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M6- ADVERTISING AND INTEGRATED

BRAND MANAGEMENT

MODULE -1: THE PROCESS

• What is advertising?
• Communication & Business process of advertising
• Types & economic effects of advertising
• Structure of advertising industry
• Evolution of promoting and advertising brands
• Social, ethical, regulatory aspects of advertising
• WHAT IS ADVERTISING?
• Advertising is any paid form of non-personal
presentation & promotion of ideas, goods, &
services by an identified sponsor. (AMA-1963)
• It is paid persuasive communication, using non-
personal mass media & other interactive
communications to connect an identified sponsor
with a target audience. (modern definition).
• Advertising is a substitute for human salesman.
(Sidney Bernstein-1990)
• ADVERTISING AS A COMMUNICATION
PROCESS.
Encoding Encoded Decoding
Sender the message of the Receiver
message in media message

Noise
Distortions

Feed back Response

• For effectiveness, message must gain attention,


be understood, & stimulate receiver.
• The noise may distort effectiveness of
communication.
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• ADVERTISING AS A BUSINESS PROCESS

Strategic Marketing Marketing Advertising


Business plan -Mix or IMC Plan
Plan at Strategy
SBU

• The figure shows how advertising is linked to


strategic business plan.
• The process followed in business/ marketing/
advertising plan is the same : viz. objectives,
strategies, and tactics (or action plan)
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MAJOR TYPES OF ADVERTISING


1. National/Brand/Consumer Advertising.
• Objective: Inform/remind consumers @
firm/brand.
• Focus : Long-term brand identity & image.
• Does not necessarily mean nationwide.
• Done by the manufacturer.
2. Local/Retail Advertising
• Often done by the retailer.
• Objectives: Store loyalty & retailer image.
• Sometimes done by small-size manufacturer to
sell initially in local markets.
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3. B2B/Industrial Advertising
• Done by business marketers.
• Objective : Support personal selling.
• Main media: Business magazines, journals.
4. Corporate/Institutional Advertising
• P.R. Approach, directed at various stakeholders.
• Objectives: Corporate image building, investor
support.
5. Non-Profit Advertising
• Done by not-for-profit organisations.
• Objectives: Volunteers, donations, program
participation.
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6. Public Service Advertising


• Done by government, social service institutions,
or business firms.
• Objectives : Promote awareness on social
issues/public causes (e.g. child marriage, drug
adiction, drunken driving)
7. Direct – Response Advertising
• Done by marketers.
• Objective: Stimulate a sale directly.
• Media used: Internet, telephone, direct mail,
direct-response print/broadcast advertising.
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8. Trade Advertising
• Done by manufacturer.
• Objectives: attraction new outlets, motivate
traders to stock company products.
9.Professional Advertising
• Done by manufacturers of certain products.
• Objective: Ad Message to professionals who are
decision makers (e.g. doctors, architects)
• Media used: Professional journals, direct/e-
mails, sales persons.
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ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING


Advertising has effects on:
• Value of products/services
• Advertised brand adds value to a brand.
• Advertising adds value by educating consumers.
• Prices
• Advertising increases or reduces the price of a product?
• Consumer demand & choice
• Advertising/IMC increases consumer consumption/demand.
• Advertising offers consumers right of choice or restricts
choice?
• Competition
• Advertising discourages competition?
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SCOPE/ROLES/FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING

• Identifying advertiser’s name.


• Providing information about products & brands.
• Creating demand for a product by hard-sell or soft-sell
approaches.
• Building awareness & image of products & brands.
• Reminding existing & prospective customers.
• Supporting personal selling function.
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STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING INDUSTRY


TYPICAL STURUCTURE OF AD. INDUSTRY

Advertiser (client orgn.)

Advertising Dept.

Independent Service Organisations Media


Advertising Agencies (Service Specialists) Organisations
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KEY PLAYERS IN ADVERTISING INDUSTRY

• Advertiser/Client Organisation.
• Provide funds for advertising.
• Decide ad.budget and target audience.
• Approve ad/IMC plan.
• Advertising Department
• Most large companies have ad.dept.
• Communicate, Coordinate between
marketing dept, ad. agencies, service
specialists.
• Headed by Advertising Manger/Director.
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• Independent Advertising Agencies
• Hired by large/medium-sized advertisers.
• Provide advertising/promotional services.
• Assist advertiser in planning & executing ad & other
promotional programmes.
• Media Organistaions
• Referred as channels of communications/media
vehicles.
• Provide platform for advertiser’s message to the
audience.
• Service
Organisations/Specialists/Suppliers/Vendors.
• Provide speicalised services like copy writing,
marketing research, video production.
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FUNDAMENTAL INFLUENCES ON EVOLUTION OF


ADVERTISING INDUSTRY
• History of advertising goes back to 5000 years.
• Since ancient times – urge to advertise is human nature.
• Four fundamental influences:
• Trade marks: individual distinctive marks by craftsmen.
• Signs: painting commercial messages on rocks by traders.
• Town criers: spreading news, announcements.
• Records of results: In 1890s, an ad. agency included this –
similar to today’s research dept.
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Evolution of Brands
• Brand s help to differentiate products.
• In 18th century, producer’s names identified products,
e.g. Ford automobiles from Ford family
i.e. some kind of corporate branding.
• In mid 20th century, mass production of non-durables
made branding compulsory.
• Brand names were based on (1) personal names of
inventor/shopkeeper (Edison Phonograph), (2) place
names (Columbia Bicycles), (3) artificial names
(Kodak), (4) descriptive names(Shredded Wheat)
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TRENDS IN ADVERTISING & PROMOTION INDUSTRY


A trend is direction /sequence of events that has some
momentum & durability. Trends in Ad industry are:
• Will rely more on marketing research.
• Impressive development of vernacular advertising.
• Shift of focus from goods to services advertising.
• Electronic media will become cost effective.
• Interactive TV programmes & commercials.
• Production quality of TV ads will improve.
• More social control of advertising.
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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF ADVERTISING

• Advertising can bring change in society by


creating awareness about social issues.

• Why questions are asked about social role of


advertising?

• Has advertising become a kind of social guide?


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ETHICAL ASPECTS OF ADVERTISING


Ethical issues applicable to advertising:

• Misleading / false advertising claims.

• Offensive / poor-taste advertising.

• Sex appeals / nudity used in ads.

• Puffery (exaggerated / vague claims).

ASCI (Advertising Standards Council of India) enforces

ethical code for advertisers.


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REGULATORY ASPECTS OF ADVERTISING


• ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) have
published codes for advertisers.

• GOI have given legal recognition to ASCI (in 2006).

• TV commercials to abide by ASCI codes.

• Tobacco Products’ ads legally prohibited.

• Infant milk substitutes (Lactogen - Nestle)ads legally


forbidden.
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MODULE -2: THE PLANNING


THE CONSUMER AS A DECISION MAKER
• What is the difference between a
consumer and a customer?
• How consumers are categorised?
• Business markets (B2B)
• Consumer markets (B2C)
• How buying decisions are made in B2B and
B2C markets?
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MODES (PROCESS) OF CONSUMER DECISION


MAKING IN CONSUMER MARKETS
•Stages / Steps in Consumer decision making are :
•Problem / Need recognition.
•Information search.
•Evaluation of alternatives.
•Purchase decision.
•Post-purchase evaluation.
•For high involvement products consumers go through all
five stages.
•For low-involvement products one/two stages are skipped.
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Problem / Need Recognition


• Should advertising stimulate the need?
Information Search
• What is the difference between internal and
external search?
• Consumer behavior of searchers and impulse
buyers.
Evaluation of Alternatives
• What is the difference between “evoked set” and
“consideration set” of brands.
• Objective & subjective criteria.
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Purchase Decision
• Selection of the product / brand.
• Where to buy?
• When to buy?
Post-purchase Evaluation
• Relationship between expectations and
satisfaction influence a repeat purchase.
• Cognitive dissonance.
• Dissatisfied consumer experiencing
dissonance spreads negative WOM.
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BUYING DECISION PROCESS IN BUSINESS


MARKETS
Eight stages/phases involved:
• Problem/Need recognition.
• Characteristics & quantity of the needed product.
• Specification of the needed product.
• Search & quality of potential suppliers.
• Obtain & analyse supplier proposals.
• Evaluate and select suppliers.
• Select an order routine.
• Performance feedback and post-purchase evaluation.
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TYPE OF BUYING SITUATIONS IN


BUSINESS MARKETS

• New Task (New Purchase)

• Modified Rebuy (Change in Supplier)

• Straight Rebuy (Repeat Purchase)


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CONSUMER AS A SOCIAL BEING


• What is a social class (social being)?
• It is a homogeneous and stable division of people,
who have similar values, interest, lifestyles, and
behaviors.
• Factors used to classify individuals into a social
class are:
Income, Education, Occupation, Religion, etc.
• These factors vary from one society to another.
• In India, broad social classes are: upper, middle,
lower.
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REFERENCE GROUPS (R.Gs)


• A consumer accepts many values, beliefs,
attitudes, or behavior of reference groups.
• Who are reference groups?
• Family, friends, colleagues, etc.
• Why family is the most important R.G.?
• Advertisers must understand family
structure, working and changes – why ?
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MARKET SEGMENTATION, POSITIONING,


& THE VALUE PROPOTION
• Steps in identifying target segments:
1)Segment consumer / business markets
based on variables for
Consumer Markets Business Markets

•Demographics •Macro: Industry type,


•Geographics geographic location,
•Psychographics consumer type, End-use /
•Behavioral application Usage Rate.
•Benefits sought •Micro : Purchasing Criteria,
Personal Characteristics.
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2. Segment Targeting
• How many & which segments to target?
Criteria used:
• Segment–size (Market Potential)
• Growth rate (Present & Future)
• Profitability
• Company objectives, resources, and
competencies (strengths) in relation to
competitors.
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3. Segment Profiling

• It means describing characteristics (age, income,


etc) of target segments /customers.

• In addition, marketers find benefits sought, what


motivates to buy, media habits, etc.

• Profiling useful for media and message decisions.

• After profiling, marketers estimate market


potential of target segments.
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POSITIONING

• What is Positioning?
• How to develop a positioning strategy?
The steps are:

1)Collect market information.

2)Select attributes / benefits for positioning in


relation to competitors.

3)Communicate the company’s positioning.


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DIFFERENT POSITIONING APPROACHES / STRATEGIES

• Attribute / Benefit positioning.

• Product category positioning.

• Price –Quality positioning.

• Use / Application positioning.

• Competitor positioning.

• Repositioning.
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ADVERTISING / PROMOTIONAL
RESEARCH
Marketing Research

Advertising/ Promotional Research

Advertising Creative Pre-testing Post-testing


Strategy Concept Research Research
Research Research

Target Product & Communication Advertising


Audience Positioning media Research Message
Research Research Research
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DEVELOPMENTAL AD AND COPY RESEARCH


• Marketing research & market research same?
• Advertising strategy research is called
developmental research. why?
• Because it is used for developing strategies
like positioning, selection of target audience,
media & message.
• Creative concept research & Pretesting are
used for concept & copy testing and hence
called copy research.
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TARGET AUDIENCE / CONSUMER INSIGHT RESEARCH

• It develops a product / brand’s target consumers’ (or


Primary users’) profile.

• Profile includes geographic, demographic, psychographic


& behavioural characteristics.

• The research finds information on potential market


segments for new products.

• Methods used : Consumer attitude and usage studies.


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PRODUCT / BRAND POSITIONING RESEARCH


For effective Brand positioning strategy, advertiser
should know :

1)Target consumer’s perceptions about the firm’s


& competitors’ brands on product / service
quality, features, benefits.

2)What factors lead to initial purchases and brand


loyalty.
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COMMUNICATION MEDIA RESEARCH


• It helps in developing
1)Media strategy from various media types
2)Selecting media vehicles.
• To obtain information on reach, audience
profile, and effectiveness of different media
vehicles, ad. agencies subscribe to syndicated
research services, like :
NRS (National Readership Survey)
IRS ( Indian Readership Survey)
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ADVERTISING MESSAGE RESEARCH

• Ad. Agency’s creative team does formal and informal


research.

• Formal research by reading secondary information


provided by the client (advertiser) on the company,
product category, brand, competition.

• Informal personal research is also done. How?


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CREATIVE CONCEPT RESEARCH/COPY RESEARCH


• Research done on:
• Concept testing
• Name testing
• Slogan testing
Timing : before ad. Agency begins production.
Process followed:
• Creative people prepare tentative ad concepts (i.e. copy
platform/story board)
• Focus groups of users discuss tentative concepts.
• Researchers observe & videotape discussions.
• Most promising creative concept identified.
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PRE-TESTING RESEARCH
• Done by advertising agency before finished artwork is
sent to the client.
• Purpose: To find any flaws in the ad message.
or, To creat an effective ad. Message.
• Technique used : Consumer panels (focus groups)
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POST-TESTING RESEARCH
• Done after an ad/ad campaign is over.
• It evaluates impact of ad campaign/an ad.
• It measures factors like awareness,
attitude (preference / liking), purchases.
• Actual measurements are compared with
ad. goals to evaluate success.
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PLANNING ADVERTISING & INTEGRATED


BRAND PROMOTION
Advertising plan & Its marketing
context
A typical advertising / IMC Plan includes:
1.Situational analysis
2.Marketing & Advertising objectives
3.Advertising / IMC budget
4.Media strategy
5.Message strategy
6.Integration with other IMC tools
7.Evaluation of effectiveness
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SITUATION ANALYSIS INCLUDES


• Background research : collect, analyse
information about company, product, brand,
consumers, competition.
• SWOT analysis:
• Based on above analysis,
(1) Identify communication related problems
(attitudes, perceptions) to be solved by
advertising.
or (2) Identify opportunities that advertising can
exploit / creat.
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MARKETING AND ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES.


• Marketing objectives based on corporate objectives &
situational analysis.
• Advertising objectives/goals derived from marketing
objectives.
• Definition: a specific communication task &
achievement level to be accomplished with a specific
audience in a specific period of time.
• To be effective, an ad must be seen, read,
understood, believed, and acted upon.
• Hence, ad objectives has 3 categories : sales,
communication, behavioural objectives.
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SALES OBJECTIVES
• Some times ad objective stated as increase in
sales by %, quantity, or value.
• This is unrealistic and unfair. Why?

Communication objectives
• Existing levels of awareness, knowledge, liking,
and preference for a brand measured.
• If low, message & media strategies developed to
increase it.
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BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES
• Achieving communication objectives is not
enough.
• Advertising should induce action / behaviour in
consumers like trial / purchase.
• Hence, behavioural objectives could be:
(1) Increase brand usage rate among existing
consumers
(2) Encourage non-users for trial and / or
purchase of brand.
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ADVERTISING BUDGET

• How much a company need to spend on


advertising / promotion / IMC ?

• Four commonly used budgeting methods are:

• Percentage-of-sales method

• Competitive parity method

• Affordable method

• Objective and task method


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PERCENTAGE-OF-SALES METHOD

• Most common method

• Budget worked as a percentage of projected sales.

• Advantages : (1) Simple, (2) Easy to implement, (3)


Expenses related to sales, (4) Comparison with
competitors’ budgets possible.

• Disadvantages : (1) Ignores objectives of advertising;


(2) Products with low sales, high potential, gets
less budget.
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COMPETITIVE PARITY METHOD
• Budget based on competitors’ promotional
expenditures.
• Assumptions (as advantages) are:

• Competitors’ expenditures show collective


wisdom.

• would prevent promotion war.


• Both assumptions are incorrect. Why?
• Disadvantage: Ignores company’s capability.
• Should be used with some other method.
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AFFORDABLE METHOD
• After allocating to other relevant company
expenditures, whatever left is allocated.
• Advantages: Simple, easy to implement, comparison
with other company expenditures.
• Disadvantages: Ignores role of advertising as
investment in brand building and its impact on sales.
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OBJECTIVE & TASK METHOD


• Increasingly popular method.
• Process / procedure includes:
• Specify ad objectives / goals.
• Decide tasks to be performed to achieve ad
objectives.
• Estimate cost of performing tasks.
• Total costs of all tasks to arrive at ad budget
• Advantages: (1) build-up approach; (2) shows
relationship between expenditure, ad insertions,
awareness levels, attitudes, purchases.
• Disadvantage : difficulty in deciding tasks &
cost estimates.
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ROLE OF ADVERTISING AGENCY


Role / Functions of advertising agency:
• Advertising planning & execution
• For SMEs as clients.
• Helps clients achieve advertising and marketing
goals.
• Provides specialised services
• Like sales promotion, video production.
• For particular market / industry.
• Three types of ad agencies
• Full-service agencies
• Creative agencies
• Media-buying agencies
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ADVERTISEMENT PLANNING: AN
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
• International advertising has two approaches:
• Market-oriented approach.
• Culture-oriented approach.
• Most companies have central control of ad campaign
with local adaptation in execution.
• Steps involved in planning international advertising
• Global advertising objectives
• Targeting issues
• Positioning the global brand
• Setting ad budget
• Executing international ad campaign
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MODULE -3: CREATING BRANDS

• What is a brand?
• A product is a physical thing.
A brand is a perceptual thing that lives in
consumer’s mind.
• Main tasks in creating / building a brand are:
• Choosing / selecting brand names.
• Positioning the brand.
• Providing effective communication support.
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CHOOSING BRAND NAMES

Alternatives available are:

• Name of a person (e.g. Tata, Honda)

• Nature of the business (e.g. IBM, British Airways)

• Use of Acronyms (e.g. H.P., IBM)

• Artificial names (e.g. Accenture, Xerox)

• Metaphorical names(e.g. Oracle, Apple)


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BRAND POSITIONING

• It means establishing a distinct, valued place for a


brand in target customer’s mind.
• First decide target customers / market segments.
• Then determine brand positioning by
Deciding distinct / unique value proposition.
• It should answer target customer’s question:
“ why should I buy your brand, rather than
competing brand”.
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PROVIDING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

• This is done by using brand building tools:

• Advertising in TV, news papers, magazines, journals.

• Sponsorship in events (Cricket matches, Car races)

• Direct marketing (Internet, Direct mail, Telemarketing).

• Public relations.

• Marketing firms hire brand consultants.


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CREATIVE PROCESS

• What is creativity?

• What is an important trait of a creative person?

• Graham Wallas’s steps in creative process:

1.Preparation

2.Incubation

3.Illumination

4.Verification
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ANOTHER APPROACH TO CREATIVE


PROCESS

• James Young’s 5-step approach:

1.Immersion

2.Digestion

3.Incubation

4.Illumination

5.Reality / Verification
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What is an Advertising Message?

• It is the idea, thought, image, attitude, or


other information conveyed by advertiser to
target audience.

• It is conveyed in words or visuals.

• It is delivered through communication media.


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MESSAGE OBJECTIVES
• Advertiser to know what objectives the message
should achieve.
• The message objectives are:
• Perception: Create awareness, interest, attention,
recognition, recall.
• Affective: Touch emotions, create feelings.
• Cognitive: Deliver information & understanding.
• Persuasion: Change attitudes, create conviction and
preference.
• Transformation: Establish brand identity &
associations.
• Behaviour: Stimulate trial, purchase, or repurchase.
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MESSAGE STRATEGIES

Message / appeal strategies are:

1.Rational / Informational / Logical Appeals

2.Emotional / Transformational Appeals

3.Moral Appeals

4.Combining Rational & Emotional Appeals

5.Other types of Appeals


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RATIONAL / INFORMATIONAL / LOGICAL APPEALS

• Also called “Head Strategy”, as they relate to head,


using hard-sell approaches:

• Feature appeal Focus on traits / attributes.


Used by high-involvement / technical products.

• Favourable price appeal

• Competitive advantage appeal

• Popularity appeal
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EMOTIONAL / TRANSFORMATIONAL APPEALS


• These appeals relate to customer’s psychological &
social needs.
• They arouse positive / negative emotions that
motivate purchase of product / service.
• These appeals focus on:
(1) Personal bases of feelings
(e.g. Joy / happiness, Sorrow / grief, Love/affection)
(2) Social bases of feelings
(e.g. Respect / status, Affiliation / belonging)
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MORAL APPEALS

• They draw attention of audience to what is “right”.


• These appeals ask people to support
social issues (Polio eradication, AIDS prevention, Child
labour prevention)
Combining Rational & Emotional Appeals
• In many purchase decisions, consumers’ decisions are
based on combination of R&E appeals.
• Degree varies upon buying situations and product /
service category.
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OTHER TYPES OF APPEALS

Teaser Advertising

• Typically used when a new product is introduced.

• Objective: to build audience curiosity, interest, and excitement.


Reminder Advertising

• Objective: to keep brand name in audience’s mind.


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COPY WRITING

• What is a copy?
• Creative plan includes attention getting and
memorable phrases.
• Copy-writer shapes words in an ad

Copy writing for print advertisements


It has two types of copy writing
• Display copy : Includes larger type-size elements
• Body copy (or Text) : Includes smaller type sizes
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DISPLAY COPY
• Large type-size elements are:
Headlines, subhead lines, Taglines, slogans
Headline
• It is conveys ad message / theme
• It is a sentence / phrase – important for
catching attention
Types of Headlines
• Benefit headline
• Information / News headline
• Puzzle / Provocative headline
• Question headline
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SUBHEADS
• Most adds have one / more subheads.
• They enhance readability and highlight key
sales points.
• When subhead is above headline, it is
underlined, called kicker / overline.
• When subhead is below headline, its type-size is
smaller than headline, but larger than body
copy.
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SLOGANS

• Slogans / theme lines are repeated from ad to ad.


– why?

• They must be catchy and memorable.

TAGLINES

• Sometimes slogans are used as taglines.

• Used at the end of an ad, to complete / wrap up


the creative idea.
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BODY COPY
• It is main text of an ad
• It includes sales story, arguments, explaination,
proof.
• Only 10% readers read body copy.
• Long enough to complete message, short enough
to retain readers’ interest.
Body copy writing styles / approaches:
• Straight forward : factual copy
• Narrative : Story telling
• Dialogue : Conversation
• Explaination : Explains working of something
• Translation : of technical information
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CAPTIONS
• Part of body copy captions explain visuals.
• Visuals and captions have high readership.
VISUAL ELEMENTS

• They are major components of print advertising.

• These elements work with headline & body copy to


enhance ad impact.

• Art director decides.

• Responsibility with artists / photographs.


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COPY WRITING FOR CYBER SPACE
• Web / Internet advertising is more interactive than
any other mass medium.
• Web copywriting challenges are:
• To attract people to the site.
• To have dialogue-based communication.
Purposes of internet Advertising:
• Brand reminder for people visiting Web site.
• Delivers persuasive message.
• Drives traffic to advertiser’s Web site.
Online / Web / Internet advertising classified as:
(1) Banner Ads, (2) Web Ads, (3) Other formats.
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BANNER ADS
• They are most common form of online ads.
• These are small rectangular boxes with text,
images, animations, with company / brand
name.
• Like outdoor ads, importance to creativity with
clever phrases & bright visuals, by
• Offering discounts / freebies
• Changing offer frequently (perhaps daily)
• Offering knowledge / asking provocative
questions.
• Asking sufer’s opinion & rewarding them.
• Informing, entertaining, providing links.
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WEB ADS
• Similar to traditional print advertising.
• Copy writing important for creating interest.
• Objectives
• Create awareness, interest in products / services
• Build brand image.
OTHER WEB FORMATS
• Marketers experiment with other web formats like
pop-ups, Ad buttons, sponsorships, Interstitials,
classified ads
• Internet method using broadcast media better
than TV advertising. (Why?)
• These designs are constantly changing.
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COPY WRITING FOR BROADCAST ADVERTISEMENT


• Radio / TV ads are 10,15,30 or 60 seconds in length.
• Radio ads are different & difficult. (Why?)
Tools of Radio Copy Writing
• It includes audio elements : Voice, music, sound effect.
Voice: Includes jingles, dialogue, announcements.
• Speaking style should match target audience speech.
Music : Jingles help remember slogan
• Hummable music sticks in our minds.
Sound Effects: Important for attention-getting & memorable
• Generate anger, joy, suspense, or sorrow.
• Create effects of door opening, laughter, etc.
/AD/KKH/M3/24/30

GUIDELINES OF EFFECTIVE RADIO COPY WRITING


• Use conversational languages.
• Design to speak to audience interests like sports, music.
• Keep it simple & short (KISS): Simple words, short
sentences.
• Make it easy to remember: By repetition.
• Design to break inattention with something unexpected.
Planning radio commercials
• Radio script format.
• Sources of audio written on left. Content on right.
• Instructions & descriptions in capital letters.
• Appoint producer, who casts the commercial.
• Select music director to choose music
• Studio mixes music, sound with voices, sends tape to radio
station.
/AD/KKH/M3/25/30

HOW TO WRITE A TELEVISION COPY?


• Powerful medium, combining visuals & verbal
messages.
• TV commercial production is complex & expensive.
Characteristics of TV copy
• Action: TV action & motion attracts viewers’ attention
& interest.
• Demonstration: TV ads are suitable for products
needing demonstration.
• Storytelling: TV commercials use storytelling about
product & people using it.
• Emotion: TV Commercials make emotional appeals.
/AD/KKH/M3/26/30
TOOLS / COMPONENTS OF TV COPY WRITING
• Two components of TV commercials : Audio & Video
• Both work in coordination to create impact.
Video Elements
• Includes presenter, action sequence, sets, lighting, etc.
• Emotions expressed in facial expressions, body language.
• These are used in movies, TV shows, plays.
Audio Elements
• Similar to Radio, 3 elements: Music, Voice, Sound effects
• Used differently in TV, due to audio connected to visual image.
• Voice may be of a presentor, 2/3 persons in conversation, or
unseen presentor (voiceover)
• Background music / song used for jingles / catchy songs.
/AD/KKH/M3/27/30

PLANNING & PRODUCTION OF TV


COMMERCIAL
• Planning a TV commercial includes:
• Type of appeal: Rational, emotional, moral,
combination
• Scenes: No. of scenes.
• Key visual: That would be remembered by the
viewers.
• Length of the commercial: 10,15,20,30,60
seconds(Most common?)
TV commercials planned based on 2 documents:
• (1) TV scripts (Prepared by copy writer)
• (2) Story board (Drawn by art director)
/AD/KKH/M3/28/30
SCRIPT & STORYBOARDS
TV Script: Like radio script, a written form of
commercial’s audio plan.
• It includes words, dialogue, instructions, description
of sets, lighting etc,.
Storyboard: It is a visual plan / layout of commercial.
• It includes no of video scenes, shots in each scenes,
etc.
• Art director & copy writer create storyboard,
combining video scenes with audio parts.
• It gives clear picture of TV commercial.
• Animatic is a videotape of storyboard with
soundtrack.
Production of commercial starts after approval of
storyboard / animatic by the client.
/AD/KKH/M3/29/30
ART DIRECTION & PRODUCTION IN PRINT ADVERTISING
Steps in art direction:
• Choose elements: Photos, illustrations, colour, typograph
• Produce layout by handling above elements on paper
• Arrange elements using design principles.
Steps in production of print ad:
• Understanding print media requirements for newspaper and
magazine ads.
• Use lineart or halftone print images, and colour reproduction.
• Common printing processes used in advertising:
Letterpress, offset lithography / printing, silk screen, etc
Trend in print production is digitisation, using computers.
/AD/KKH/M3/30/30

ART DIRECTION & PRODUCTION IN TV


ADVERTISING
TV art direction includes:
• Visual storytelling.
• Making video advertising on computers.
• TV commercial length is important in design.
Steps in production of TV commercials
• Message design
• Preproduction
• Production
• Postproduction
/AD/KKH/M4/1/28

MODULE -4:
PLACING THE MESSAGE IN CONVENTIONAL
AND NEW MEDIA
• World of promotional media
• Fundamentals (basic concepts) of media planning
• Media planning process
• Media strategies (including media – mix selection /
media choices)
• Scheduling
• Contemporary essentials (challenges)
• Media choice (planning) & integrated brand
promotion (IMC)
• Strategic planning considerations in media choice
/AD/KKH/M4/2/28

WORLD OF PROMOTIONAL MEDIA


• Firms allocate budget to promotional media.
• Companies achieve efficiencies by replacing one
promotional media with other.
• Characteristics & costs of media:
• Advertising
• Sales promotion
• PR & Publicity (MPR)
• Personal selling
• Direct marketing
/AD/KKH/M4/3/28

FUNDAMENTALS (BASIC CONCEPTS) OF MEDIA


PLANNING
• Media : The channels of communication that carry the
ad message to the target audience.
• Media planning : A decision process for using
advertising time & space in achieving ad objectives.
• Media plan: Identifies best media to use for delivering
ad message to target audience, in a written form.
• Media class: General category / type of medium (TV,
radio, newspaper) to carry ad messages.
• Media vehicle: A specific message carries within a
medium (TOI in newspaper class in print media)
• Media mix: Combination of various media types in ad
plan to deliver a message to target audience.
/AD/KKH/M4/4/28

BASIC CONCEPTS (CONTINUED)


• Reach: Percentage of (or measure of ) media audience
exposed atleast once to ad’s message in specific time.
• Frequency: Number of times a person (audience) is
exposed to ad in a time period (i.e. repetition of ads).
• Impression: Estimates readership of a newspaper /
magazine, actual viewers of TV, listeners for radio
• Circulation: Measures number of copies sold for a
newspaper or magazine.
• Exposure: Measure households with TV sets turned on
(HUT-Households using television).
• Coverage: Potential audience that may get to exposed to
ad message through a media vehicle.
/AD/KKH/M4/5/28

MEDIA PLANNING PROCESS


The media planning process is shown below:

Carry out Media Research

Set Media Objectives

Develop Media Strategies


Who are involved in media planning process?
What is the difference between
Workout Media media planning and
Scheduling
media plan?
/AD/KKH/M4/6/28

MEDIA RESEARCH
Focus of media research and analysis is:
• Target audience
• Factors influencing media plan
• Where and when to advertise
Category development index (CDI), and
Brand development index (BDI) are used to
decide where to advertise.
/AD/KKH/M4/7/28

SETTING MEDIA OBJECTIVES

• Derived from marketing & communication objectives.

• Media planner consider 3 important elements:

• Degree of exposure / impressions.

• No. of people exposed to message (reach).

• Repetition needed to make impression (frequency).


/AD/KKH/M4/8/28

MEDIA STRATEGIES
• Media strategies should achieve media
objectives, reach target audience with cost –
effective media-mix to deliver the ad
message.
• It includes following decisions:
• Geographic selection (coverage)
• Media – mix selection (Media choice)
• Cost – effective media & media vehicles.
/AD/KKH/M4/9/28

GEOGRAPHIC SELECTION / COVERAGE


• Geographic location of target audience is an
important factor.
• Use of category development index (CDI)
helps to indicate geographic areas where a
product category is strong & weak.
• Use of brand development index (BDI) shows
geographic areas where a brand is strong &
weak
• Accordingly geographic areas are selected &
advertising budget allocated.
• How to calculate CDI & BDI?
/AD/KKH/M4/10/28

CALCULATION OF BDI & CDI


• Brand development index (BDI)

% of brand’s total country sales in Karnataka


X100

% of total country population in Karnataka

Category Development Index (CDI)=

% of product category’s total country sales in Karnataka


X100

% of total country population in Karnataka


/AD/KKH/M4/11/28

WHERE TO ADVERTISE?
BRAND DEVELOPMENT INDEX (BDI)
High Low

Based on above, where should company advertise?


Source of secondary data: NRS, IRS, I& B Ministry’s
Annual report.
/AD/KKH/M4/12/28

MEDIA - MIX SELECTION / MEDIA CHOICES

• What is media-mix?

• Why most firms use it?

Factors used for selection of media-mix are:


• Product characteristics
• Media characteristics
• Message characteristics
• Media habits of target audience
/AD/KKH/M4/13/28

PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

• Product characteristics like visuability, believability,


and colour can be best shown by selecting
appropriate media. (any examples?)

Message characteristics

• Media choice / selection is influenced by information


content & timeliness. (examples?)
/AD/KKH/M4/14/28
MEDIA CHARACTERISTICS
Selection of media is also influenced by comparison
of media & their characteristics
Medium Advantages Disadvantages
Newspapers Mass coverage, local Short life, Poor
market coverage, High reproduction quality, Low
believability, Large space, attention getting, clutter,
Choice of ad position Selective exposure.

Television Combined impact in sight, High cost, High clutter,


sound, motion; Mass Short exposure, Low
coverage; High reach; High audience selectivity.
attention.
Radio Mass use, Low cost, High Only audio, Low
frequency, High attention getting, Noise,
demographic & geographic Short lived message.
selectivity.
/AD/KKH/M4/15/28

Medium Advantages Disadvantages


Magazines Focused segmentation, Long lead time for ad
High quality reproduction, placing, only visual, Low
Long life message, High frequency, Ad position
information content. not guaranteed.

Outdoor Low cost, High repeat Short message, short


exposure, High visibility, exposure time, Creative
Low Competition, Specific Limitations, Poor
location. image,Limited audience
selection.
Internet Interactive possibilities, New media, Low users in
Low-cost, High selectivity, some countries, Limited
Increased attention & creative capabilities.
involvement.
/AD/KKH/M4/16/28

MEDIA HABITS OF AUDIENCE


• Information on media habits of target audience
can be obtained through consumer research.
• EG. TV & radio are effective media for reaching
teenagers.
• Information on media vehicles for specific target
audience can be obtained through target
audience research.
/AD/KKH/M4/17/28

COST-EFFECTIVE MEDIA & MEDIA


VEHICLES
• Media characteristics tables show high & low
cost media.
• Size & cost of reaching target audience,
referred as CPM (Cost per thousand
circulation), is more important.
Cost of ad space
CPM= X1000
circulation
Used for comparing media vehicles for magazines.
/AD/KKH/M4/18/28

COST PER RATING POINT (CPRP)


• For broadcast media, CPRP or CPP (cost per point)
are used to compare vehicles.
Cost of message /commercial time
CPRP=CPP =
Programme rating
• Programme rating (percentage of exposure) of 30
means 30% of house holds with TV had tuned in to
that programme.
• For newspapers, when cost of advertising is know,
Cost of ad
CPM= X1000
Circulation
/AD/KKH/M4/19/28

SCHEDULING
• Media schedule is the calendar of advertising plan.
• Media planner manage schedules tactfully for
maximum impact with given ad budget.

• Scheduling strategies include:

• Timing (when to advertise?)

• Duration (how long to advertise?)

• Continuity (how often to advertise?)

• Who executes the media plan?


/AD/KKH/M4/20/28
TIMING (WHEN TO ADVERTISE?)
• This is based on seasons, months, parts of week,
or the day.
• Factors considered for timing decisions are:

• How often the product is purchased?

• Whether the product used more in some months?

• Customers’ best time to buy.

• Competitors’ ad schedules.
/AD/KKH/M4/21/28

DURATION (HOW LONG TO ADVERTISE?)

• If its a ad campaign, how long it should run?

• If budget is small, how to cover the year?

• How much advertising is enough?

• Lead time concept: Two meanings.

1)Time allowed before beginning of sales period.

2)Production time to get ad in the medium.


/AD/KKH/M4/22/28
CONTINUITY (HOW OFTEN TO ADVERTISE)
There are 3 strategies:
• Continuous strategy
• Flighting strategy.
• Pulsating strategy.
Continuous strategy
• Regular / continuous pattern without any gaps.
i.e. every day, every week, every month.
• Suitable for product categories regularly consumed / used.
• Advantages: Covers buying cycle, continuous reminders,
get media discounts & preferred ad locations.
• Disadvantages: High costs, overexposure possibility.
/AD/KKH/M4/23/28

FLIGHTING STRATEGY
• Alternating periods of intense advertising & no
advertising.
• Used for products with seasonal demands.
• Advantages : cost efficiency (covers purchase cycles
only), use many media & vehicles with limited
budget.
• Disadvantages: decreased awareness, interest,
retention of ad message during non-scheduled
periods, advantage to competitors.
Pulsating strategy
• It is a combination of continuous & flighting strategy.
• Advantages of both continuous & flighting.
• Disadvantages: Not suitable for small budgets &
seasonal products.
/AD/KKH/M4/24/28
SCHEDULING STRATEGIES
Jan F M A M J J A S O N D

Continuous

Flighting
Pulsating
Criteria used for decision:
• Advertising objectives
• Buying cycles
• Advertising decay level
• Ad budget
• Competitive spending
/AD/KKH/M4/25/28

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES / ESSENTIALS


• Media industry is changing fast.
• These changes create new ways of doing things:
1. Changes in media buying & planning:
Tug of war between media-buying firms and ad
agencies.
2. Online media-buying.
3. Changes needed in media research.
• Reliable audience research on new media
• Improvements needed in media monitoring
system.
• Need information on effectiveness of combined
media.
/AD/KKH/M4/26/28
MEDIA CHOICE / PLANNING & INTEGRATED
BRAND PROMOTION (IBP)
• How media choice (planning) will change to
accommodate new tools from integrated brand
promotion (IMC)?
1. Reliance on mass media to be reduced.
• Data base analysis needed often to know which
new media reaches target audience.
2. Numerical data needed
• For comparing media vehicles, media exposure
data of the past to be mixed with scanner sales
data.
3.Media planners to know more about other
communication tools.
• By sitting in creative meetings.
• Undertaking special training.
/AD/KKH/M4/27/28

MEDIA CHOICE & IBP (CONTINUED)


4. Need to evaluate off-beat communication tools.
• are they ads? Their effectiveness?
5. Reach & frequency will continue.
• For brands with wide distribution, reach &
frequency will be important.
6.Cost per thousand (CPM) will continue
• CPM will be one of the many criteria for media
vehicle selection.
/AD/KKH/M4/28/28
STRATEGIC PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS IN
MEDIA CHOICE
Strategic planning (thinking) media choice (selection)
includes:
1.Effective matching a medium’s audience profile to
target audience.
• Consult marketing research agencies.
2. Use consumer research information on media
habits
• Use data collected during strategic planning i.e.
segmenting & targeting.
• Consumers moving towards new media.
3. Use company sales forecasts by geographic areas
for media choice.
/AD/KKH/M5/1/32

MODULE -5:
INTEGRATED BRAND PROMOTION
We shall discuss in this module:

• What is Traditional support media?


• What are Event Sponsorship and Branded
entertainment?
• Sales Promotion: Definition, directed at
consumers, trade channel, business markets.
• What is direct marketing and its media
applications?
• Public relations, corporate advertising.
/AD/KKH/M5/2/32

TRADITIONAL SUPPORT MEDIA


• Traditional media are : advertising, personal
selling, sales & trade promotions..
• These media alongwith direct marketing and
public relations form Integrated Brand Promotion.
• In B2B marketing, traditional medium (like
advertising) supports other promotional activities
(e.g. personal selling, trade shows)
• In consumer marketing, advertising is primary
media. Other promotional tools support
advertising.
/AD/KKH/M5/3/32

EVENT SPONSORSHIP (ES)


• Event sponsorship occurs when company
supports an event. (Examples?)
• Event marketing is similar to sponsorship
marketing.
• Events include sports, musical concerts,
entrainment tours,etc.
• Benefits of event sponsorship?
• Building company image
• Developing customer relationship
• Boosting employee morale
/AD/KKH/M5/4/32

FOR ENSURING MAXM. BENEFITS FROM ES

Companies should:
• Set objectives of the sponsoring event.
• Match event with target segments
• Ensure company name, logo in event promotion ads &
brochures.
• Evaluate results & investment.
Why popularity of ES gone up?
Freelance event marketing specialists available.
/AD/KKH/M5/5/32

BRANDED ENTERTAINMENT (BE)


• It is placing a branded product in the content of an
entertainment programme.
• BE / Advertainment is integrating brands in the
content of TV Shows. (Examples?)
• Under 25 segment likely to try brands placed in
movies.
• Expenditure of brands placed in Video games may
reach $1 billion by 2010.
• Success of BE depends on authenticity of the claim
and celebrity connection.
• Consumer advocacy groups want consumers to be
informed :BE are paid ads.
• Regulations vary form country to country.
/AD/KKH/M5/6/32

SALES PROMOTION & POP ADVERTISING


Definitions of sales promotion are many. Why?
• Kotler : Sales Promotion includes diverse
incentive tools, short term, to stimulate quicker
/ greater purchase of products / services by
consumers / trade.
• Strang: Sales promotions are short term
incentives to encourage purchase / sale of a
product / service.
• Sales Promotion offers an incentive to buy.
/AD/KKH/M5/7/32

SALES PROMOTION DIRECTED AT


CONSUMERS
• It is called consumer sales promotions /
consumer promotions.
• It done by manufacturers / retailers.
• Major objective: to stimulate consumers to
buy, by using pull strategy.
• Other objectives:
• Encourage prospects to try a product
• Increase consumption of established brand
• Retain consumers & build brand equity.
/AD/KKH/M5/8/32
MAJOR CONSUMER PROMOTION TOOLS
• Samples / sampling.

• Coupons

• Price-offs / Price discounts / Price deals

• Premiums

• Prizes (contests & Sweepstakes)

• Refunds & Rebates

• Frequency programs
/AD/KKH/M5/9/32

CONSUMER SALES PROMOTION


Samples / sampling
• Encourage consumers to try new products.
• Normally, they are provided free of charge.
• Distributed thru’ sales force, retailers, direct
mail, ad offer, or attached to another product.
Coupons
• Price reduction offers to consumers
• Used by manufacturers & retailers.
• Distributed by direct mail, attached to /
enclosed in other products, or inserted in
newspaper / magazine ads.
/AD/KKH/M5/10/32

CONSUMER SALES PROMOTION (CONTINUED)


Price Discounts / Price – offs / Price Deals.
• Temporary reduction in price.
• Can be physically marked on products.
• Benefits: stimulate sales, Counter competition
Premiums
• Are gifts, prizes, special offers. Major types:
• Free-in-the-mail: gifts against proof of purchase
• In / on package : gifts attached or in the package.
• Store / manufacturer : gifts given by retailer / manufacturer
after purchase.
• Self – liquidating: specified amount covers cost of premium.
/AD/KKH/M5/11/32

CONSUMER SALES PROMOTION (CONTINUED)


Prizes (contests & sweepstakes)
• Major factor: Prizes should be desirable for participation.
• Contests: Require activity from participants.
• Sweepstakes: Based on luck / chance factor.
• Benefits: increase in awareness, image, customer traffic.
Company provides prizes, entry forms, ads, display
material, and legal statements (if required)
/AD/KKH/M5/12/32

CONSUMER SALES PROMOTION (CONTINUED)


Refund & Rebates
• Refund is cash return, after purchase & proof of
purchase, on soft goods (clothing, food items).
• Rebate is same thing on hard goods / major value
items.
• Benefits: Increases buying excitements; Retailers like
it.
Frequency Programme.
• It is a incentive plan for repeat buying. (Examples?)
• Objectives / Benefits :
• Develop customer loyalty.
• Match / preempt competition
/AD/KKH/M5/13/32

SALES PROMOTIONS DIRECTED TOWARDS


TRADE CHANNEL
• Called Trade Promotions, it is directed at resellers
(wholesalers, distributors, dealers, retailers)
• Push strategy of manufacturers.
• Higher expenditure on trade promotions (47%),
than consumer promotions (28%), because:
• Resellers’ resistance / demand.
• Competitive pressures.
• Sales managers’ views.
/AD/KKH/M5/14/32

OBJECTIVES / BENEFITS OF TRADE PROMOTIONS


• Stimulate resellers to push products.
• Promote brands by display, carry more stocks.
MAJOR TRADE PROMOTION TOOLS
• Trade allowances (off-invoice / off-list)
• Free goods
• Display & advertising allowances
• Sales contests
• Point-of-purchase (POP) advertising
/AD/KKH/M5/15/32

MAJOR TRADE PROMOTIONS


1) Trade Allowances
• Purpose : Offer financial incentives to motivate channel
members to buy.
Types of trade allowances:
• Off – invoice / off – list: Discount / rebate on price – list /
invoice on each case purchased in a time period.
• Drop – ship : Paid to retailers to bypass wholesalers /
distributors for preplanned orders.
• Slotting fees: Paid to retailers to stock a new product.
• Exit fees: Paid to retailers for removing existing size (SKU)
from inventory, in place of a new size.
/AD/KKH/M5/16/32

TRADE PROMOTIONS (CONTINUED)


2) Free Goods
Offered extra cases free to resellers for buying
specific quantity or carrying a particular size / flavour.
3) Display / Merchandise Allowance
Given to retailers for arranging special product display &
for merchandising efforts.
4) Advertising / Cooperative Advertising Allowance
Given to retailers / dealers for advertising manufacturer’s
products in a local media (often 50-50% basis)
/AD/KKH/M5/17/32
5) Point-of-Purchase (POP) Advertising
• A special type of display that advertise products in
retail store where products are available for
purchase.
• POP materials: Stickers, banners, posters, signs,
streamers.
• Purposes: getting customers’ attention; Promoting
incentives; Reinforcing message; Boosting sales.
• 70% brand choices (for all products) made in
store
• Disadvantage: Waste when not used. (why not
used?)
• For effective POP:
Consult retailers, integrate messages, make it
attractive.
/AD/KKH/M5/18/32

TRENDS IN POP DISPLAY


• Integrate with company web site.
• Change message daily / weekly.
• Monitor results with cash register data.
Difference between POP & POS?
6) Sales contest / Trade contest
• Purpose: To increase sales over specific
period.
• Held at various levels.
• Effective when held for a region / state.
• Prizes (spiff money) given to successful
participants.
/AD/KKH/M5/19/32

SALES PROMOTION DIRECTED TOWARDS


BUSINESS MARKETS
Major Sales Promotion tools for Business
Markets
• Trade shows / Exhibitions.
• Sales contests.
• Specialty advertising / promotional novelties /
Gifts.
• Seminars
• Catalogues
• Promotional letters
• Demonstration
/AD/KKH/M5/20/32
TRADE SHOWS / EXHIBITIONS
• Mostly for industrial products in B2B markets
• Industrial associations organise
• Members / suppliers buy space, display,
demonstrate their products.
• Major benefits:
• Generate orders & sales leads
• Customer contacts & relationship
• Introduce new products / services
• Disadvantages:
• High costs and hence select few trade shows.
• Competitors know new products.
/AD/KKH/M5/21/32

SPECIALTY ADVERTISING / PROMOTIONAL


NOVELTIES / GIFTS
•Low cost gifts are given to customers.
•Objective: Strengthen business relationships.
•Should be unique; convey name / logo subtle way.
Catalogs
•Give information about products / services.
•Sales people establish contacts with technical
people.
•Two types : General, Specific.
•Distribute through direct mail, trade shows, sales
people.
/AD/KKH/M5/22/32
SEMINARS
• Convey technical / educational information.
• Audio – visual presentation by technical experts.
• Benefits: Influence key buying centre members
• Build relationships.
Promotional Letters
• Sent to business customers with catalogs by direct mail
/ e-mail.
• Objectives: Create awareness, favourable impression.
Demonstration
• Useful for salespeople for presentations.
• For prospective customers at factory, trade show,
another customer’s premises.
/AD/KKH/M5/23/32

DIRECT MARKETING (DM)


• What is Direct Marketing?
• It uses customer – direct channels to reach
& deliver goods / services to customers
without marketing middlemen.
Media Applications / Channels of DM:
• Direct mail
• Catalogs
• Telemarketing
• E-marketing / Internet
• Kiosks
• Direct – response media / Mass media.
/AD/KKH/M5/24/32

BENEFITS OF DM
Benefits to customers
• Home shopping convenient, hassle – free, fun.
• Saves time, comparison, orders for others also.
Benefits to marketers
• Builds relationships with customers
• Customised (Individualised) message
• Less visible to competitors
• More profitable (How?)
• Enhance brand / company loyalty.
/AD/KKH/M5/25/32

DIRECT MAIL / MAIL


• Sending offers, announcements, reminders by
letters, coupons, CDs, etc.
• Types:(A) Paper-based: By postal service,
courier, fax.
(B) Electronic: E-mail
(C) Telephone: Voice-mail, cell phones
Stages passed through by direct-mail.
• Mass mailing of standard messages, low
response.
• Database marketing: Digital direct-to-press,
higher response rate.
• Interactive marketing
• Lifetime value marketing
/AD/KKH/M5/26/32

DIRECT MAIL (CONTINUED)

Advantages
• Enough space for complete sales message.
• Customised communication with database.
• Reach audience inaccessible to other
media.

Disadvantages
• Negative (junk-mail) perception.
• Low response rate.
• Mailing lists need continuous updation.
/AD/KKH/M5/27/32

CATALOGS / CATALOG MARKETING


• Category of catalogs: Multipage & full-line;
Specialty; Business
• Forms: Print, online, CDs, Videos
• Advantages of online catalogs
• Access to global customers
• Large savings in printing & mailing costs.
• Complete information, high-quality design.
• Disadvantages
• Viewed as junk mail
• High cost, low response rate
• Need continuous updation of database.
/AD/KKH/M5/28/32
TELEMARKETING
• Use of telephone & call centres to attract prospects, to
sell merchandise, provide service, answer questions.
• Two types: Inbound & outbound
• Key points:
• Message simple enough for delivery on phone
• Short & compelling message to continue listening
• Advantages
• Reduces prospecting & selling costs.
• Increases sales revenue; improves customers
satisfaction.
• Disadvantages
• Restriction from “do-not-call” list
• Many consumers resent calls from firms
/AD/KKH/M5/29/32
E-MARKETING / INTERNET
• Functions of Internet:
• Communication channel
• Distribution channel
• Transaction channel
• Information channel
• Used as a library, newspaper, TV set, shopping mall.
• Advantages:
• Provides greater interaction & individualisation
• Makes one-to-one marketing possible
• Disadvantages: Generates spams & spoofing
• Permission marketing approach to minimise spams
/AD/KKH/M5/30/32

KIOSK
• It is Special structure, with selling /
information unit. (Examples?)
• Often located at high-traffic places.
DIRECT – RESPONSE MEDIA / MASS MEDIA
• Mass media used for direct marketing: TV,
Radio, Magazines, Newspapers.
• Ads in mass media should carry toll-free
numbers, web sites.
• Consumers can ask more information / book
orders.
• Newspapers, magazines can target specific
audience.
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PUBLIC RELATIONS (PR)


• It includes many programmes designed to
promote / protect company image.
PR Department
• A company unit, managing relations with internal
& external stakeholders.
Functions performed:
• Advising, Lobbying, Press relations, Corporate
communications, Monitoring stakeholders.
• Marketing public Relations (MPR), new name for
publicity, performs many tasks.
• Tools used by MPR : Publications, Events,
Sponsorships, Public Service activities, News.
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CORPORATE ADVERTISING (CA)


• CA is extension of PR functions.
• Objectives of CA
• Enhance company image (Corporate image
ads)
• Create & maintain corporate identity
(Corporate identity ads).
• Express company views on issues (Advocacy
Advertising)
• Associate company with national / social
causes
• Counter negative image / attitude towards
the company.
(Examples?)