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The Barriers or negative forces may affect

the effectiveness of communication
by acting upon
any or all of the basic elements of
communication process and
1. Semantic barriers
2. Organizational barriers
3. Interpersonal barriers
4. Individual barriers
5. Cross Cultural (geographic) barriers
6. Physical Barriers/Channel & media
7. Technological barriers
"Semantics" is the science of meaning. It is
contrasted with phonetics, the science of sounds.
This barrier is related to the process of coding
and decoding the message.

Words having similar pronunciation but multiple

Badly expressed message

Wrong interpretation

Unqualified assumptions

Technical Language
(a) Organization culture and climate:
In every organization, there exists a unique culture and climate. The
climate and culture of an organization ultimately influence the freedom,
thrust and interaction pattern among people in an organization. As
people working over there take time to adapt themselves, bottlenecks in
communication are inevitable.

(b) Organizational rules and regulations:

The rules and regulations of the organization vary widely from one
organization to another. They may be so rigid that they may
influence the flow of information in a wrong direction.

(c) Status relationships:

The status, power and position relationship acts as the hurdle
in the effectiveness of communications. Individuals may not be able to say
what they wish to say because of their fear for the position and power of
the other party in the communication process.

(d) Complexity in organizational structure:

The complex hierarchical structure of the organization like too
tall or too much of divisionalisation of the organization may
not facilitate the free flow of communication.
(e) Inadequate facilities and opportunity:
The organization may not have adequate communication
facilities, equipment and mechanisms. Open door
employment system, conferences, seminars and meetings
being held in the organization also influence it.
(f) Lack of cooperation between superior and subordinate:
There may not be proper cooperation between the superior
and subordinate for various personal or organizational
relationships, which may held to improper communication in
an organization.
1. Barriers emanating from superiors: Following are the barriers with respect to the superiors:

a) Shortage of time for employees:

Superior may not devote enough time for their employees due to their busy schedule or other preoccupations. As a
result, a gap is created between the superior and subordinates. In the later stage, it acts as a hurdle in the
communication process.
b) Lack of trust:
Sometimes, the supervisors may not trust their subordinates because of variety of reasons, which can act as a
hurdle in the free flow of communication in a organization.
c) Lack of consideration for employee's needs:
The employer may not devote enough time for the employees. As a result, they are enable to understand
their needs and genuine problems. It may lead to miscommunication. d) Wish to capture authority: The superior
may hide the confidential and important information from employee in view of capturing and retaining their
authority, which acts as the barrier to communication between the superior and subordinates in the
e) Fear of losing power of control:
The supervisor may have a fear of losing power of control if they freely express their ideas and view with their
subordinate. Therefore, they may hide certain important information from their employees, which ultimately
affect the communication process in the organization.
f) Bypassing:
Bypassing also effects communication and acts as a barrier. Due to by passing. The inner feelings of employees
are not freely expressed, which is essential for free exchange of information. The employer may not
like by passing as an effective means of communication.

g) Information overload:
Due to extra information provided to employees, they may miss certain important information, which ultimately
acts as the barrier in communication.
2. Barriers emanating from subordinates: There can be communication barriers because of the
subordinates. They may be facing certain problems like:

(a) Lack of proper channel: There may be complexity in the organizational structure, which may
influence proper and effective communication from
subordinate. They may not feel free to communicate because of pressure of position power and

(b) No interest to communicate: There may not be any interest on the part of subordinates to have a
dialogue, discussion and interaction with their superiors,
which affect the communication process adversely.

(c) Lack of cooperation: lack of cooperation and mutual understanding also leads to hiding of certain
information between the superior and subordinates in the organization.

(d) Lack of trust: There may be lack of trust and coordination between the superior and the
subordinate, which may lead to infective communication.

(e) Poor relationship between superior and subordinate: A good relationship must develop between
superiors and subordinates frequently and freely. They
must interact to improve the upward and downward communication system. The superior must listen
to the subordinates' suggestion, their problems, and must have faith in them. In the absence of all
this, it may so happen that what the superior speaks, the subordinate may not understand it.

(f) Fear of penalty: If a subordinate fees that because of free expression and upward communication
he will face some type of penalty, there is possibility that he may not provide full or correct message
to the superior.
4) Individual / Psycho-sociological Barriers
Individual or Psycho-sociological barriers are the prime barriers in interpersonal communication. People have different
styles of communication. People also have personal feelings, desires, fears, hopes, likes, dislikes, attitudes, views and
opinions. The meaning assigned to a message depends upon the emotional or psychological status of both the parties
involved in the process of communication.

1. Style: Style, the manner in which a person communicates, involves many elements, though style overlaps with several
of the other factors in analysis, it adds its own
distinct flavour. A few barriers related to style are as follows:
(a) Linguistic accent in oral exchanges are stylistic in nature. It often affects people.
(b) The form of expression (idiom) colours a transaction. Suppose you use an idiom familiar in Andhra Pradesh, but
strange to some one from Shimla; the
listener will be distracted by the style - the use of "strange" expressions.
(c) The level of drama greatly affects a situation. People do not react to highly dramatics situations as they do to
subdued ones.
(d) Types of humour also play a part in style. People not only use varying styles of humour, they react differently to
different kinds of jokes and sometimes
fail to convey the proper massage which is intended to be conveyed.
(e) The choice of brevity as opposed to full detail in a presentation is also another element of style. Style can also be
reflected through the use of a direct
approach rather than an indirect one.
(f) The choice of discriminatory or non discriminatory communication modes is another element of style. Symbol can
discriminate on the basis of sex, race,
age, religion, handicap, or other characteristics. Many people react negatively to the discriminatory styles, whereas
others, regrettably, practically try to
insist one to join them in name calling and sirs.
(g) The qualities of credibility and charisma override many other aspects of style. Both the presence and the absence of
these qualities can affect the flow of
2. Selective perception: The receiver may make a world of his own around
himself. He projects his interest and expectations as he decodes
messages. He may only take that much piece of information, which may
suit his world of thinking. As a result, the person acquires incomplete
and inappropriate information, which influence the communication
process. Having a poor self-concept or self-understanding, or a poor
understanding of other can cause perceptual distortions.
3. Halo effect: People do not listen carefully because of impressions based
on earlier encounters. Even one of the parties having a halo effect will
disrupt the flow of communication.
4. Status relationship: There may be status and power relationship, which
may hinder the communication process and affect the effectiveness of
communication. Status effects also hinder communication is as much
as people occupying higher positions in the organization have a
tendency to "tell a lot to subordinates but not to listen, effective
communication is not possible.
5. Poor attention and Retention: About half of the information, if not
properly retained, is lost. The sender may suffer from each a problem.
It also said that about 30% of the information is lost in each oral
transmission. Human memory may not always retain what it is told.
This causes communication breakdown and necessitates the repetition
of the message using several channels
6. Inattention: The preoccupied mind of the receiver and the reluctant non-listening
is one of the major psychologies barriers. It is because of it that people do not react
to ideas/massages received in communication.
7. Undue importance of written words: The undue importance given to the written
words may lead to loss of information. The successive information is not accurate
and right. Written communication often tells what is to be done but not why it
should be done. It takes the persuasive quality.
8. Defensiveness: If one feels threatened by a message, one becomes defensive and
responds in such ways that reduce the understanding. Such defensive behaviour
prevents understanding.
9. Closed Mind: Limited intellectual background, limited reading and narrow interests
can cause a person's mind to be narrow. This limits the ability to take in new ideas.
People with closed minds do not take in any new information or suggestions to
10. State of Health: Physical condition can affect the efficiency in all communication
skills. In case of poor health condition, the communicating ability is reduced as the
mind is not alert and perception is low.
11. Filtering: Filtering is the process of reducing the details or aspects of a message.
Each person who receives the message reduces it according to his or her
understanding of the situation. In this process, much of the important information
may be lost or misinterpreted and the sender will fail to con
(a) National Character/ Basic Personality.
(b) Language

(c) Values and norms of behaviour

(d) Social relationships

(e) Concepts of time

(f) Concepts of space

(g) Non verbal communication

(h) Perception
1. Noise
2. Environment
3. Defects in the Medium:
A few technical aspects in communication barriers are briefly narrated by Murphy's
Law on communication: Following are the basics in this law on communication:

(a) Communication usually fails. Except by chance, it succeeds. On account of

various barriers, the possibility of success in the flow of communication is rare.
(b) If the message can be understood, in different ways, it will be understood in just
the way that does the most harm. People receive the massage in their own way. In
most of the cases, the most harmful side of communication is considered.
(c) Filtering. It refers to the sender manipulating information so that the receiver will
see it as more favourable. In organizations, the information is condensed and
synthesized. Objective information does not reach to the authority. The more the
vertical levels in the organization's hierarchy, the more opportunities there are for
(d) Meta communication. In a communication apart from the message, there is a
Meta message. Meta message exists in the people's minds because of their actions
such as being hard to contact. It is the most important thing in seat word language.
(e) Noise in communication process. Noise can enter the communication process
because of situational factors. It is one of the factors influencing the communication
process. Noise is mostly related to mechanical distractions. A few noise distractions
are as follows: (i) Human sounds, (ii) Traffic, (iii) Telephone instruments (iv) Channel
defects (v) Birds (vi) Trees (vii)
WHO : To whom should the message go?
WHY : Why should I communicate? What are the
WHAT : Decide what to communicate. Be clear about
what one needs to communicate.
WHEN : The best time for optimum reception is
HOW : Use a language, which the receiver will
understand and which is unambiguous.
WHERE : Choose a location which will not interfere
with the reception, understanding and acceptance of
the message: Privately? Home or away? In a group?
At work or outside?