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Efficient Control and Monitoring

Through Advance Instrumentation

in Boiler
K H U L E E D B I N M E H BO O B 1 5 - M S - P E ( T ) - FT- 0 5
H A S N A I N H. S H A H 1 6 - M S - FT-T S E - 0 6
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M. SHAHID BASHIR 1 6 - M S - FT-T S E - 1 0
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Need For Instrumentation & Automation

Automatic control system is needed:

To avoid the presence of possible errors in measurement and the various
stages involved with human workers.
The temperature of the steam boiler production process is very complex
and difficult to control manually. Many accidents happens that cause injury
as a result of human error in the operation of boilers and steam turbines.
Usually, error occurs when the separation process is too low level may
overheat and damage the boiler tube while the levels are too high they may
interfere with separate water from steam and moisture transfer to the
turbine, which Reduces boiler efficiency.
Technical issues

Steam boiler has operating pressure 13Kg/cm2 but due to

inappropriate maintenance its operate on 7-9 Kg/cm 2.
Fresh air charge is at room temperature which reduces its
efficiency because if we preheat the air then there will be chance
to reduce its fuel input.
Poor insulation of boiler pipelines. No emergency alarms
Gauges were missed, exhaust temperature and pressure
gauges, oxygen analyzer, air and fuel mass flow rate gauges.
We have not found any performance and task completion
white/black board to mention the performance of every working
Literature Review
Sr Summary Authors Year
# s
01 In-situ calibration of boiler instrumentation using analytic Guanghua Wei 2001
redundancy Mingsheng Liu
David E. Claridge

02 Boiler Automation Using PLC Mahesh D. Ghule

Snehal V. Lokhande
Taslim T. Naikwadi 2016
Jyoti M. Jaybha

03 Overview of Industrial Process Automation (Automation K.L.S. Sharma 2016

Strategies) F. Morilla 2012
Benchmark for PID control based on the Boiler Control
Shop Resources

Boiler house:
In HMC boiler house is equipped with 4 D-type water
tube boilers
Specifications are given below

Capacity = 10 T/hr.
Pressure=13 Kg/cm2
Temperature= 250 0C
Total number of tubes=800
Efficient Control And Monitoring through
advance instrumentation

First stage planned is to automate and control the boiler (PLC Control)
Accurate Sensors
Relays and other dedicated closed-loop controllers.
Calibration of sensors and replace where required or missing
Installation of Digital Sensors

Second stage is to make Distributed Control System (DCS); an

advanced control system for robust control
Control Parameters

Level Control
Pressure Control
Flow Control
Temperature Control
Combustion Control
Boiler Temperature Control

Steams drum Temperature

Combustion Temperature
Force Draft Temperature
Flue Gas Temperature
Feed Water Temperature
Boiler Temperature Control

In order to control temperature variations,

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD PT100) can be
used which is a passive circuit element resistance and
serves to raise the temperature in accordance with the
predictions of a data input system.
Raising the temperature is done by measuring the
resistance and converts it into a voltage as differential
amplifier input data on leads from RTD and provide the
greatest voltage sensitivity.
Boiler Temperature Control (Cont.)
RTD signal
performed by
connecting the RTD
element in one leg
of the Wheatstone
or by RT pressure
switch is used to
sense the pressure
in the boiler.
Boiler Pressure Control

Consists of :
Force draft pressure
Steam drum pressure
Flue gas pressure

Pressure control system is done with the support RT pressure

switch. This tool works on the basis of data input RT Series
pressure switch which utilizes a seamless bellows sensing
Pressure ranges between 1 to 30 bar can be measured
Boiler Level Control

Consists of :
Steam Drum Level
Water Level

Level control system is done with the support of a float switch to

detect the level of liquid in the tank. This switch serves as the
pump connectors, indicators, alarms, or other devices.
Shape switches range from small to large and float in the liquid. It
is made of mercury float switch in the hinged or as complicated
series optical sensor or discrete output conductance produced as
the liquid reaches various levels in the tank.
3, 5 and 7 Element Drum Level Control
3- 7-
Element Element
Boiler Combustion Control
Online Simulations for Boiler Control
Role of Instrumentation & Automation

In improving direct efficiency of boiler

Clean the tubes

Improve water quality
Capacity control
Efficient data collection
Protective working of boiler
Estimated Budgeting and Costing

Tasks Cost
Replacing or installation of new Rs. 5-7 Lacs
PLC Control Rs. 8-9 Lacs

Data Storage Devices Rs. 4-5 Lacs

Installation, Fabrication and Rs. 4-5 Lacs

other necessary task
Overall Estimated Cost Rs. 2.2-2.6 Million