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# Lecture 8

## University Physics: Waves and Electricity

Dr.-Ing. Erwin Sitompul
http://zitompul.wordpress.com
2013

## Homework 6: Three Particles

Three particles are fixed in place and have charges q1 = q2 = +p
and q3 = +2p. Distance a = 6 m.
What are the magnitude and direction of the net electric field
at point P due to the particles?

p 1.602 1019 C
e 1.602 1019 C
Erwin Sitompul

8/2

## Solution of Homework 6: Three Particles

r
E2

r
E3
r
E1

r
r3 P 12 ai 12 aj
r
r3 P 12 2a
r
r
r3 P r3 P 12 2i 12 2j
r3 P
cos i sin j

r
r r
r
EP ,net E1 E2 E3
r r
E1 E2 0
Both fields cancel
one another

r
r
q
EP ,net E3 k r 3 2 r3 P
r3 P
19
r
)
9 (2 1.602 10
EP ,net 8.99 10 1
( 2 2(6 106 )) 2
160 N C Magnitude
r
EP ,net 45

Direction

45

Erwin Sitompul

8/3

## The calculation of the electric field E can be simplified by

usingsymmetry to discard the perpendicular components of
the dE vectors.
For certain charge distributions
involving symmetry, we can simplify
even more by using a law called
Gauss law, developed by German
mathematician and physicist Carl
Friedrich Gauss (17771855).

## Instead of considering dE in a given charge

distribution, Gauss law considers a
hypothetical (imaginary) closed surface
enclosing the charge distribution.
Gauss law relates the electric fields at points
on a closed Gaussian surface to the net
Erwin
Sitompulenclosed by that surface.
University Physics: Wave and Electricity
charge

8/4

Flux

## Suppose that a wide airstream flows with uniform velocity v

flows through a small square loop of area A.
Let represent the volume flow rate (volume per unit time) at
which air flows through the loop.

## depends on the angle between v and the plane of the

r
Unit vector pointing to the normal
loop.
A A rN
direction of the plane

Erwin Sitompul

8/5

Flux

## If v is perpendicular to the plane (or parallel to the planes

direction),
the rate is equal to vA.

## If v is parallel to the plane (or perpendicular to the planes

direction), no air moves through the loop, so is zero.
For an intermediate angle
, the rate of volume flow through
r r
the
is: ) A v A
loop
(v cos

## This rate of flow through an area

is an example of a flux.
The flux can be interpreted as
the flow of the velocity field
through the loop.
Erwin Sitompul

8/6

## Flashback: Multiplying Vectors

The Scalar Product

## The scalar product of the vector a and b is written as ab

and defined to be:

r r
a b ab cos

## Because of the notation, ab is also known as the dot

product
and is spoken asa dot b.

## If a is perpendicular to b, means = 90, then the

to zero.
dotproduct is equal
If a is parallel to b, means = 0, then the dot
product is equal to ab.
Erwin Sitompul

8/7

## Flashback: Multiplying Vectors

The dot product can be regarded as the product of the
magnitude of the first vector and the projection magnitude
of thersecond vector on the first vector

r
a b ab cos
(a cos )(b)
(a)(b cos )

Erwin Sitompul

8/8

## Flashback: Multiplying Vectors

When two vectors are in unit vector notation, their dot
product
can be written as
r

r
(b i b j b k)

a b (ax i a y j az k)
x
y
z
ax bx a y by az bz

i j k
i 1 0 0
j 0 1 0
k 0 0 1

Erwin Sitompul

8/9

^

Solution:
r r

a b ab cos

a 32 (4) 2 5
b (2) 2 32 3.606
r r

a b (3i 4j) ( 2i
3k)
2i)

(3i)(
6

i j k
i 1 0 0
j 0 1 0
k 0 0 1

6 (5)(3.606) cos
6
1
cos
109.438
(5)(3.606)
Erwin Sitompul

8/10

## Flux of an Electric Field

The next figure shows an arbitrary
Gaussian surface immersed in a
nonuniform electric field.
The surface is divided into small squares
of area A, each being very small to
permit us to consider
the individual

square to be flat.
The electric field E may now be taken as
constant over any given square.
r ther electric field for the given
The
flux
of
E A
Gaussian surface is:

Erwin Sitompul

can be positive,
negative, or zero,

8/11

## Flux of an Electric Field

The exact solution of the flux of electric
field through a closed surface is:

r r

E dA
S

## The flux is a scalar, and its Si unit is

Nm2/C.
The electric flux through a Gaussian
surface is proportional to the net
number of field lines passing through
that surface
Without any source of electric field
inside the surface as in this case, the
total flux through this surface is in fact
equal to zero
Erwin Sitompul

## University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/12

Checkpoint
The figure below shows a Gaussian cube of face area A
immersed in a uniform electric field E that has the positive
direction of the z axis.
In terms of E and A, determine
flux flowing through:
the
= +EA
(a) the front face (xy plane)
(b) the rear face
(c) the top face
(d) the whole cube

Erwin Sitompul

= EA
=0
=0

8/13

## Gaussian Surface: Cylinder

The next figure shows a Gaussian
surface in the form of a cylinder of
in a uniform

## electric field E, with the cylinder

axis parallel to the field. What is the
flux of the electric field through
this closed surface?

left cap

r r
E dA ( E )(dA)(cos180 )
a

E dA EA
a

right cap

r r
E dA ( E )(dA)(cos 0)
c

E dA EA
c

r r
r r
r r
r r

E dA E dA E dA E dA
S

EA 0 EA 0

## zero net flux

Erwin Sitompul

cylindrical surface

r r
E dA ( E )(dA)(cos 90 )
b

8/14

## Gaussian Surface: Cube

A
electric field given by
nonuniform
^
^
E = 3xi + 4j N/C pierces the Gaussian
cube shown here (x in meters). What
is the electric flux through the right
face, the left face, and the top face?
r r
r E dAr

right face

z 0 y 0
2 2

3x dydz

z 0 y 0
2

l

## (3xi 4j) (dydzi)

z 0 y 0

Erwin Sitompul

(3 xi 4j) ( dydzi)

x 1

3x dydz

z 0 y 0

x 3

(3)(3)dydz 36 N m 2 C

z 0 y 0
2 2

x 3

left face

(3 xi 4j) (dAr i)
r

r r
l E dAl

x 1

(3)(1)dydz 12 N m 2 C

z 0 y 0

8/15

## Gaussian Surface: Cube

A
electric field given by
nonuniform
^
^
E = 3xi + 4j N/C pierces the Gaussian
cube shown here (x in meters). What
is the electric flux through the right
face, the left face, and the top face?
r r
t E dAt top face
t

(3 xi 4j) ( dAt j)
t

(3 xi 4j) ( dxdzj)

4 dxdz

z 0 x 1
2 3

y 2

z 0 x 1

Erwin Sitompul

16 N m 2 C
y 2

8/16

## Example: Flux of an Electric Field

In a three-dimensional space, a homogenous electric field of
10 N/C is directed down to the negative z direction.
Calculate the flux flowing through:
r
z
(a) the square ABCD (xy plane)
E
3
(b) the rectangular
AEFG
(xz
plane)
r

(a) r E 10k 2V m
G
m
AABCD 4k
r r
ABCD E AABCD
(4k)

(10k)
40 N m 2 C
r
AAEFG 6j m 2
(b)
r r
AEFG E AAEFG
(6j)
(10k)
0
Erwin Sitompul

2
1

F
1

2
3

x E
University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/17

Gauss Law
Gauss law relates the net flux of an electric field through a
closed surface (a Gaussian surface) to the net charge qenc that
is enclosed by that surface.

0 qenc

r r
0
E dA qenc

in vacuum

## If you know how much electric field

is intercepted by the closed
surface, you can calculate how
much net charge is inside in the
volume of that enclosed surface.

Erwin Sitompul

8/18

Gauss Law

## S1: Electric field is outward for all points

flux is positive
enclosed charge is positive
S2: Electric field is inward for all points
flux is negative
enclosed charge is negative
S3: No charge enclosed
S4: Net charge enclosed is equal to zero,
the field lines leaving the surface are as
many as the field lines entering it

Erwin Sitompul

8/19

## Gauss Law: Net Enclosed Charge

What is the net charge enclosed by
the Gaussian cube of the previous
example?
r r
b E dAb bottom face
b

r r
f E dAf front face

(3 xi 4j) ( dAb j)
b

0
(3 xi 4j) ( dAf k)

(3 xi 4j) ( dxdzj)

z 0 x 1
2

y 0

4 dxdz

z 0 x 1

16 N m 2 C
y 0

back

r r
E dAback back face

0
(3xi 4j) ( dAback k)

back

back

Erwin Sitompul

8/20

## Gauss Law: Net Enclosed Charge

What is the net charge enclosed by
the Gaussian cube of the previous
example?
r l t b f back
36 12 16 16 0 0 24 N m 2 C
qenc

r r
0
E dA
S

0
(8.854 1012 )(24)

2.125 1010 C

Erwin Sitompul

8/21

## Applying Gauss Law: Cylindrical Symmetry

The next figure shows a section of an
infinitely long cylindrical plastic rod with a
uniform positive linear charge density , in
C/m.
for the magnitude
We need an expression
of the electric field E at a distance r from
the axis of the rod.
Due to symmetry, the component of the
resultant electric field will be only directed
EA cos E (2 rh) cos 0 E (2 rh)
But,
and bottom cap

0 qenc

0 E (2 rh) h
Erwin Sitompul

E
2 0 r

8/22

## Applying Gauss Law: Planar Symmetry

Imagine a thin, infinite sheet with a
uniform (positive) surface charge
density , in
C/m2. Now, let us find the
electric field E a distance r in front of
the sheet.
A useful Gaussian surface in this case
is a closed cylinder with end caps of
area A, arranged to pierce the sheet
perpendicularly, as shown.

r r
0
E dA qenc
S

0 ( EA EA) A
What is the direction
of the electric field?
Erwin Sitompul

E
2 0

8/23

## Example: Single Thin Plate

Charge of 106 C is given to a 2-m2 thin plate. Afterwards, an
electron with the mass 9.1091031 kg with the charge
1.6021019 C is held in a distance 10 cm from the plate.
(a) Determine the force acting on the electron.
(b) If the electron is released, determine the speed of the
electron when it hits the plate.
q 106
7
2

10
C
m
(a)
A
2
5 107

2.824

10
N C
E
12
2 0 2(8.854 10 ) away from the plate

15
F qE (1.602 1019 )(2.824 104 ) 4.524 10 N

Erwin Sitompul

8/24

## Example: Single Thin Plate

Charge of 106 C is given to a 2-m2 thin plate. Afterwards, an
electron with the mass 9.1091031 kg with the charge
1.6021019 C is held in a distance 10 cm from the plate.
(a) Determine the force acting on the electron.
(b) If the electron is released, determine the speed of the
electron when it hits the plate.
F
4.524 10 15
15
2
a

4.967

10
m
s
(b)
m 9.109 1031

v 2 v02 2a ( x x0 )
(0) 2 2(4.967 10 15 )(0 0.1)

9.934 10 14
v 3.152 107 m s
toward the plate
Erwin Sitompul

8/25

## Example: Double Parallel Plates

Two large, parallel plates, each with a fixed
uniform charge on one side, is shown below. The
magnitudes of the surface charge densities are
2
2
(+) = 6.8 C/m
and

=
4.3
C/m
. Find the
()

electric field E
(a) to the left (L) of the plates
(b) between (B) the plates
(c) to the right (R) of the plates
E( )

()
6.8 106
5

3.840

10
N C
12
2 0 (2)(8.854 10 )
away from the (+) plate

E( )

( )
4.3 106
5

2.428

10
N C
12
2 0 (2)(8.854 10 )
toward the () plate

Erwin Sitompul

8/26

(a) EL E( ) E( )

## 3.840 105 2.428 105

1.412 105 N C
away from the (+) plate

(b) EB E( ) E( )

## 3.840 105 2.428 105

6.268 105 N C
away from the (+) plate

(c) ER E( ) E( )

## 3.840 105 2.428 105

1.412 105 N C
away from the () plate

Erwin Sitompul

8/27

## Applying Gauss Law: Spherical Symmetry

A spherical shell of uniform charge
attracts or repels a charged particle that
is outside the shell as if all the shells
charge were concentrated at the center of
the shell. 1 q
E
,
rR
2
4 0 r
If a charged particle is located inside a
spherical shell of uniform charge, there is
no electrostatic force on the particle from
the shell.
E 0,
rR
Erwin Sitompul

8/28

## Applying Gauss Law: Spherical Symmetry

Any spherically symmetric charge
distribution, such as on the figure, can be
constructed with a nest of concentric
spherical shells.
If the entire charge lies within a Gaussian
surface, r > R, the charge produces an
electric field on the Gaussian surface as if
the charge were a point charge located at
center.
the
If only
a portion of the charge lies within a
Gaussian surface, r < R, then the charge
enclosed q is proportional to q.
q
E
r,
rR
3
4 0 R
Erwin Sitompul

## University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/29

Checkpoint
The figure shows two large, parallel sheets with identical
(positive) uniform surface charge densities, and a sphere with a
uniform (positive) volume charge density.
Rank the four numbered points according to the magnitude of
the net electric field there, greatest first.
3 and 4 tie,
then 2, 1.

## The electric field contributed by the two parallel

sheets is identical at all numbered points.
The closer to the sphere, the greater the electric field
contributed by it.
Erwin Sitompul

## University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/30

Email Quiz
A long thin cord has a positive a linear charge
density of 3.1 nC/m. The wire is to be enclosed by
a coaxial, thin cylindrical shell of radius 1.8 cm.
The shell is to have negative charge on its surface
with a surface charge density that makes the net
external electric field zero. Calculate the surface
charge density of the cylindrical shell.

ur
E0

Erwin Sitompul

## University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/31

Homework 7
(a) The rectangle ABCD is defined by its corner points of
A(2,0,0), B(0,3,0), C(0,3,2.5), and D(2,0,2.5). Draw a sketch

of the rectangular.
^
^
(b) Given an electric field of E = 2i + 6j N/C, draw the electric
field on the sketch from part (a).
(c) Determine the number of flux crossing the area of the
rectangular ABCD.

Erwin Sitompul

## University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/32

Homework 7A
1. (a) The triangle FGH is defined by its corner points of F(2,0,0),
G(0,3,0), and H(0,0,4). Draw
a sketch
^
^ of the triangle.
(b) Given an electric field of E = 2i + 6j N/C, draw the electric field on
the sketch from part (a).
(c) Determine the number of flux crossing the area of the triangle FGH.

## 2. A rectangle is under the influence of electric field of E = 2xyi + 4zk N/C.

The dimension of the rectangle is 1 m 2 m 3 m, with x1 = 5 m and y1 = 4
m. What is the electric flux flowing through the front face and top face?

Erwin Sitompul

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