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Energy Systems

EE 5003

Chapter 1: Introduction:

Energy Ability to do work, is a property of objects,
transferable among them through fundamental
interactions, which can be converted into different
forms but can neither be created nor destroyed.
The Joul is the SI unit of energy, based on the
amount transferred to an object by mechanical
work of moving it 1 meter against a force of 1
Work and heat are two categories of processes or
mechanisms that can transfer a given amount of
Energy Cont
The second law of thermodynamics limits the
amount of work that can be performed by energy
that is obtained via a heating processsome energy
is always lost as waste heat. The maximum amount
that can go into work is called theavailable energy.
Systems such as machines and living things often
require available energy, not just any energy.
Mechanical and other forms of energy can be
transformed in the other direction intothermal
energy without such limitations.
To generate electricity from a steam cycle (carnot
efficiency) is generally about 35% but electricity can
be transformed to heat energy at 100% efficiency.
Forms of Energy
Common energy forms include :
- thekinetic energyof a moving object,
- theradiant energy carried by light and
otherelectromagnetic radiation,
- thepotential energystored by virtue of the position
of an object in a forcefieldsuch as
agravitational,electricormagnetic field,
- thethermal energycomprising the microscopic kinetic
and potential energies of the disordered motions of the
particles making up matter.
Some specific forms of potential energy includeelastic
energydue to the stretching or deformation of solid
objects andchemical energysuch as is released when
a fuel burns or food is digested.
Forms of Energy Cont
Forms of Energy
Mass Energy Equivalence
All forms of energy (not just rest energy
E=mc2) exhibit mass.
Adding 25 kilowatt-hours (90 megajoules) of
energy to an object in the form of heat (or
any other form) increases its mass by
Our Sun transformsnuclear potential
energyto other forms of energy and its mass
decrease when the energy escapes out to its
surroundings, largely asradiant energy
living organisms requireavailable energyto
stay alive; humans get such energy from food
along with the oxygen needed to metabolize it

We eat food but if we do a workout

or even simply exists we dissipate
energy and the mass of food we
consumed is converted into energy
and dissipates. Why do we put on
weight because we do not dissipate
as much energy as we take in. Food
contains Carbohydrates, lipids and
1.1 Energy Sources
Energy Sources are basically divided into
two categories:
Non Renewable energy Sources and
Renewable Energy Sources.
Some of these sources are further
classified as conventional or non
Non Renewable Energy
Sources :
mainly defined as conventional ( they have been
using these sources for over a century ) derived in
conventional conversion processes to produce useful
energy such as in power plants, refineries, Internal
Combustion Engines, external combustion engines etc.
Examples : Coal, Fossil Fuel based (Petroleum based)
oil and Gas products, Nuclear, etc.
Why do we call these sources non-Renewable?
They are not replenished in a reasonable time span
may be to renew these sources it may take millions of
years. Nuclear is an exception, where it can never be
replenished even after millions of years.

Hard coal Coal that has a high degree of coalification with a gross
calorific value above 23,865 KJ/kg (5,700 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist
basis, There are two sub-categories of hard coal: (i) Coking coal is a hard
coal used in the production of coke in a blast furnace charge. (ii) Bituminous
coal and Anthracite (also known as steam coal) is used for steam raising
and space heating purposes and includes all anthracite coals and
bituminous coals not classified as coking coal.
Lignite One of the two sub-categories of brown coal. Brown coal is coal
with a low degree of coalification which retained the anatomical structure of
the vegetable matter from which it was formed. It has a gross calorific value
(on a moist ash free basis) is less than 23,865 KJ/kg (5,700 kcal/kg). Brown
coal comprises: (i) lignite - with a gross calorific value less than 17,435
KJ/kg (4,165 kcal/kg) and greater than 31 per cent volatile matter on a dry
basis and (ii) sub-bituminous coal - with a gross calorific value between
17,435 KJ/kg (4,165 kcal/kg) and 23,865 KJ/kg (5,700 kcal/kg) containing
more than 31 per cent volatile matter on a dry basis.
Peat A solid fuel formed from the partial decomposition of dead
vegetation under conditions of high humidity and limited air access (initial
stage of coalification). Its principal use is as a household fuel.
Oil shale A sedimentary rock containing a high proportion of organic
matter (kerogen), which can be converted to crude oil or gas by heating.

Crude oil A mineral oil consisting of a mixture of

hydrocarbons of natural origin, yellow to black in color, of
variable density and viscosity. Can be extracted by Oil
wells or extracted from bituminous minerals such as
shales and bituminous sand, and oils from coal

Petroleum products Comprise the liquid fuels,

lubricant oils and solid and semi-solid products obtained
by distillation and cracking of crude petroleum, shale oil,
or semi-refined and unfinished petroleum products. These
may include but not limited to Aviation Gasoline, Motor
Gasoline, Diesel, Jet Fuel, Kerosene, Naphtha, Furnace Oil,
Residual Oil, Bitumen, LPG ( Propane and Butane mainly)
Natural gas Gases consisting mainly
of methane occurring naturally in
underground deposits. It includes both
non-associated gas (originating from
fields producing only hydrocarbons in
gaseous form) and associated gas
(originating from fields producing both
liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons), as well
as methane recovered from coal mines.
Renewable Energy
Sources :
most of the time these sources are
defined as non- conventional sources
except Major Hydro sources as they
have been rediscovered as sources to be
converted to useful energy by using age
old principles but using modern
technologies. Examples: Conventional
Renewable sources - Major Hydro,
Non-Conventional Renewable sources
small and mini Hydro,
Non-Conventional Renewable
-Solar both pV and thermal ,
-wind, biomass,
-small and mini hydro,
-geothermal ( Is it renewable? again
a -misnomer but classified under
renewable) etc.
- Ocean related sources such as
Tidal, wave, OTEC etc.,
- Dendro Thermal
Bio-mass derived non-conventional
energy sources
Biogasoline Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and methanol (methyl alcohol)
for use as a fuel. Ethanol can be produced from sugar, starch and
cellulose and is used mainly in transport (on its own or blended with
gasolene). Methanol can be produced from wood, crop residues, grass,
and the like and can be used in internal combustion engines.

Biodiesel It refers to oil derived from biological sources and

modified chemically so that it can be used as fuel in compression
ignition (diesel) internal combustion engines, or for heating. Biological
sources of biodiesel include, but are not limited to, vegetable oils.
Very often Biodiesel is used in combination with Petroleum Diesel.

Biogas By-product of the fermentation(anaerobic digestion) of

biomass, principally animal wastes, by bacteria. It consists mainly of
methane gas and carbon dioxide
Other Traditional Fuels
Fuel wood, harvested or grown
Baggasse, - waste from sugar
Charcoal, - derived from wood or
other crop residues
Animal Waste, used in some
countries such as in India common
form dung cakes.
Vegetable Waste,
Municipal Waste,
1.2 Classification of Forms of Energy

1.2.1 Primary energy is anenergy formfound in nature that has not been
subjected to any conversion or transformation process. It is energy contained
in rawfuels, and other forms of energy (say solar or hydro) received as input to
asystem. Primary energy can benon-renewable or renewable All forms of
energy that occur naturally and can be used directly to do some useful work -
capable of obtaining useful energy or used as primary inputs to obtain
secondary forms of energy, such as electricity, heat, motive energy etc.
Examples: Water at an elevation, Solar energy , wind, biomass, Coal, Crude
Oil , Natural Gas, Uranium etc.

1.2.2 Secondary Energy Primary energy sources are transformed inenergy

conversion processes to more convenient forms of energy (that can directly be
used by society), such aselectrical energy , refinedfuels, or synthetic fuels
such ashydrogen fuels. These forms are also calledenergy carriersand
correspond to the concept of "secondary energy"
1.2 Classification of Forms of
Energy Cont
1.2.3 Primary electricity refers to electrical energy of
geothermal, hydro, nuclear, tide, wind, wave/ocean and
solar origin. Its production is assessed at the heat value
of electricity (3.6 TJ/million kWh).

1.2.4 Secondary electricity is defined as thermal

electricity, which comprises conventional thermal plants
of all types, whether or not equipped for the combined
generation of heat and electric energy. Accordingly, they
include steam-operated generating plants, with
condensation and plants using internal combustion
engines or gas turbines whether or not these are
equipped for heat recovery.
Representation of Electricity in
tradeable energy units
A unit of primary electricity may be equated theoretically with the amount
of coal or oil required to produce an equivalent unit of thermal electricity.

In the case of hydro-electricity, the ideal condition (assuming 100%

efficiency), is taken to be 3.6 TJ per million kWh which corresponds to
0.086 tons of oil equivalent per 1,000 kWh. (or 0.123 tons of coal
equivalent )

In the case of nuclear and geothermal electricity, the average condition is

assumed (33 and 10% efficiency respectively) and is taken to be 10.909
and 36 TJ per million kWh which corresponds to 0.372 and 1.228 tons of
coal equivalent or 0.261 and 0.860 tons of oil equivalent per 1,000 kWh.

One TOE is defined as 10.0 x 10 6 kcal or 0.041868 TJ (1 calorie

=4.1868 joules).
Primary energy sources Secondary
Energy or
Non- Fossil
Oil(or crude
Fuel Oil and other
Fuels Oil Refinery petroleum
renewable oil)
sources Fossil Fuel Enthalpy,
Power Mechanical work
natural gas
Station or Electricity
Mineral Natural Power Plant
fuels Uranium (Thermonuc
lear fission)
Renewable sources Solar Photovoltaic
Energy Converted power Electricity
plant to
Solar Power
Tower /
Wind Mechanical work
Wind Farm
Energy or electricity
Falling and
plant, Mechanical work
wave,Tidal or electricity
1.3 Global Energy Situation

Tradable ( Commercial Energy) Oil , Coal ,

Natural Gas, Electricity
Non Tradable ( Non Commercial Energy)
Animal Power, Traditional Sources such as fuel
please note though most indigenous renewable
sources (includes hydro power and others)
nuclear and geothermal are non tradable they
assume tradable status as it replaces tradable
forms hence they are often replaced by tradable
equivalents such as oil or coal equivalent.
Table 1.3.1 Production and
consumption of commercial energy
Apart from the UN statistical Office (UNSO), The
Department of Energy (DOE) of the USA and World
Energy Council (WEC) collects global energy
statistics and publishes periodic reports giving their
own analysis of the global energy issues. These
publications give insights to the world energy
scenarios and also an indication of the world energy
outlook in the years to come. These reports assist
the world economies to forecast and plan their
energy production and consumption patterns to suit
the future energy outlook. The more recent global
environmental impacts have had a significant
bearing on the energy plans for the future.
Year Primary Energy Production Consumption
Thousand metric tons of oil kilograms per capita
Total Solids Liquids Gas Electricity Per Total Solids Liquids Gas Electricit
* Capita y

2008 1094035 342261 408270 2893280 541751 1498 1011423 335555 3343015 2874125 541545
4 9 4 9 5

2009 1083769 347305 399867 2815956 550006 1469 1003844 335839 3309847 2819963 550235
4 5 7 3 9

2010 1137933 369381 408309 3023157 579273 1523 1053244 353368 3374421 3044571 579771
2 2 0 9 6

2011 1168414 384396 413041 3133620 576150 1547 1082261 375202 3383896 3109553 577142
8 2 6 8 7
Figure 1.3.3 Total Primary Energy Supply Evolution
Table 1.3.2: Key Global Energy
indicators for 1993, 2011 and
Energy Source 1993
2020 2013 2020 Percentage
incresefrom 1993
to 2020

TPES* Mtoe 9 532 14 092 17 208 48%

Coal Mt 4 474 7 520 10 108 68%

Oil Mt 3 179 3 973 4 594 25%

Natural Gas bcm 2 176 3 518 4 049 62%

Nuclear TWh 2 106 2 386 3 761 13%

Hydro Power 2 286 2 767 3 826 21%


Biomass Mtoe 1 036 1 277 1 323 23%

Other 44 515 1 999 n/a

Global Energy Reserves , Production Rates
and Reserves to Production Ratios
Global Energy Reserves depend on a variety of factors, there is the
notion of probable reserves also known as Estimated additional
amount in place( for oil and gas > 50% probability), then there is the
notion of possible energy reserves also known as Proved recoverable
reserves ( for oil and gas > 10% probability), and proven reserves also
known as Proved amount in place.
Proved amount in place is the resource remaining in known deposits
that has been carefully measured and assessed as exploitable under
present and expected local economic conditions with existing
available technology
Proved recoverable reserves are the reserves within the proved
amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and
expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
Estimated additional amount in place is the indicated and inferred
reserves additional to the proved amount in place that is of
foreseeable economic interest. It includes estimates of amounts which
could exist in unexplored extensions of known deposits or in
undiscovered deposits in known fossil fuel -bearing areas, as well as
amounts inferred through knowledge of favourable geological
conditions. Speculative amounts are not included.
Table 1.3.4 Global Energy Reserves , Production
Rates and Reserves to Production Ratios
RPR = (amount of known resource) / (amount used per year)

Source Reserves Production R/P years

2011 1993 2011 1993

Coal (Mt) 891,530 1,031,610 7,520 4,474 > 100

Oil (Mt) 223,454 140,676 3,973 3,179 56

Natural Gas 209,742 141,335 3,518 2,176 55

Table 1.3.5 Global Installed
Capacity and Annual Production of
Nuclear and Renewable Energy
Source Sources
Installed Capacity (MW) Actual Generation (GWh)

2011 1993 2011 1993

Nuclear 364,078 340,295 2,385,903 2,106 000

Hydro Power 946,182 609,264 2,767,118 2,285,960

Wind 238,049 n/a 377,613 n/a

Solar PV 68,850 n/a 52 878 n/a

1.3.1 Types of Energy
Coal as an Energy Source:
Coal is an important source of Energy , because it is widely available, safe, reliable
and relatively low cost - However it has poor environmental credentials.
Coal remains a crucial contributor to energy supply in many countries.
-Coal is the most wide-spread fossil fuel around the world, and more than 75
countries have coal deposits.
-The current share of coal in global power generation is over 40%,
-Countries in Europe, and North America, are trying to shift their consumption to
alternative sources of energy,
- However in Asia, use of Coal is increasing, China alone now uses as much coal as
the rest of the world.
There is continuing popularity of coal. While the global reserves of coal have
decreased by 14% between 1993 and 2011, the production has gone up by 68%
over the same time period.
Compared to the 2010 survey, the most recent data shows that the proved coal
reserves have increased by 1% and production by 16%.
The future of coal depends on the advance of clean coal technologies to mitigate
environmental risk factors, - CO2 emissions.
Coal will play a major role in supporting the development of base-load electricity
where it is most needed. Coal-fired electricity will be fed into national grids and it
will bring energy access to millions, thus facilitating economic growth in the
developing world.
Figure 1.3.4 World Coal Reserves
Oil as an Energy Source:

The oil crisis in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in sky-rocketing price of
Since then there have been, heated discussions about peak oil
based on the expectation of the world running out of oil within a few
Global oil reserves are almost 60% larger today than 20 years ago,
and production of oil has gone up by 25%. If the unconventional oil
resources, including oil shale, oil sands, extra heavy oil and natural
bitumen are taken into account, the global oil reserves will be four
times larger than the current conventional reserves.
Oil still remains the premier energy resource with a wide range of
possible applications. Its main use however, will be shifting towards
transport and the petrochemical sector. In future oils position will
face a challenge from other fuels such as natural gas.
The oil resource assessments have increased steadily between 2000
and 2009,.Compared to the 2010 survey, the proved oil reserves
increased by 37% and production by 1%. Oil is a mature global
industry but a number of countries, for political reasons, have limited
access to international companies.
Figure 1.3.5 World Oil Reserves
Natural Gas as an Energy Source:

Natural gas will continue making significant contribution to the world

energy economy. The cleanest of all fossil-based fuels, natural gas is
plentiful and flexible.
It is increasingly used in the most efficient power generation
technologies, such as, Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) with
conversion efficiencies of about 60%.
The reserves of conventional natural gas have grown by 36% over the
past two decades and its production by 61%. Compared to the 2010
survey, the proved natural gas reserves have grown by 3% and
production by 15%.
The exploration, development and transport of gas usually requires
significant upfront investment. Close coordination between investment in
the gas and power infrastructure is necessary.
In its search for secure, sustainable and affordable supplies of energy,
the world is turning its attention to unconventional energy resources.
Shale gas is one of them. It has turned upside down the North American
gas markets, and is making significant strides in other regions. The
emergence of shale gas as a potentially major energy source can have
serious strategic implications for geopolitics and the energy industry.
Figure 1.3.6 Natural Gas Reserves
Uranium and Nuclear as an Energy Source:
The first nuclear reactor was commissioned in 1954. Uranium is the main source
of fuel for nuclear reactors. Worldwide output of uranium has recently been on the
rise after a long period of declining production due to oversupply following
nuclear disarmament.
The total identified uranium resources have grown by 12.5% since 2008 and they
are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements.
Total nuclear electricity production has been growing during the past two decades
and reached an annual output of about 2 600TWh by the mid-2000s.T
The three major nuclear accidents have slowed down or even reversed its growth
in some countries. The nuclear share of total global electricity production reached
its peak of 17% by the late 1980s, but since then it has been falling and dropped
to 13.5% in 2012. its relative share in power generation has decreased, mainly
due to Fukushima nuclear accident.
Japan used to be one of the countries with a high share of nuclear (30%) in its
electricity mix and high production volumes. Today, Japan has only two of its 54
reactors in operation.
The rising costs of nuclear installations and lengthy approval times required for
new construction have had an impact on the nuclear industry. The slowdown has
not been global, as new countries, primarily in the rapidly developing economies
in the Middle East and Asia, are going ahead with their plans to establish nuclear
Hydro Power as an Energy Source:

Hydro power provides a significant amount of energy throughout the

world and is present in more than 100 countries, contributing
approximately 15% of the global electricity production. The top 5
largest markets for hydro power in terms of capacity are Brazil,
Canada, China, Russia and the United States of America.
China significantly exceeds the others, representing 24% of global
installed capacity. In several other countries, hydro power accounts
for over 50% of all electricity generation, including Iceland, Nepal
and Mozambique for example. During 2012, an estimated 2730GW
of new hydro power and 23GW of pumped storage capacity was
In many cases, the growth in hydro power was facilitated by the
lavish renewable energy support policies and CO2 penalties. Over the
past two decades the total global installed hydro power capacity has
increased by 55%, while the actual generation by 21%. The global
installed hydro power capacity has increased by 8%, but the total
electricity produced dropped by 14%, mainly due to water shortages.
Wind Power as an Energy Source:

Wind is available virtually everywhere on earth, although there are wide variations
in wind strengths. The total resource is vast; estimated to be around a million GW
for total land coverage. If only 1% of this area was utilised, and allowance made
for the lower load factors of wind plants (1540%, compared with 7590% for
thermal plants) that would still correspond, roughly, to the total worldwide capacity
of all electricity-generating plants in operation today.

World wind energy capacity has been doubling about every three and a half years
since 1990. Total capacity at the end of 2011 was over 238GW and annual
electricity generation around 377TWh, roughly equal to Australias annual
electricity consumption. China, with about 62GW, has the highest installed capacity
while Denmark, with over 3GW, has the highest level per capita. Wind accounts for
about 20% of Denmarks electricity production. It is difficult to compare todays
numbers with those two decades ago, as measuring methodologies and tools are

As governments begin to cut their subsidies to renewable energy, the business

environment becomes less attractive to potential investors. Lower subsidies and
growing costs of material input will have a negative impact on the wind industry in
recent years.
Solar PV as an Energy Source:

Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource and it is

available for use in its direct (solar radiation) and indirect (wind,
biomass, hydro, ocean etc.) forms. About 60% of the total energy
emitted by the sun reaches the Earths surface. Even if only 0.1% of
this energy could be converted at an efficiency of 10%, it would be
four times larger than the total worlds electricity generating
capacity of about 5,000GW. The statistics about solar PV
installations are patchy and inconsistent.

The use of solar energy is growing strongly around the world, in part
due to the rapidly declining solar panel manufacturing costs. For
instance, between 20082011 PV capacity has increased in the USA
from 1 168MW to 5 171MW, and in Germany from 5 877MW to 25
039MW. The anticipated changes in national and regional legislation
regarding support for renewables is likely to moderate this growth.
Bio-energy and Waste as an Energy Source:

Bioenergy is a broad category of energy fuels manufactured from a

variety of feedstocks of biological origin and by numerous conversion
technologies to generate heat, power, liquid biofuels and gaseous
biofuels. The term traditional biomass mainly refers to fuelwood,
charcoal, and agricultural residues used for household cooking, lighting
and space-heating in developing countries. The industrial use of raw
materials for production of pulp, paper, tobacco, pig iron so on,
generates byproducts such as bark, wood chips, black liquor,
agricultural residues, which can be converted to bioenergy.

The share of bioenergy in TPES has been estimated at about 10% in

1990. Between 1990 and 2010 bioenergy supply has increased from 38
to 52EJ as a result of growing energy demand. New policies to increase
the share of renewable energy and indigenous energy resources are
also driving demand. However, it is difficult to make accurate
comparisons with earlier figures because of poor availability and low
level of standardisation of data.
1.3.2 The World Energy Outlook in the past 20 years

sharp increase in the price of oil since 2001 after 15 years of

moderate oil prices
financial crisis and slow economic growth with drastic reduction in
energy consumption in large economies
shale gas in North America
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident
The volatile political situation in the energy supplying countries in the
Middle East and North Africa, The Arab Spring
lack of global agreement on climate change mitigation
collapse of CO2 prices in the European Emissions Trading System
exponential growth in renewables, in particular in Europe due to
generous subsidies for producers which can become a problem
instead of an opportunity deployment of smart technologies
energy efficiency potential still remaining untapped
growing public concerns about new infrastructure projects, including
energy projects and their impact on political decision-making process
The above Outlook has resulted in:
The changes in the energy industry over the past 20 years have been significant. The
growth in energy consumption has been higher than anticipated even in the high-
growth scenarios. The energy industry has been able to meet this growth globally
assisted by continuous increases in reserves assessments and improving energy
production and consumption technologies. The results of the 2013 WEC World Energy
Resources survey show that there are more energy resources in the world today than
20 years ago, or ever before.

It is obvious that moving away from fossil fuels will take years and decades, as coal,
oil and gas will remain the main energy resources in many countries. Fuel-switching
does not happen overnight. The leading world economies are powered by coal: about
40% of electricity in the United States and 79% of the electricity in China is
generated in coal fired thermal plants. These plants will continue to run for decades.
The main issue for coal is the CO2 penalty.

Contrary to the expectations of the world running out of oil within a few decades,
the so called notion of peak oil which prevailed 20 years ago, has almost been
forgotten. The global crude oil reserves are almost 60% larger today than in 1993
and the production of oil has gone up by 20%. If the unconventional oil resources
such as oil shale, oil sands, extra heavy oil and natural bitumen are taken into
account, the oil endowment of the world could be quadrupled. An increasing share
of oil will be consumed in the rapidly growing transport sector, where it will
remain the principal fuel.
The above Outlook has resulted in:
Natural gas is expected to continue its growth spurred by falling or stable prices,
and thanks to the growing contribution of unconventional gas, such as shale gas.
In addition to power generation, natural gas is expected to play an increasing role
as a transport fuel.

The future of nuclear energy is uncertain. While some countries, mainly in Europe,
are making plans to withdraw from nuclear, other countries are looking to
establish nuclear power generation.

The development of renewables, excluding large hydro, has been considerably

slowerthan expected 20 years ago. Despite the exponential growth of renewable
resources in percentage terms, in particular wind power and solar PV, renewable
energy still accounts for a small percentage of TPES in most countries. Their
contribution to energy supply is not expected to change dramatically in the
coming years. The continuing growth of renewables strongly depends on subsidies
and other support provided by governments. Integration of intermittent
renewables in the electricity grids also remains an issue, as it results in additional
balancing costs for the system and thus higher electricity bills.

Energy efficiency helps address the energy trilemma and provides an

immediate opportunity to decrease energy intensity. This will achieve energy
savings and reduce the environmental impacts of energy production and use.
1.3.3 In Summary :

Finally, demand for energy will continue to grow. Even if global

energy resources seem to be abundant today, there are other
constraints facing the energy sector, above all, significant capital
investment in developing and developed economies is needed.
The environment and climate, in particular, pose an additional
challenge. Clean technologies will require adequate financing,
and consumers all over the world should be prepared to pay
higher prices for their energy than today. Energy is global and to
make the right choices, decision makers should look at the global
picture and base their decisions on a thorough life cycle analysis
and reliable energy information.

One of the major challenges facing the world at present is that

approximately 1.2 billion people live without any access to
modern energy services.Access to energy is fundamental pre-
requisite for modern life and a key tool in eradicating extreme
poverty across the globe
1.4 Sri Lanka Energy

1.4.1 Energy Resources Used in
Sri Lanka

Both indigenous resources available

in the country such as biomass and
hydro power and imported fossil
fuels are the main resources used in
the country to fulfill its energy
Indigenous Energy Resources
Available in Sri Lanka
Due to geo-climatic settings, Sri Lanka is blessed with several types
of renewable energy resources. Some of them are widely used and
developed to supply the energy requirements of the country. Others
have the potential for development when the technologies become
mature and economically feasible for use.

Following are the main renewable resources available in Sri

- Biomass
- Hydro Power
- Solar
- Wind

the availability of petroleum within Sri Lankan territory is being

and some Peat resources in the Muthurajawela swamp, there are no
known commercially tradable energy resources in the country.

Large quantities of firewood and other

biomass resources are used for cooking in
rural households and to a lesser extent, in
urban households.
A large portion of energy needs of the rural
population is fulfilled by firewood.
There are other uses of biomass for
energy in the country, especially for
thermal energy supply in the industrial

Hydro power is a key energy source used for

electricity generation in Sri Lanka. A large share of
the major hydro potential has already been
developed and delivers valuable low cost electricity
to the country.
Currently, hydro power stations are operated to
supply both peaking, intermediate and base load
electricity generation requirements.
A substantial number of small hydro power plants
operate under the Standardised Power Purchase
Agreement (SPPA) and many more are expected to
join the fleet during the next few years.

Solar Power was first introduced to Sri Lanka in 1976 at the

Ruralk Energy Centre Patiyapola
More than 100,000 Solar Home Systems were installed
during several attempts to introduce stand alone systems to
provide basic lighting and TV applications in rural households
commencing from 1983.
Two solar power plants at the Hambantota Solar Park, are
operated at a relatively low level, with annual plant factors of
16.01% from the 737 kW plant and 15.04% from the 500 kW.
Approval has been granted for three 10 MW Solar PV plants
and several more solar based power plants with storage
These efforts have given way to solar roof top units spurred
by high cost of grid electricity to households in the high
consuming categories through Net-metering scheme which
was introduced in 2010. More than 3 MW of roof top PV
systems are conectedto the national grid as at end 2013.

Wind development was first initiated as a wind driven water pumping

systems for irrigation purposes. This initiative supported by the
Government of Netherlands in late 1970s.
In early 80s a detailed wind resource data collection was initiated in
the South Eastern, Norh Western and central regions of the country
This was the first step towards introduction of wind for power
generation., The first pilot scale 3MW wind power project was installed
with world Bank assistance in the early 1990s.
wind resources in the entire country was conducted with assistance of
the USAID.
Sri Lanka was identified as a high wind resource country. With this
revelation and the Small Power Purchase Agreement spurred the
installation of several 10MW wind power projects mainly in the North
Western Putalam area now with about 75 MW installed in the country.
Mannar Island is now identified as an area with very high wind
Oil/Gas Exploration

Cairn Lanka (Pvt) Ltd (CLPL) has

completed its work commitment for
the first phase successfully, which
resulted in two successive gas and
condensate discoveries in two of the
three exploration wells drilled in 2011
and a fourth well in 2013. in Mannar

Indigenous Energy Resources in Sri Lanka and their Applications

Imported Energy Resources
used in Sri Lanka and their
1.4.2 Energy Supply in Sri Lanka

The four main sources of Energy Supply in

the country are:

Petroleum (Imported)
Coal (Imported)
Electricity (Generated from both
indigenous and imported sources)
Primary Energy Supply by Source
Sources of Production of Biomass

Biomass comes in different forms.

Following are the most common forms
of biomass available in Sri Lanka.
Fuel wood
Municipal Waste
Industrial Waste
Agricultural Waste
Traditional Energy Resources and their
Energy Supply from Petroleum

Sri Lanka totally depends on petroleum

imports, both in the form of crude oil and as
finished products. The importation of crude oil
and finished petroleum products has
increased over time. In 2013 however, the
imported quantity of crude oil increased by
6.7%, while finished product imports
decreased by 32.4%. This decrease is visible
nearly in all fuels used in transport, power
generation and industries.
Crude Oil and Petroleum product imports
Energy Supply from Coal

The demand for coal continued to rise

in 2013 as well, owing to the
operation of the coal-fired power
plant. With the commissioning of the
entire Coal Power plant in 2014, of
900 MW this coal importation is
expected to increase up to 2.5 Mt per
Coal Imports in 000t
Solid and Liquid Fuel Imports to the Country
Supply from Major Hydro
The topography of the country provides an excellent opportunity to harness
the energy stored in river
hydro resource for direct motive power was common in yesteryears, mainly
to provide motive power to over 600 tea factories in the central hill country
in the later part of the 19th century.
The first technical paper on the use of Hydro power was presented by Eng.
D J Wimalausurendra in 1922.
The major hydropower development commenced with the Kehelgamu Oya
Maskeli Oya Project popularly known as the Laxapana Project. Subsequently
with the launching of the Multipurpose Mahaweli Project and later other
hydro power projects total installed capacity of hydro power stands at 1200
Electricity production has become the sole use of the hydro as an energy
resource in recent times apart from its strategic use in irrigation and
drinking water . The contribution of hydro as an energy supply source is
always through its secondary form, which is electricity.
There are two other large scale hydro power stations, namely
Samanalawewa on Walawe basin and Kukule Ganga on Kalu ganga basin,
while small scale power plants such as Inginiyagala and Uda Walawa are
also generating hydropower using their respective irrigation reservoir
storages owned and operated by CEB.
Laxapana Complex

Laxapana Complex is a result of

Kehelgamu Maskeli Oya development
project. The five power stations in the
Laxapana Complex are situated along
Kehelgamu oya and Maskeli Oya. The
main reservoir at the top of Kehelgamu
oya is Castlereagh reservoir.
Main reservoir associated with Maskeli
oya is Maussakelle reservoir.
Laxapana Complex
Mahaweli Complex

The first reservoir in Mahaweli complex is the Kotmale reservoir which gets water after
generation of power in the run-of-the river power plant at Upper Kotmale power
station generating 150 MW. At Kotmale power station 3x67MW turbine generator units
Water released after operations at Kotmale PS flow along the river into the Polgolla
barrage. From Polgolla barrage, water is diverted to North Central province for
irrigation and other purposes. This is done by carrying the water through a long tunnel
to Ukuwela power station to operate two 20 MW machines.
Water released after operating these 02 units flow to Bowatenna reservoir. Water is
sent to Anuradhapura district direct from Bowatenna reservoir, and water used to
operate the 40 MW machine at Bowatenna power station is sent to Elahera anicut,
again to distribute water for irrigation.
When water spills over the Polgolla barrage, it flows along the Mahaweli river to the
large Victoria reservoir. The three 70 MW hydro units at Victoria power station
operates using water from Victoria reservoir. Water released after operations at
Victoria power station flows to Randenigala reservoir, which is the largest reservoir in
Mahaweli complex. Water at Randenigala reservoir is used to operate the two 60 MW
machines at Randenigala power station and then released to Rantambe reservoir.
Water at Rantambe pond is taken to operate 2x 25 MW machines at Rantambe power
station. The discharged water from Rantambe power station is sent to Minipe anicut.
This water is then distributed for downstream irrigation and other purposes.
The primary objective of the Multi Purpose Mahaweli system is to provide water for
irrigation and other uses. Power generation is the secondary purpose.
Mahaweli Complex
Total Installed Capacity in the Country
The total installed capacities by type of power plant.
Installed Capacities and Generation of
NRE Power Plants by end 2013
Gross Generation of Grid Connected
Power Plants
Gross Generation by sources
1.4.4 Energy Demand in Sri Lanka

Energy is a vital building block for economic

Energy demand arises owing to energy needs of
households, industries, commercial buildings, etc.
According to the needs of the user, the supply of
energy has to take different forms. For example,
the energy demand for cooking is in the form of
biomass in rural areas, while it is in the form of
either LP gas or electricity in urban areas.
Therefore, not only the quantity of energy, even
the quality and the form it is delivered, is
determined by the demand.
The Growth in System Capacity and Demand
Development of System Load Factor, Reserve Margin and Peak Demand
Demand for Different Petroleum Products
Demand for Coal and Biomass
Total Energy Demand by Energy Source
Total Energy Demand by
Energy Source
Total Energy Demand by Sector
Total Energy Demand by Sector
Energy Balance in PJ
Energy Flow Diagram for 2013