet. Second
Level Domain name must be registered with an Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)-
accredited registrar.
Domain Name Level

Top Level Domain - A top-level domain (TLD) is the part of the

domain name located to the right of the dot. The most common
top-level domains are .COM, .NET, and .ORG. Some other popular
top-level domains are .BIZ, .INFO, .NAME and .IN etc.
Generic top level maintained by IANA and country code top level
reserved for a country.
Second Level Domain - . The second-level domain name is the
part of the domain name located to the left of the dot.
Third level domain name:-which are written immediately to
the left of a second level Domain.
Each level is separated by a dot or period symbol.
What is a Subdomain?

A subdomain is a domain name that is a part of the main domain.

It is used to organize a website with regard to various functions,
sections, topics, etc.
For example is the main domain name.
They have separated Gmail, that handles their mail section of
the website as
Similarly they have other subdomains too which are other
sections of their main website.
like,,, etc
What is DNS?

DNS is the acronym for Domain Name System.

This system translates the number format of your IP address to
the word format.
It is done because it is relatively easier to remember words than
it is easier to name an e-mail address as
than service@
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed
naming system for computers, services, or any resource
connected to the Internet or a private network
Digital Certificate

An attachment to an electronic message used for security purposes

It is trusted ID card in electronic form that binds a websites public
encryption key to their identity for the purpose of public trust.
The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user
sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the
receiver with the means to encode a reply.
An individual wishing to send an encrypted message applies for a
digital certificate from a Certificate Authority (CA).
The CA issues an encrypted digital certificate containing the
applicant's public key and a variety of other identification
In the physical world, you protect your written correspondence by
putting it in an envelope before posting. In the online world,
sending an email message is like sending a postcard.
it is easy to intercept and read as it travels across the Internet.
Instead of risking disclosure of your private email message,
one option for safeguarding them is to use a digital certificate