0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

187 visualizzazioni33 paginem

Jan 24, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

m

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

187 visualizzazioni33 paginem

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 33

Dr.-Ing. Erwin Sitompul

http://zitompul.wordpress.com

2013

Three particles are fixed in place and have charges q1 = q2 = +p

and q3 = +2p. Distance a = 6 m.

What are the magnitude and direction of the net electric field

at point P due to the particles?

p 1.602 1019 C

e 1.602 1019 C

Erwin Sitompul

8/2

r

E2

r

E3

r

E1

r

r3 P 12 ai 12 aj

r

r3 P 12 2a

r

r

r3 P r3 P 12 2i 12 2j

r3 P

cos i sin j

r

r r

r

EP ,net E1 E2 E3

r r

E1 E2 0

Both fields cancel

one another

r

r

q

EP ,net E3 k r 3 2 r3 P

r3 P

19

r

)

9 (2 1.602 10

EP ,net 8.99 10 1

( 2 2(6 106 )) 2

160 N C Magnitude

r

EP ,net 45

Direction

45

Erwin Sitompul

8/3

usingsymmetry to discard the perpendicular components of

the dE vectors.

For certain charge distributions

involving symmetry, we can simplify

even more by using a law called

Gauss law, developed by German

mathematician and physicist Carl

Friedrich Gauss (17771855).

distribution, Gauss law considers a

hypothetical (imaginary) closed surface

enclosing the charge distribution.

Gauss law relates the electric fields at points

on a closed Gaussian surface to the net

Erwin

Sitompulenclosed by that surface.

University Physics: Wave and Electricity

charge

8/4

Flux

flows through a small square loop of area A.

Let represent the volume flow rate (volume per unit time) at

which air flows through the loop.

r

Unit vector pointing to the normal

loop.

A A rN

direction of the plane

Erwin Sitompul

8/5

Flux

direction),

the rate is equal to vA.

direction), no air moves through the loop, so is zero.

For an intermediate angle

, the rate of volume flow through

r r

the

is: ) A v A

loop

(v cos

is an example of a flux.

The flux can be interpreted as

the flow of the velocity field

through the loop.

Erwin Sitompul

8/6

The Scalar Product

and defined to be:

r r

a b ab cos

product

and is spoken asa dot b.

to zero.

dotproduct is equal

If a is parallel to b, means = 0, then the dot

product is equal to ab.

Erwin Sitompul

8/7

The dot product can be regarded as the product of the

magnitude of the first vector and the projection magnitude

of thersecond vector on the first vector

r

a b ab cos

(a cos )(b)

(a)(b cos )

Erwin Sitompul

8/8

When two vectors are in unit vector notation, their dot

product

can be written as

r

r

(b i b j b k)

a b (ax i a y j az k)

x

y

z

ax bx a y by az bz

i j k

i 1 0 0

j 0 1 0

k 0 0 1

Erwin Sitompul

8/9

^

Solution:

r r

a b ab cos

a 32 (4) 2 5

b (2) 2 32 3.606

r r

a b (3i 4j) ( 2i

3k)

2i)

(3i)(

6

i j k

i 1 0 0

j 0 1 0

k 0 0 1

6 (5)(3.606) cos

6

1

cos

109.438

(5)(3.606)

Erwin Sitompul

8/10

The next figure shows an arbitrary

Gaussian surface immersed in a

nonuniform electric field.

The surface is divided into small squares

of area A, each being very small to

permit us to consider

the individual

square to be flat.

The electric field E may now be taken as

constant over any given square.

r ther electric field for the given

The

flux

of

E A

Gaussian surface is:

Erwin Sitompul

can be positive,

negative, or zero,

8/11

The exact solution of the flux of electric

field through a closed surface is:

r r

E dA

S

Nm2/C.

The electric flux through a Gaussian

surface is proportional to the net

number of field lines passing through

that surface

Without any source of electric field

inside the surface as in this case, the

total flux through this surface is in fact

equal to zero

Erwin Sitompul

8/12

Checkpoint

The figure below shows a Gaussian cube of face area A

immersed in a uniform electric field E that has the positive

direction of the z axis.

In terms of E and A, determine

flux flowing through:

the

= +EA

(a) the front face (xy plane)

(b) the rear face

(c) the top face

(d) the whole cube

Erwin Sitompul

= EA

=0

=0

8/13

The next figure shows a Gaussian

surface in the form of a cylinder of

radius R immersed

in a uniform

axis parallel to the field. What is the

flux of the electric field through

this closed surface?

left cap

r r

E dA ( E )(dA)(cos180 )

a

E dA EA

a

right cap

r r

E dA ( E )(dA)(cos 0)

c

E dA EA

c

r r

r r

r r

r r

E dA E dA E dA E dA

S

EA 0 EA 0

Erwin Sitompul

cylindrical surface

r r

E dA ( E )(dA)(cos 90 )

b

8/14

A

electric field given by

nonuniform

^

^

E = 3xi + 4j N/C pierces the Gaussian

cube shown here (x in meters). What

is the electric flux through the right

face, the left face, and the top face?

r r

r E dAr

right face

z 0 y 0

2 2

3x dydz

z 0 y 0

2

l

z 0 y 0

Erwin Sitompul

(3 xi 4j) ( dydzi)

x 1

3x dydz

z 0 y 0

x 3

(3)(3)dydz 36 N m 2 C

z 0 y 0

2 2

x 3

left face

(3 xi 4j) (dAr i)

r

r r

l E dAl

x 1

(3)(1)dydz 12 N m 2 C

z 0 y 0

8/15

A

electric field given by

nonuniform

^

^

E = 3xi + 4j N/C pierces the Gaussian

cube shown here (x in meters). What

is the electric flux through the right

face, the left face, and the top face?

r r

t E dAt top face

t

(3 xi 4j) ( dAt j)

t

(3 xi 4j) ( dxdzj)

4 dxdz

z 0 x 1

2 3

y 2

z 0 x 1

Erwin Sitompul

16 N m 2 C

y 2

8/16

In a three-dimensional space, a homogenous electric field of

10 N/C is directed down to the negative z direction.

Calculate the flux flowing through:

r

z

(a) the square ABCD (xy plane)

E

3

(b) the rectangular

AEFG

(xz

plane)

r

(a) r E 10k 2V m

G

m

AABCD 4k

r r

ABCD E AABCD

(4k)

(10k)

40 N m 2 C

r

AAEFG 6j m 2

(b)

r r

AEFG E AAEFG

(6j)

(10k)

0

Erwin Sitompul

2

1

F

1

2

3

x E

University Physics: Wave and Electricity

8/17

Gauss Law

Gauss law relates the net flux of an electric field through a

closed surface (a Gaussian surface) to the net charge qenc that

is enclosed by that surface.

0 qenc

r r

0

E dA qenc

in vacuum

is intercepted by the closed

surface, you can calculate how

much net charge is inside in the

volume of that enclosed surface.

Erwin Sitompul

8/18

Gauss Law

flux is positive

enclosed charge is positive

S2: Electric field is inward for all points

flux is negative

enclosed charge is negative

S3: No charge enclosed

S4: Net charge enclosed is equal to zero,

the field lines leaving the surface are as

many as the field lines entering it

Erwin Sitompul

8/19

What is the net charge enclosed by

the Gaussian cube of the previous

example?

r r

b E dAb bottom face

b

r r

f E dAf front face

(3 xi 4j) ( dAb j)

b

0

(3 xi 4j) ( dAf k)

(3 xi 4j) ( dxdzj)

z 0 x 1

2

y 0

4 dxdz

z 0 x 1

16 N m 2 C

y 0

back

r r

E dAback back face

0

(3xi 4j) ( dAback k)

back

back

Erwin Sitompul

8/20

What is the net charge enclosed by

the Gaussian cube of the previous

example?

r l t b f back

36 12 16 16 0 0 24 N m 2 C

qenc

r r

0

E dA

S

0

(8.854 1012 )(24)

2.125 1010 C

Erwin Sitompul

8/21

The next figure shows a section of an

infinitely long cylindrical plastic rod with a

uniform positive linear charge density , in

C/m.

for the magnitude

We need an expression

of the electric field E at a distance r from

the axis of the rod.

Due to symmetry, the component of the

resultant electric field will be only directed

EA cos E (2 rh) cos 0 E (2 rh)

radially outward.

What about top cap

But,

and bottom cap

0 qenc

0 E (2 rh) h

Erwin Sitompul

E

2 0 r

8/22

Imagine a thin, infinite sheet with a

uniform (positive) surface charge

density , in

C/m2. Now, let us find the

electric field E a distance r in front of

the sheet.

A useful Gaussian surface in this case

is a closed cylinder with end caps of

area A, arranged to pierce the sheet

perpendicularly, as shown.

r r

0

E dA qenc

S

0 ( EA EA) A

What is the direction

of the electric field?

Erwin Sitompul

E

2 0

8/23

Charge of 106 C is given to a 2-m2 thin plate. Afterwards, an

electron with the mass 9.1091031 kg with the charge

1.6021019 C is held in a distance 10 cm from the plate.

(a) Determine the force acting on the electron.

(b) If the electron is released, determine the speed of the

electron when it hits the plate.

q 106

7

2

10

C

m

(a)

A

2

5 107

2.824

10

N C

E

12

2 0 2(8.854 10 ) away from the plate

15

F qE (1.602 1019 )(2.824 104 ) 4.524 10 N

Erwin Sitompul

8/24

Charge of 106 C is given to a 2-m2 thin plate. Afterwards, an

electron with the mass 9.1091031 kg with the charge

1.6021019 C is held in a distance 10 cm from the plate.

(a) Determine the force acting on the electron.

(b) If the electron is released, determine the speed of the

electron when it hits the plate.

F

4.524 10 15

15

2

a

4.967

10

m

s

(b)

m 9.109 1031

v 2 v02 2a ( x x0 )

(0) 2 2(4.967 10 15 )(0 0.1)

9.934 10 14

v 3.152 107 m s

toward the plate

Erwin Sitompul

8/25

Two large, parallel plates, each with a fixed

uniform charge on one side, is shown below. The

magnitudes of the surface charge densities are

2

2

(+) = 6.8 C/m

and

=

4.3

C/m

. Find the

()

electric field E

(a) to the left (L) of the plates

(b) between (B) the plates

(c) to the right (R) of the plates

E( )

()

6.8 106

5

3.840

10

N C

12

2 0 (2)(8.854 10 )

away from the (+) plate

E( )

( )

4.3 106

5

2.428

10

N C

12

2 0 (2)(8.854 10 )

toward the () plate

Erwin Sitompul

8/26

(a) EL E( ) E( )

1.412 105 N C

away from the (+) plate

(b) EB E( ) E( )

6.268 105 N C

away from the (+) plate

(c) ER E( ) E( )

1.412 105 N C

away from the () plate

Erwin Sitompul

8/27

A spherical shell of uniform charge

attracts or repels a charged particle that

is outside the shell as if all the shells

charge were concentrated at the center of

the shell. 1 q

E

,

rR

2

4 0 r

If a charged particle is located inside a

spherical shell of uniform charge, there is

no electrostatic force on the particle from

the shell.

E 0,

rR

Erwin Sitompul

8/28

Any spherically symmetric charge

distribution, such as on the figure, can be

constructed with a nest of concentric

spherical shells.

If the entire charge lies within a Gaussian

surface, r > R, the charge produces an

electric field on the Gaussian surface as if

the charge were a point charge located at

center.

the

If only

a portion of the charge lies within a

Gaussian surface, r < R, then the charge

enclosed q is proportional to q.

q

E

r,

rR

3

4 0 R

Erwin Sitompul

8/29

Checkpoint

The figure shows two large, parallel sheets with identical

(positive) uniform surface charge densities, and a sphere with a

uniform (positive) volume charge density.

Rank the four numbered points according to the magnitude of

the net electric field there, greatest first.

3 and 4 tie,

then 2, 1.

sheets is identical at all numbered points.

The closer to the sphere, the greater the electric field

contributed by it.

Erwin Sitompul

8/30

Email Quiz

A long thin cord has a positive a linear charge

density of 3.1 nC/m. The wire is to be enclosed by

a coaxial, thin cylindrical shell of radius 1.8 cm.

The shell is to have negative charge on its surface

with a surface charge density that makes the net

external electric field zero. Calculate the surface

charge density of the cylindrical shell.

ur

E0

Erwin Sitompul

8/31

Homework 7

(a) The rectangle ABCD is defined by its corner points of

A(2,0,0), B(0,3,0), C(0,3,2.5), and D(2,0,2.5). Draw a sketch

of the rectangular.

^

^

(b) Given an electric field of E = 2i + 6j N/C, draw the electric

field on the sketch from part (a).

(c) Determine the number of flux crossing the area of the

rectangular ABCD.

Erwin Sitompul

8/32

Homework 7A

1. (a) The triangle FGH is defined by its corner points of F(2,0,0),

G(0,3,0), and H(0,0,4). Draw

a sketch

^

^ of the triangle.

(b) Given an electric field of E = 2i + 6j N/C, draw the electric field on

the sketch from part (a).

(c) Determine the number of flux crossing the area of the triangle FGH.

The dimension of the rectangle is 1 m 2 m 3 m, with x1 = 5 m and y1 = 4

m. What is the electric flux flowing through the front face and top face?

Erwin Sitompul

8/33