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PREVENTION, FISHING

AND CASING REPAIR

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


During drilling, casing and completion operation it is possible to encounter different problems requiring
fishing or repair jobs. One drilling contractor should be well equiped with fishing tools covering his
drilling string sizes, external and internal catching.
Failures are very expensive, sometimes approaching 25% of drilling budget. The best measure is to
prevent fishing situations by regulary inspection of equipment , and applying good drilling practice.
The fishing job starts when a fish is left in the hole or stuck pipe cannot be released. A plan of action
with contigency plans should be developed, general rule of fishing to be used as guidelines. Action
includes procedures such as soaking, milling, washover, parting, catching and working the fish. Casing
failures and remedial operations are treathed similarly.
ALMOST ALL, IF NOT ALL FISHING CAN BE PREVENTED !!!
Preventions reduces fishing and also identifies weak points in the system. Prevention measures must
be focused on areas that are liable to accidents and failures and are major causes of fishing. It is
comon case that one fishing job leads to another fishing job with one or more fish in the hole.
Basically fishing is any operation or procedure to release, remove, or recover a fish.
Fish is any obstruction or equipment (usually tubular) in the wellbore that restricts or adversely
affect current or future drilling, casing, completion or production operations.

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Severity and cost of fishing ranges from removing bit cones in a few hours of rig time to blowout, loss
of equipment, danger to personnel, and drilling relief well for kill well requiring hounderds of rig days.
FIRST PREVENTIVE MEASURE is to properly prepare drilling and casing program ! This includes
giving full consideration to operations, providing adequate hole and casing and safety factors.
Consider potential formation problems, especially lost circulation. Provide measures for excess drag
and torque in crocked, highly deviated, extended reach and horizontal holes.
Statement that hole is lost during fishing is wrong HOLE IS LOSED PRIMARY DUE SOMETHING
ELSE.
SECOND PREVENTIVE MEASURE is to drill straight, vertical hole !
HUMAN ERROR
Actual cause of human errors is lack of experience or poor judgement. To correct this type of problem
it must be improved supervision and good training under experienced supervisors instructors.
Second major contribution is higher motivation to improve job performance. Common examples of
human error includes dropping in to hole tong pins, sladge hammer, crowbar and other small tools or
objects.

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


THIRD PREVENTIVE MEASURE is to held SPUD CONFERENCE or PRE SPUD MEETING. On the
spud conference ,especcialy on critical wells, discuss potential problems including and operating
personnel and service company representatives which are familiar with the situation. Limit attendant
number to create an effective group and confine discusion to the subject. Another purpose of meeting
is to discuss the well plan.
FOURTH PREVENTIVE MEASURE is to conduct operations in a prudent, orderly manner. When
trying to expedite the job consider possible consequences before undertaking a course of action.
When introduce in the use some of additional part of equipment (tubulats) consider possibility of
its fishing.
Be sure, when running in to the hole new full gauge bit, that hole is not under-gauge.
Always use minimum mud weight with allowance for margin of safety. Higher mud weight
frequently causes problems (wall sticking, cutting removal and control of mud properties,
decreasing ROP).
Questonable operations.
Sometime questonable operations may be conducted as calculated risk. Evaluate the risk. Common
examples of questonable operations are:
Laying down drill pipe before running casing.
Running casing after logging without wiper trip
Conducting logging operations few days without cleaningout trip.
Extensive running worn bit near total depth.

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


PRIOR FISHIG OCCURS
When planing drilling the well consider problrms related to drilling in the area, rig specificationa,
capabilities and condition, qualification of the rig personnel, supervision, experience, and also and
third party services such as logging, tool supply, cementing and mud.
Previous fishing jobs in the area gives useful data. Learn what caused the problem, how it was
handled and how it could have been prevented. Collect all data related with fish, fishing string, hole
and drilling string sizes, jars, bumper subs,catchers, safety joint, washpipe and clearance, formation
sensitivity to fluids, hole inclination and deviation, caving, tight hole and wall sticking.
At well site provide some basic fishing equipment during normal drilling operations. Amount and kind
of equipment depends on many factors (complexity of drilling operations, frequency of fishing jobs,
disctance to fishing equipment stock). From experience bit cone is most common fishing job and you
must consider a basket and one or more mills and junk subs. Suggested fishing equipment list sized
to equipment in the hole is:

Additional drill collars for fisshing assembly


Mill to mill lost bit cone
Junk basket for parted bit cone and other small junk.
Junk sun run on mill or basket.
Overshot catch size to include drill pipe body, tool joints and drill collars.
Bumper sun, jars

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


FISHING COST
Costs and severity of the losses induced by fishing operations emphasiszes the need of prevention.
Daily rig operating cocts during fishing are 75% higher then during normal drilling operations.
When fishing job occurs take immediate action, learn all details and develop plan of action, as well as
an alternative plan. If fishing cost prediction shows too hight consider aternative action plug back
and sidetrack, plug and redrill, complete well above fish, and well abandoning.
Specific case is fishing nutrol logging tool where regulations request diligent efforts to recover fish or to
isolatew by cement.

Immediate action
Immediate action is important because, is drill string stacked, it can be released with immediate action.
RISK OF FISHING JOB GROWS WITH ELAPSED TIME. When planning immediate action always
consider safety of hole.
After experiences fishing situations with additional well controll problem, first kill the well.
Ensure that immediate action does not increase the risk.
Begin working stuck pipe or wireline tools shortly after sticking. If string stacked during RIH, work string
upward and reverse. String stacked when POOH work downward.
Consder taking freepoint immediately. This applicable in the vertical and moderate deviated holes.
If bit cones are lost, leaks develops or drilling string parts, start pull out string of hole.
Try reconnecting drilling string that accidentally backs off (5-10 atempths) before pullin out of hole.

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Investigation of fishing job cause
One of first investigative steps is learning what is in the hole
or what the fish is.
Prepare schematic of fish with measurement accuracy
1/8 or 0,01 ft (3mm) for lengths and 1/32 (0,8mm) for
diameters.
Check data related with inclination, croocked hole, dogleg,
keysiting, wall sticking, hight torque and drag.
Chedk data related with formation conditions as: type of
formation, caving, fluid sansitivity, lost circulation,
drillability, tendency to cause crocked hole.
Review mud properties.
Completly study of all available information leads to the plan
of action and indicates the correct fishing procedure.

Plan of action
One good plan of fishing includes short, intermediate and long
term as well as alternative plans.
Depending on the complexity of the fishing job and personnel
experience may be called fishing expert.
Held meeting with lower-level personnel and discus plan of
action. If require approval, submit plan to supervisors.

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Immediate plan of action

Includes the work being conducted now and the next step.
For Example: Drill collar string is parted in the hole. Fist attempt is to try careffuly to screw in. If nor
possible POOH. While pulling out prepare tools for alternative plan - outside catching by overshot
and for screw on if the present action is unsuccessful or that continued operations requires
additional fishing.

Sometimes several alternative plans may be required. If first overshot not recover the fish, run
second with different size og grapple.As next alternative is to prepare washout pipes.
Long range plan
Includes courses of action followinf immediate and alternative plans. If initial plans are successful long
term plan is to continue drilling. If alternative plans were unsuccessful long range planof action would
be to sidetrack the fish, redrill the hole or to complete hole at present depth. This plan should include
and reasonable estimation of time required for current operations.
All plans should be flexibile, allowing for various problems and changing conditions. Put lans in the
writen and distribute to others. If plan includes significant level of risk or can make condition
considerably worse, request approval from head office.
Post analysis
Post analysis of fishing job basically includes a report of what heppened, how it was corrected and
what action will prevent it from happening in the future.

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

This raport is not intendent and should not be used to blame somebody. Raport should be prepared
ralatively short time after fishing. Report prepare person directly in charge of the fishing job.
In to raport should be considered:

Circumstances leading to the fishing job.

Rig operations beeing conducted, where were rig personnel and what they were doing.

Did string parted and where? Cause of parting (equipment failure, operational of formation
problems)?

Was the drill string stuck differentially, with drill cuttings or caving, an object dropped down the
hole,or in the traped hole or ftacture?

Have similar failures occured or almast heppened in the recent past?

Was the mud weight being increased or decreased, mud properties beeing changed or did mud
contain dissolved gas?

What are the formation caracteristics (sends, washouts, doglegs..)?

Describe fish with all measurements.

What was done as immediate action and how effective was it? Other taken actions.

What equipment were available at well site for freeing stucked pipes or initiating fishing.

Was plan of action prepared and documented?

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

GUIDES TO FISHING
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Work on the fish from top down. Keep fishing assembly over problem areas. If
keyseat is developing in the open hole above the fish, consider it as part of fishing job
and remove it before fishing. Run fishing assembly throught a hazardous hole section
to catch fish only as a calculated risk. An Excepation is when high-pressure zones are
exposed in the wellbore, expecially with lost circulation above. Better is to work with the
assembly deeper in the hole so that weighted fluids control high-pressured zones more
efficiency. Assembly may stuck, but this is more acceptable then the the risk of
blowout.
Select strongest catch tool. Select fishing tool with strongest screw in connection.
Second choice is an overshot connection. Use Die collar or taper tap as last resort
they do not have strong hold and are more likely to break. It will restricted only on
outside catching.
Pull the fish out of the hole without deley. Pull immediatelly and carefully fish out of
hole after catching. Connection to the fish is usually weaker than other connectiona.
Maintain catch always in the tension to avoid losing of the fish, especially in the case of
kick, leaks, dropped strings...
Do not rotate when pulling a fish. There is risk of losing the fish by rotation, shaking
or vibrating. Disconnecting perform by hydraulic power tongs or by chain. Do not pull
fishing string too high above rotary.
Eliminate the cause of fishing. If caving was cause of fishing job and that problem
with formation is not timely eliminated it si possible to lost additional. Second fish.
Do not arbitrary assume that the fishing job is easy. Meny fishig jobs are not
difficult, but complication can develop quicqly.
Priority of operations. Main objective is to recovery the fish. Other operation are
secondary objectives but it is possible first to complete the first secondary objective
before return to primary objective (reaming and removing kayseat).

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


8.

Operation records. Records as are drillstring movement and weight, rotary torque, pump
pressure and strokes, pit volume, mud propertiess are useful during drilling and during fishing
operations. They aid in checking for and verifying problems.
9.
Stuck condition of fish. This conditionare not too problematic, but exceptions are differential
pressure or wall sticking, moving or plastic or fluid sensitive, unstable formations, excess
circulation and movement of string by working immediatelyy above fish.
10.
Keep top of fish clean. Do not tag ot tuch top of fish too often. It can damage the catch area
and make difficult catching or to fall to bottom (fish in the keyseat). Excessive circulation
immediatelly ovet top of fish in the open hole can settle cutings on the fish or washout around
top of fish , increasing the difficulity of catching it. Also, cuting and debris can fal inside fish
and make bridge preventing running free point tool or back off tools requiring risk operation of
cleaning out.
11.
Anticipated mechanical repairs. Before start fishing bre avare that equipment is in the good
condition, check the blowout preventers, closing unit, choke manifold, drilling line (slip and cut
if necessary), adjust brake, check surface circulating system, mud pump and condition of
fishing string.
SUMMARY GUIDELINES TO FISHING

Do not run anything in the hole that you are not prepared to fish out.

Keep fishing assembly in the clean hole.

Do not underestimate the importance of working to release the fish.

Always have accurate measurements of drilling string.

Minimize torque and drag to prevent obscuring surface indications of downhole fishing action.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

Try to recover fish in the one piece.


Do not washover as first fishing operations.
Do not wait on fishing tools.
Do not run unnecessary leak-off test.
Use milling as last resort.
Maintain accurate count of all tubulars on location and record in the drilling report.
Do not shock the hole by surging and swabbing.
Always maintain good, consistent, high-quality mud.
Monitor all surface and downhole indications while fishing.

HOLE PROBLEMS THAT CAN CAUSING FISHING JOB


REAMING
Reaming is procedure of opening or smoothing the walls of the hole. It is preventive action of reaming
tight or crocked hole. Reaming is common fishing operations (opening hole to the top of fish). Often it
is only method forcorrecting a croocked hole, enlarging short bends, smoothing the hole walls. It can
be high-risk operation.because can cause sidetracking of hole, sticking string or twisting off. Ream
only when absolutely necessary, use correct assembly and operate carefully. Reaming with regular
assembly and bit is seldom effective, except reaming newly drilled hole.
Drill collar reaming assembly consisting of two stabilizers separated by two drill collars with reamer
located between them. Two end stabilizers act as fulcurums or contact points, drill collars act as spring
to reamer forcing it to cut into the inner wall. This straightening a croocked hole section or remove
keyseat. Drilling jar and a bumper sub are usually run on top of the drill collar assembla. Reaming with
this assembly includes high-risk of sidetracking hole.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


When reaming apply slightla faster rotation and do not team to long in the one point.
Do not force the raming assembly into a very tight hole with excessibe weight to avoid sticking.
String reamer
Positioned in the drillstring reams while drilling or
with bit off-bottom to remove key seats. Usually
positioned 10 joints above top of drill collars.
This is high risk tool due to the metal fatigue.
Drag and torque
Drag and torque is caused by friction as tools moves
And slide against the wall of the wellbore. Exces drag
And torque causes problems in all drilling operations.
It is more severe in deeper holes and in the directional
and horizontal wells.
Prevention starts with designing the casing programs
well plan, tools and operations. Factor affecting that
Drag and torque increases include rough, irregular
wellbore walls, croocked hole, direction change,
Doglegs, reduced clearance between walls and
Downhole tools OD, tool weight and poor mud
Properties.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Severiti of drag and torque increases at higher angles and high numbers of hole bends and turns,
havier drillin string.
Excess drag and torque forces can cause parting or twisting off, cause forming keyseats and
increases risk of differential pressure sticking, durring fishig reduces effective overpull. In this cases
drill pipe rubber protectors notuses in the open hole.
Drag and torque can be reduced by correcting the factors causing them. Some of them are: reduction
of drilling tool weight especially at lower section of hole and in the directional and horizontal wells.
Good solution is tapered drilling string and replacement of some drill collars with heavyweight drill
pipe. Measure related with mud are to increase mud lubricity in the water based mud by adding 4-7%
of oil. Other additives used to increase mud lubricity includes asphalt, alcohol based lubricants and
graphite. Very effective, but not well understooded, it periodic bach threatment mud with walnut hulls.
Treatment consist of preparing bach with:

In the soft formation: 50% coarse grade and 50% medium grade of walnuts.

In the medium to hard formations: 25% coarse grade, 50% medium grade and 25% fine grade.
Common batch treatment uses 0,5-2,0 lb/bbl (1,5 6,0 Kg/m 3) and higher concentrations distributed
over 24 hours period. Addition is distributed in the two or three circulations. For more severe drag
and
torque shut off the solid separation equipment for period of time.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


WALL STICKING
Wall sticking or differential pressure sticking occurs when a section of downhole
assembly lies on the wall of wellbore. It is very difficult to recognize wall sticking
problem and to take proper corrective action.
Primary indication of wall sticjing is stuck pipe with full circulation (similar to
keyseating.
Wall sticking
String motionless
String moving upward

Keyseating

+
+

Keyseating sticking occurs at top of drill collars when tripping out.


Wall sticking occurs when side of the motionless drill collars contact openhole wall.
Mechanism of wall sticking.
Hydrostatic head of the mud column exerts a differential pressure into the
Formation. This differential first seals perimetric contact areawith wall cake, cuttings
and other mud solids and then differential pressure acts against the entire contact
area to push collars against the wall differential pressure sticking.
Forces involved in wall stisking:
Pressure differential 520 psi (36 kg/cm 2 ) at 3000 m.
Contact area 3 (75mm) wide and 25 ft (7,62m long.
Area of contact: 25 ft x 12/ft x 6 = 900 inch 2 (7,5cm x 762 cm= 5715 cm2
Lateral force on pipe 900 in2 x 520 psi/in2 = 448000 lbs ( 5715 x 36 = 205700 kg.
With differentiall pressures exceding 1 lb/gal lateral force can be several milion of
pounds. IMPORTANT PREVENTIVE MEASURE USE MINIMUM MUD WEIGHT

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Wall sticking severity and speed
Depends upon size of contact area and magnitude of differential pressure mainly.
Area of contact depends upon the relative difference in the diameter of DC and hole diameter, length
of section and wll cake thickness.
Sticking occurs very rapidly sometimes in the few minutes common in the new drilled holes during
connection and using low quality mud.
Preventing wall sticking by eliminating listed causes:

Overbalanced mud system that increases the differential pressure.

Increased the contact area due use of DC large diameter in the small diameter hole.

Porous formations that permit the pressure differential to be effective.

Soft, teack mud cake that effectively increases the contact area and provides material for sealing.

Immobile drilling assembly allows time for sealing and pressure differential to act.

Monitor and control mud properties minimal mud weight keeping.

Drilling deviated and croocked holes where Dc lies against the wall with some force.

Drilling in the depleted reservoirs or formations with subnormal pore pressure.

Excess drag and torque

Keyseating conditions.

Wall sicking with oil mud is less common.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


KEYSEAT
Keyseat is sloted or recessed section in the wall of the
wellbore, cut by thr movement of the downhole assembly.
Later, when section of downhole assembly with larger
diameter POOH throught this section can wedge into the
keyseat, sticking tools. Majority of fishing jobs related by
sticking are caused by keyseats.
Keyseats occurs in the all formations and on the all depths,
and they are more common in the deviated, crookced holes.
They develops slower in the hard formations and it is more
difficult to wipe out. Keyseat growth rate and severity
increasses with time.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


FISHING TOOL SELECTING
Selection and use of fishing tool is almost as important as preventing fishing. Variety of fishig tool is
intended to run in cased hole , open hole or both , on the tubular or wireline.
Tubular fishing tool are operated by rotation, reciprotation or combination of both motions.
Wireline tool are operated by reciprocation only and are less effective.
With decreasing hole size availability of tools dimnish.
One category of fishing tools is catch tools:

Outside catch tools slipping over the fish to catch it on the outside.

Inside catch tools fit into the fish to catch it on the inside.

Swallowing tool sliped over and encloses the entire fish.


TUBULAR FISHING TOOLS
Run on the tubular work string (drill pipe or tubing). In the most case they are run together with jar and
bumper sub. It is strongly recommended that over fishing tool uses safety joint.
OVERSHOT
Overshot is most important and widely used fishing tool. They make a strong catch, are efficient,
versatile and reliable. Overshot is designed to engage, pack off and retrieve twisted-off or lost tubing, Drill
pipe,
coupling, tool joint and casing.Sometime it is difficuld to disengage overshot from the fish. Most common
failure of overshot is split shoe, split body or body connection failure. Always select overshot with
strongest body.
Most popular overshots are Serie 10 and 20 (Sucker rods overshot), Serie 70 (Short catch overshot
uses to catch fish with very short fishing neck) and Series 150 (Releasing and circulating overshot for
external engagement od fish taking positive grip over large area of fish capable to withstand extremly
heavy pulls, torsion and jaring strains).

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

OVERSHOT
SERIE
10 & 20

OCERSHOT
SERIE
20 70

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


There is two versions of overshot Series 150:

FS FULL STRENGTH releasing and circulating overshot for external engagement of fish taking
positive grip over large area od the fish capable to withstands pulling, torsion and jaring strains.

SH SLIM HOLE with smaller OD used to perform pulling jobs in the tight holes.
Basic parts of overshot Series 150 are: Top sub, Bowl and guide.
Internal parts:
Spiral grapple left hand helix with tapered exterior to confirm with helically tapered section in
the Bowl. Internally is wickered for engagement with the fish. Uses for bigger OD fish close to
maximum catch size. Other internal parts are spiral graple control and Packer Type A used for
establishing circulation trought fish.
Basket grapple expandsible cylinder with tapered exterior to conform to the helically tapered
section of the Bowl. Uses for catching smaler OD fish that is or more less than overshot
maximum catch size. Another internal part used together with basket grapple is Mill control
packer. Can dress top of fish to enable passing graple over to engage.
Engaging the fish
During engaging, as overshot rotated to the right and simultaniouslly lowered, grapple will expand
when fish is engaged, allowing the fish to enter the grapple. When stop rotating and upward pull is
exerted, grapple is contracted by the taper in the bowl and its deep wicjers grip the fish firmly. Pack off
mechanism, if used, enables circulation trough fish.
If hole size is so much greater then the fish size use wallhook guide or an oversize guide instead
standard guide.
If fish have an unengaged upper end, use Bowl extension between top sub and bowl.
DO NOT NEVER ROTATE LEFT HAND WITH ENGAGED FISH
SHUT-OFF PUMP BEFORE LOWERING OVERSHOT OVER THE FISH.
INSIDE DIAMETER OF GRAPPLE IS SMALLER THEN FISH O.D.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


-

Spiral and basket grapple effectivelly catch and pack off worn fish O.D. As much as 3/32 (2,4mm)
maximum undersize and over range 1/32 (0,8mm).
SLIM HOLE overshot catch undersize or oversize fish by NO MORE THEN 1/16 (1,6mm)
maximum.
6

- 3/32

+ 1/32

Release from fish


To release from fish a sharp downward bump with full fishing string weight places larger portion of the
Bowl tapers oposite the grapple smaller tapered portion, breaking the hold. After thar overshot is slowlly
rotated TO RIGHT and slowlly elevated and wickers will screw the grapple off the fish.
JUNK BASKET

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


POOR BOY JUNK BASKET

Simplest jank basket prepared from piece of


casing long 1,5 to 2m welded to bit sub or
tool joint at well site.

Saw tooth type teeth are cut in the bottom of


the casing piece.

Teeth length is approximate half diameter of


casing.

Sometimes outer part of teeth are tapered to


help bend inward .

Vertical slots may be cut in the top of the


basket to let fluid pass.
Poor boy junk basket is runn on the fishing string
over the top of fish (bit cone complete or pieces,
slips inserts, small objects..), establish circulation,
and when reduce circulation start drill over fish
until basket stops moving downward. Junk
passes up into the baslet and drilling motion,
combined with the frictional frictional heat caused
by reduced circulation bends the teeth inward and
close the bottom of the basket. POOH fishing
string, split basket by cutting and recover the junk.
This work good in the soft formation, and is less
effective in the harder formation.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Another version of Poor boy junk basket for fishing long tubular (not to heavy weight), logging tools,
DST anchors and sillilar, is uses of complete joit of casing with spiral distributed on the whole length
cuted trianlular fingers bended inward of top corner.

When logging tools are stacked an maximum allowed overpull on the cable do not give results,
cut cane on the cable sprocket. Run prepared poor boy basket , slowlly rotating over fish. When
bottom inward bended barbs reach top of fish hook weight starts decreasing. Continue pushing
junk basket over juk until weight reduction reches 15-20 tons. Slowlly POOH, avoid too high
overpulls.
If fish laying on the wellbore walls and can not run basket over fish, prepare bottom of tool similar
to overshot guide by cutting.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


REVERSE CIRCULATING JUNK BASKET
This tool is designed to effectively catch all kind of small
junks accumulated on the bottom of hole. Junk can be
comlete or parts of bit cones, bearings, beoken slips,
various hand tools,milled cuttings, etc.
In operation when drop still ball in the drill pipe and it
reach seat in the junk basket, fluid change flowing path
outwardly and downwardly against the full
circumference of the hole, where it is deflected in the
maner that direct all objects into the long hollow barrel of
the basket.
It is possible to take 0,3-0,4m of core at bottom that aid
in the holding small junks over catcher.
Main parts are: Top sub, Barrel, shoe, catcher, valve
seat and steel ball.
Mill Shoe Type A and B uses in the hard
formation for short cooring. When junk basket is 0,3m
over the bottom start circulating for few minutes.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Turn off pump, unscrew kelly, drop stell ball in to drill pipe and reconnect kelly. Continue circulating
start slowly rotating string to right and lowering junk basket to the bottom of hole.Continue rotating
and
lowering 0,25-0,4m cutting core. Stop rotating and circulating and POOH fishing string.
Type C Mill Shoe is flat bottom shoe which is hard faced with Itcoloy on the bottom, inner face and
outer face. It cut larher piecef of fish and cut core.
Finger Type Shoe retrieves larger objects where no need for coring. When junk basket is 3m above
bottom start pumping for a few minutes. Turn off pump, unscrew kelly, drop stell ball in to drill pipe
and
reconnect kelly. Continue circulating with high pressure, rotate string to the right and lower string until
2 ton weight on bottom establish. Stop rotating and POOH fishing string.

Check that ID of fishing string provide free passage of steel ball.


Reverse circulating junk basket can be equiped with magnet insert instead catcher.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


JUNK SUB
Junk sub or boot basket is efficient tool for catching and recovering
large fragments of cement, metal and other materials in the mud flow
stream near the bit. This tool reduces drilling time and extends life of bit
or mill.
It is one piece tool and consist of outer body (bowl) fixed for lower tool
joint by welding. Space between outer body and inner body forms a
bowl or basket used to collect junk and debris.
During operations junk sub is located immediately above mill or bit and
top connection is pin and bottom connection is box. Uses when milling,
drilling cement, float shoe, drilling bit cones and other metal objects. It
is
trouble free tool.
Screw-in sub
Strongest catch tool used in catching a backed-off fish if fish have good
connection on top. If hole is clean and vertical screwwing into the fish is
not difficult.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Taper Tap
An inside catch tool sometimes is called Screw-in pin or pin sub. Uses when
outside catch can not be made or inside or top of fish is too small or
irregularly shaped so spear can not be used. Catch fish in vertical holes. Fish
can be POOH after careful working as necessary. Use is restricted due
several weaknesses and disadvanteges:

Relatively strong in the straight pull but cannot withstand any jaring or
bumping.

Effictively cuts a thread in the bore of fish, but this threads are relatively
weak.

Longer taper cuts stronger threads ther shord tap, but breaks more easily.

Does not have a releasing mechanism and cannot be backed out. Try
carefully jaring. If nor release tap, back off above taper tap and use more
efficient fishing tool.
Die collar
Outside catch tool used to catch a fish smaller and lighter weight fish that has
an irregular top. Disadvantage is that it is very difficult to determine how
much torque to apply during a catch. If tool is not rotated enought, the
threads that are cut on the fish will be too shallow. As taper tap cannot be
worked and jarred too heavily.

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PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


MILLS
Widely used, efficient, single piece tools. Have tool joint connection at top (usualy pin threas as bit)
and bottom is dressed with hard metal cutting structures- tungsten carbide embedded in the matrih
material, applied by acetylene welding. Coarse cutting particles (8-13mm ) cut bigger objects
efficiently with high torque. For dressing top of fish uses smother surfaces. Due structural weakness of
deposited hard metal material thickness of their layer is restricted to 8-9 mm.
Mills drills by torque and torque depends on mill size, material being milled or drilled , WOB and RPM.
Excessive torque can damage the running assembly (tool joints) and creates risk of twisting. If use
mills on the tubing carefuly work due its low torque resistance.
Mills serve meny purposes such drilling cement, packers, plugs, dressing top of damaged fish, tong
dies, drill collars, to ream collapsed cassing, to remove section of casing or to cut casing windows for
sidetracking

Flat bottom mills have flat cutting face with fluid channels to permit cleaning bottom of the hole
and to remove pieces of metal cuttings.
Reamer mills have ribbed surfaces where the face of ribs serves as the cutting surfaces and
chennels between the ribs as mud courses.
String reamer mills have box-type tool joint on the upper end and pin-type tool joint on the lower
end. Position in the string is in drill collar or drill pipe assembly.

29

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


.

30

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Junk mills are masive and can drill almost any type of junk, or for cleaning cement. It is
recommended to use together with junk or boot basket.

Concave mills uses for small pieces of junk that tend to wall off or to suspend above edge of a mill due of
fluid movement. Concave face retain smaller pieces in the center of the hole where they are rolled, broken
up and milled into a small pieces and can be circulated out or recovered by junk basket.

Flat bottom mills, expecially ribed types, at bottom are dressed with additional cutting material and have
additional strength. Good for drilling large pieces of junk. When milling inside casing clearance between
mill and the casing ID have to be 3/8- 5/8 (12 to 16mm) and no cutting surfaces at millOD. In the open
hole milling in the soft formation OD of mill usually is full gauge (as bit).

Skirted mills have short sleeve connected to the lower outer edge of mill that center mill over fish. Uses on
the small fish where top may wobble. Skirt is not covered with cutting material.

Cement mills , similar to junk mills and are interchangable with them. They are less efficient than roller bit,
but when drilling cement in the small size of casing bit have small cones thet can be lost due limited life.

Pilot mills is flat bottom mills with additional centralized bottom extension that guide a mill. Smaller mill or
pilot bit can be run bellow larger pillot mills. Extension enters in the tubular to be milled and holds mill in
the centered position. They are used for milling tubulars as drill collars, drill pipes, casing, cleaning the top
or upper inside of some fish or to reciver packers

Reamer mils are run on the drill tools similar to regular reamers but they are used for cutting metal,
usually casing.They enlarger hole to near the orginal diameter. String reamer type have tool joint on the
both ends. Bottom reaming type mills simmilar to flat or ribed bottom junk mills except have longer, fullgauge guide section near the bottom.

Tapered mils have spiral or vertical blades on the reamer body. Tapered mill is run on or the near the
bottom of the drill collar assembly. It reams out tight pieces in casing, severely collapsed casing, casing
shoe, liner tops and the windows used for sidetracking.

31

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


MILL SHOE
Mill shoe are washover shoe or rotary shoe and are run on the bottom of overshot, junk basket and
washover pipes. They wash or mill over the fish. Have different bottom design. Tooth shaped designs
is intended for cutting soft formation. A flat bottom is efficient for cutting metal and very hard
formations.
Mill shoe are dressed in one of four different ways:

Bottom only cuts vertically downward and uses where no side cutting action is not needed.

Bottom and inside run inside casing and no cutting material outside to prevent damage of
casing. Commonly used to cut fishing neck.

Bottom and outside used when inside cutting action is not needed to cut over fish in the open
hole.

Botton, inside and outside uses for washing out in the open hole and runs on the tools as junk
baskets when fish may require cutting before it can be swellowed.

32

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


SPEAR
Very popular catch tool thats catch tubular fish from inside. Spear is not strong as external catching
tools on the smaller diameter fish (tubing), but stronger when catchinf larger diameter tubular as
casing. Available is wide variety of spear with different activating mechanism.
Pipe spear or drill pipe spear. To enter smaller diameter tubulars a spear must also be relatively small
that reduced its strength necessary to release stucked string by overpull. Inside of top of fish must be
clean and not out of round.
Convential sper has an upper body that connects the tool to running string and may have a stop or nogo to prevent running spear to deeply inside the fish. Body contains tappered section and cage to hold
the slips in a recessed position. The iner face of the slips has a recessed, cone shaped taper, while
outer face is serrated (with small tooth) to catch the inner wall of the fish. Cage is fited with a J slot
and drag springs, or friction blocks, that contact the inner wall of the fish.
In the operation spear is connected on bottom of fishing string and RIH and position inside the fish.
The slips are released by rotating the fishing string to the left and picking up slowly. The drag springs
or friction blocks resist this movement slightly so slips are released to move downward relative to the
fishing string. When pick up fishiong string, this moves a taper on the body of the spear up and under
the slips. Slips moves outward to engage the inner wall of the fish. If fish can not be released, pipe
spear can be released by holding right hand torque and bumping downward.

33

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

34

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


PIPE CUTTERS
Called casing cutters or section mills, cut tubulars
and they are subdivided into two types:

Inside pipe cuters run inside larger pipe and cut from
inside outwaed. Used to remove a section of casing for
sidetracking in cased hole. Have two or three blades or
knives dresed on bottom with tungsten carbide.
Strength is reduced.

Outside pipe cuters run over small pipe and cut from
outside inward.
Cutter can be hydraulical or mechanical actuated.
One special type of cutters are chemical cutters.

35

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


JARS
Basic types of jar are Hydraulic jars and Mechanical jars. Thy can be subdivided into Drilling and
fishing jars and can be supplemented with accelerator jars.
They are run above any tool that may become stucked. They deliver a high, upvard impact blow on
the tool connected beneth them. Torque can be transmitted trough jar for regular drilling or torquing
fish. Major advantage of drilling jar is that can be used immediately after geting stuck.
Force of the jaring blow is determined by factors as stroke length, internal construction, weight
concentration (drill collars) above jar and amount of overpull when jar trips. Jaring frequency can be
adjusted by manipulating the speed and distance of upward and downward movement of the working
string.
Hydraulic jar functioning. They have an annular-type piston inside an annular-shaped cylinder. The top
of the piston may be above or below the cylinder (in this description above). Spines prevent internal
rotation. The upward moving work string pushes the piston upward and increases tension on a fish.
Then the piston enters an enlarged or grooved section, or fluid choke bypass, which allows a rapid
release of fluid. This causes the drill collars above the jar to deliver the jar. Lowering the fisshing
assembly lowers the piston, and fluid bypasses rapidly to cock or reload the jar in readiness for the
next blow.
Jar position in the string. Regular jars position is below the drill collars and above the fishing tool that
is used to engage the fish.
Drilling jars are simmilar to regular fishing jars and operates on the similar manner.

36

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Type Z Hydraulic Jar

Straight pull operated jar


No seting or adjustment is required beefore going in the hole.
Does not interfere with free operation of the fishing tools.
Easy control the intensity of the jaring blow (light to hight impact)
Closed hydraulic system which lubricates internal working parts.
Easy closing or resetting the tools with sufficient weight to overcome friction.
Instalation below string of drill collars.
If used and Jar Intensifier, its position is four drill collars above the Jar.

Integral mandrel Oil Jar Type Z


OD x ID

P/N

Max jaring
losd (ton)

Max tension
to yield
(ton)

Torque to
failure (kg-m)

DC weight
above jar
(ton)

6 x 2

52544

71,5

423

7800

5300-7200

6 x 2 3/8

52680

77,4

456

10177

5850-7870

7 x 3 1/16

52711

67,0

714

19930

4950-6750

37

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


SUPER FISHING JAR BOWEN

Straight pull hydraulically operated Jar with extended working life.


No required presetting or adjustment due closed hydraulic system.
Hydraulic fluid sealed within the jar that lubricates the internall working parts.
Cone type piston as the Drilling jar.
Intensity of each jaring blow regulated by metering action of piston assy. When apply
upwar pull hydraulic fluid passes trought the piston assy. From one to another cavity.
Fluid forced trought restricted passage in the piston is retarded in such manner that the
stroke is deleyed. The deley allows allows ample time for operator to apply the
necessary amount of upward pull to strike a blow of given impact.
Rapide series of blows may be delivered, limited only by time required to raise and
lower the fishing string.
For max. Effectiveness can be run with Super Jar.

Bowen Super Fishing Jar data:

OD x ID

P/N

Max jaring
losd (ton)

Max
tension to
yield (ton)

Torque to
failure (kgm)

DC weight
above jar
(ton)

6 x 2

79691

90,0

495

9052

3600-6120

6 x 2 3/8

145440

112,5

540

10700

4230-7290

7 x 3 1/16

72978

119,2

765

17830

5440-9220

38

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


FISHING BUMPER SUB
One proper fishing string includes and Bumper sub which delivers downward
blows necessary to keep string from stacking.

Inexpensive device designated to use in the fishing string.


Installed on fishing string immediately above the fishing tool.
Assures ability to release the fishing tool in the evant that it becomes impossible to pull
the fish.
Delivers the sharpe downward blow and transmit the torque that is required to break the
fishing tools engagement and release it from the fish.

OD x ID

P/N

Max tension to
yield (ton)

Torque to
failure (kg-m)

6 1/8 x 2 x 4 IF

10245

463,5

10520

6 x 2 x 4 IF 20 stroke

10257

463,5

10520

6 x 2 3/4 x 5 9/16Reg 20 stroke

10690

396,9

11357

39

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


LUBRICATED FISHING BUMPER SUB

Designed to withstand bumping action in severe fishing, light drilling and workover
operations.

Have vertical stroke 10 to 18 downward or upward.

Transmit torque during rotation and during bumping action.

Produce great impact in the either direction.

Uses for deep, severe fishing operations, light and medium drilling in caving, sticky
or heaving formations.

Provides immediate bumping sction to prevent cuttings and cavings from settling
and wedging the drill string.

Free stacked or keyseated drill pipe, reamers drill collars, bits and other tools.

Ideal for using in the coring operations (to break core sharply).
Bowen Lubricated fishing bumper sub data:
OD x ID

P/N

Max tension to
yield (ton)

Torque to
failure (kg-m)

6 1/4 x 3 1/8 x 4 IF 18 Stroke

39737

349,7

4470

6 x 2 x 5 FH 18 stroke

39778

508,6

5925

7 x 3 x 5 Reg 18 stroke

39752

574,6

8560

40

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


JAR INTENSIFIER

Designed to aid in difficult fishing jobs.

Part of fishing string works together with Hydraulic jar insuring that jaring blows are
concentrated at the stuck point.

Installed immediately above the drill collars.

Essential in shallow holes when there is insufficient pipe to achieve the necessary
stretch to strike a blow.

OD x ID

P/N

To open
fully
(ton)

Max tens.
to yield
(ton)

Recomm /
failure
Torque (kg-m)

DC weight
above jar
(ton)

6 x 2 x 4 IF 13 Stroke

55905

102,0

412,8

2880 (7800)

5310-7200

6 x 2 3/8x 5 Reg 13 Stroke

50720

77,8

456,2

3292 (10150)

5850-7875

7 x 3 1/16x 6 5/8Reg 12 Stroke

78964

90,0

729,4

9600 (30820)

5400-7200

41

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


SURFACE JAR
Mechanism very similar to Mechanical rotary jar. Surface jar
isdesigned to deliver a heavy downward blow against a stucked fish.

Good for service in the holes where keyseating is problem. When hole have
keyseatit is imposible to pull out drill collars. They must be driven back down into
open hole.

To strike downwards blow, tool is pulled upward.

Stroke is long 48 (1,2 m) and drill pipe below surface jar are stretched. This
stroke length permit the drilling string to fall heavily against the stuck point.

Tripping tonage is adjustable but limited on equivalent of drill pipe weight between
the surface and the stuck point (to avoid pulling still collars in the keyseat).

OD x ID

Seting
load
(ton)

Max
tensile
(ton)

Max
torque
(kg-m)

Max pump
pressure
psi

7 x 1 7/8x 5 FH 48 Stroke

0-100

380

7180

8000

42

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


SAFETY JOINT
Safety joint is tvo piece special connection that can be located at
any desired point of pipe string. Basicaly there is available two
types:
1.
Drill pipe safety joint
2.
Washover pipe safety joint.

Withstand all normal operations of string.

Transmit full torque in the either direction

Can be easy released separated to save all string above it.

Unafected by vibration, inertia of bit or DC


Design: consists of upper Pin Section and lower Box Section and
two packers. At pin section has broad helical male thread down for
connecting with box section. Box section has broad helical female
threads matching the male thread on Pin Section. Pin Section has at
top and bottom O-ring. Working pressire is 10000 psi.
Installing:

In drilling string enought far above the drill collars to prevent


compression loading and to avoid sticky or heaving
formations.

In fishing string above fishing tool so it is posible do


disconnect and change upper part of fishing string.

43

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


KNUCKLE JOINT
Uses if top of fish is located in the cavity and is out of
alignment
with the hole.

When is used prevents misruns and allow retrieval of lost


fish that otherwise is impossible to engage.

In fishing string is located immediately above the overshot.

Run into the hole to point near the fish depth and establish
circulation to flush out the tool.

Stop circulation, drop the restriction plug into the string.

Re-establish circulation to set plug in the position and


continue circulation to deflect piston and cause knuckling
action. Knuckling action and wall hook guide centered fish
inside overshot.

Any jarring, bumping, pulling or rotating can be fully utilized


during fishing with Lebus Knuckle joint.
If not available Knuckle joint it can be used benth drill pipe
above overshot to try perform this operation.

44

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

IMPRESSION BLOCK
Consists of soft lead insert in the lower end of the steel housing
are using in the fishing operations to enable determination of
configuration of top of fish in the wellbore.
It is lowered into the well at bottom of fishing string. When block
contact the upper end of fish, weight of string is further lowered
straight down (never rotate) against the fish.

45

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

FISHING MAGNET
Magnet are used to retrieve all types of small objects
having magnetic attraction, such as bit cones,
bearings, slips insert, milled cuttings, tong pins,
hammers etc.
Magnet can be run on wire line or on pipe.
Advantage of running on the pipe is possibility to
circulate and rotate which can be used to eliminates
the material settled over the fish.
Magnet can be equipped with Lipped Guide or Mill
guide.
DITCH MAGNET
The effective means of trapping and removing
ferrous metal particles from drilling mud especially
during milling. Ditch magned is inserted into the flow
line.

46

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


ROPE SPEAR AND GRAB
Rope spear can be run on the wire line or pipe
string to recover logging cable or wire lines.
Rope spears can be with one, two or thre prong.

At one prong, barbs are distributed venticaly


and circullary under 1800 or 1200.
Two or three prongs tool under name Grab is
run on the drill pipe or tubing and is good in
the cased gole . All barbs are directed inward
direction.
Select Grab with a barb diameter that is
slightly larger then the diameter of wireline
fish.

47

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


WASHPIPE or WASHOVER PIPE
Used for wash over fish and stucked tools. It is made from high-strength casing
fitted with flush joint, butt shouldered connections. When selecting washpipe size try
to obtain optimum clearance between fish and the inside diameter of washpipe and
in the annulusbetween outside walls of washpipe and the inside walls of the hole.
At bottom of washpipe is connected washover shor and on the top washover safety
joint or drive sub. Number of washover pipe, or length, depending on hole trajectoria
and formation characteristic arounf fish. Generaly it is not recommended more than
60 m of washover pipe in the open hole containing soft formation. In the big size
holes with adequate clearance it can be 150m long washover pipe tring.
Sometimes it can be run one bu one pipe. In the cased hole it can be few
hounderds of meters.
After finishing washover job, run fishing string with proper fishing tool.
There is very high risk of stivking washover pipes and their recovery is very difficult,
often trsulting in sidetracking or lost the hole.
Joint connection must be integral and can be External and internal flush (FJ WP) or
External upset (X-Line). Preferable is flush coupling.

48

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


Washover pipe joint connections:

Size of washover pipe ranging from 3 x 9,2 ppf to 16x109 ppf for max. Fish size 2 11/16 to 14 .
Some of most common washover pipe size are listed below:
Washover pipe size & weight

Hole size

Max fish OD

7 5/8 x 45,3#

8 x 31#

7 1/8

10 x 45,4#

12

11 x 54#

12

10 5/8

16 x 109#

17

14

49

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


CASING SWAGE
The casing or tubing Swage restores flattened or
partially collapsed casing or tubing in place to or
naer its orginal inside diameter. Most commonly
uses for tubing while for casing uses casing roller.
Swage is run on tubulars for swagging casing and
on wire line for swaging tubing.
Swage have cylindrical body with tapered lower
end.Its have ports for circulating and grooves for
mud channels.
Swage normaly is connected below bumper suba
and jars with drill collars for added weight. At ID
restricted section of casing bump swage into the
collapsed section until it lightly stuck, and then jar
it free. Repeat the procedure until casing restores
to or near orginal ID.
For more severly collapsed casing, a smaller
diameter tool may be used first.

50

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


CASING ROLLER

It is porefull simple tool for


restoring buckled, collapsed or
dented casing to its nominal
diameter and roundness.

Operates efficiently at very low


rotary speeds under maximum
weight and full circulation.

Consists of mandrel and a


series of eccentric on the body.

Each eccentric is fited with


heavy duty roller. Rollers are
maintaned in position by nose
cone.

For changing size and casing


weight simple change rolers.

When contact colapsed section


of casing increase rotary spid to
50-75 rpm , establish circulation
and lower slowly.

51

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


CASING PATCH Lead seal
cementing type
Utilize principles of engagement and
release as Overshots with features
that insures high performance and
economy.

Casing patch provides means to


replace a section of damaged
casing without having to remove
the entire casing string from the
hole.
When damaged casing section
has been cut and pulled, casing
patch is run on the bottom of
replacement casing to engage
that portion of the string wich
remained in the hole.
After engaging, an upward
strains pulls the tools outer
assembly upward while the
grapple carrier assembly
remains stationary.
Compression between the carrier
and the guide causes the lead
seals to flow around the casing,
forming a highly effective seals.

52

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR

Another type of casing patch is steel sleave type

Repairs holes in casing without cementing or


pulling the casing.

Patch is longitidunaly collapsed sleeve


appropirate length. Sleeve nominal OD is in
plus tolerance compating with casing ID, and
in the finall position patch slightly reduces
drift ID of casing string.

Sleeve is run on seting tool with swedge


device and place in position.

Swage is pulled trough the sleeve, expanding


it and prssing the sleeve firmly against the
inner wall of the casing.

The casing patch restricts the casing ID


slightly and is more commonly used in
production operations.

53

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


FISHING STRING
Fishing string is the complete downhole assembly used in a fishing operations. In fishing operations is
a higher risk of a drill string failure. It must be strong with minimum number of connection. Assembly
shoul be slick, without any stabilizer to reduce risk of hanging up caused by caving or sloughing.
Drilling jar and bumper subs are very effective if a assembly is stick below them positioned below 3 or
4 drill collars. Jar is always located above bumper sub. If position is reverse jar will cushion action of
the bumper reducing its efficiency.
Common fishing assembly includes (listed from top down):

Drill pipe or tubing from sutface to the botomhole assembly.

Keyseat wiper Use only if needed.

Accelerator (Jar intensifier) seldom used.

Drill collar 4 to6 joints to provide weight for bumping or jaring.

Fishing jar

Bumper sub can be and combined both in the one body.

Drill collar - 1 or 2 joints for assembly rigidity if needed.

Back off sub for rapid release of fish if is needed.

Tool to catch the fish.


MILLINF ASSEMBLY
Similar to the fishing assembly except catch tool is replaced with mill and 4-6 drill collars are run above
mill for weight and stability. Abole mill run and 1 or 2 junk subs.

54

PREVEN PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


WASHOVER ASSEMBLY
Similar to the fishing assembly except the catch tool is replaced with washover or mill shoe on bottom
of washover pipe. Always run washover safety joint. On drive sub, inside washover pipe can be
connected spear for catching the fish.
REAMING ASSEMBLY
Similar to the regular drilling assembly but has one or more reamers and sometimes stabilizer.
Number of reamers depends upon hole and formation conditions and the depth location and length of
section to be reamed. Hole opener with a pilot bit is safest tool to run on the bottom of reaming
assembly in order to prevent sidetracking.
Conventional reaming assemblyies for reaming on bottom or near bottom ere listed bellow:

Reamer at 9m Minimum risk of sidetracking.

Reamer at 9 and 18m.

Reamers at 9, 18 and 27m Moderately aggressive.

Reamer at 0, 9, 18 and 27m Very aggressive.

Reamers at 0, 3, 9, 18 and 27m Extremly aggressive and seldom used.


Drill collar reaming assembly for reaming is less agressive.
CLEAN OUT ASSEMBLY
Is regular fishing assembly but with one or two stands of drill collars and bit below the jar and bumper
sub with their associated drill collars. For cleaning out open hole use roller bit or fixed blade type. Hole
needs cleaning out because of cuttings accumulation, sloughing, formation swelling and similar
problems.

55

PREVENTION, FISHING AND CASING REPAIR


WIRELINE ASSEMBLY
Are used for various operatioons including fishing with wireline. Basic wireline assy., from surfaceto
rope socket for lowering and recovering tools and for working the tools:

Rope socket to connect the wire line to thr tools.

One or more sinker bars as needed for stability and weight.

Hydraulic or mechanical bumper jars.

Shear release tool if needed.

Catch tool.
For disconnecting the fishing tool assembly from the stack fish use shear pin.

56

FISHING PROCEDURES
Fishing operations in the open hole and cased hole, used fishing tool types are generally
similar. Formation problems almost not exist in the cased hole fishing. For cased hole
uses smaler size tools and it restricts selection.Successful fishing procedure requires
good knowledge of general rules on fishing and equipment used.
MILLING, DRILLING AND WALLING OFF
Common operations when recovering bit cones and other smal pieces of junk. Mills or
short-tooth, hard formation bits are used to drill on junk. Drilling or milling is rough with
high and fluctuating torque.
Bits are more effective in the walling off small pieces then mills and are more effective
when junk spins.
Concave mills tend to hold junk under the mill and grind it more.
Flat bottom mills tends to wall off pieces of junk.
Always run full size bits or mills.
Milling operations
High, constant torque indicates milling at optimum efficiency when milling large
pieces.Start milling with minimum weight and RPM and increase it with time.
Do not overtorque or use excess weight.
Have sufficient circulation to cool and flush the milling surfaces and carry out metal
cuttings.
Milling weight shoul be from 0,25 to 1 ton per inch of mill diameter.

57

FISHING PROCEDURES
Suggested rotary speeds when milling:
MILL OD , in.

Speed, RPM

MILL OD , in.

Speed, RPM

3 7/8 4

175

8 8 7/8

80

4 3/8 4 7/8

150

9 9 7/8

75

5 5 7/8

125

10 10 7/8

70

6 6 7/8

100

11 11 7/8

65

7 7 7/8

90

12 12 7/8

60

If junk or fish rotating under mill bottom side of junk become smooth. To stop rotating junk sharply
bump down string, or reduce milling weightat very low rotary speed, or reduce pump rate but be
carefull due possible cutting setling.
SMAL FISH
Bit cones, tong and slips dies, nuts, bolts and other small junksrecovering procedures depends on the
size, shape, depth, formation hardness and hole size.

Magnets are a close contact tool and less efficient on larger size jumkand junk with small contact
area (end of wrench). Less efficient in the soft formation due tendency of small pieces to bury into
the soft formation. If hole condition is complex due caving and cuttings use skirted magnet and this
material remove by circulating. Wireline magnets are less effective and run only at shallow depths.

Junk shots are seldom effective on the small fish. They are not recommended for use in the cased
hole, except special situations such as very large casing and small shot well centralized to
prevent casing damage.

Junk basket can be effective, especially in the soft formation. Use for recovering 2 or 3 bit cones,
wrenches, short piece of pipe and similar items. Carefully handle junk basket because retaining
fingers are fragile. When it is posible first cut 0,4 -0,5 m of formation core to serve as plug below
fish and then POOH. On the top of junk basket run basket sub to catch small pieces of metal.

58

FISHING PROCEDURES

Milling or drilling. Small pieces of junk


conventioanally are drilled and milled up with flat
bottom or concave mills or short toothed mill tooth bit
withv one or two junk sub above. Bits as IADC
CODE 3-2-1 (Hughes R7) or 3-3-5 (Security H77SG)
or 3-1-7 (Hughes JG7) are good choice due strong
short high density spaced tooth , stronger cone pin
and thicck cone shell. Carefuli drill with WOB= 2-4
ton and RPM 50-60 after 1-2 meters drilledrotary
torque should be reduced and ROP increased.Stop
drilling and pull out bit.
Walling off Small junk can be relatively easy in the
soft formation walled off. It is seldom cases that later,
when continue drilling, wallwd off small pieces of
metal falls into the hole and stuck drilling string.
Overshot If fish have neck of any type, try to catch
with an overshot.

59

FISHING PROCEDURES
LARGE FISH
Includes complete bits, short subs and similar sized pieces of metal. Fishing
tool selection depends upon shape and dimensions of fish.
Screwing in for bits or large junk having threaded connection on top. Full gauge
bit will not turn over if dropped in the casing.
If drop into open hole bit may or may not turn over depending upon hole
diameter and washouts.
Possible catching tool selection can be : short catch overshot to catch over
tapered thread; junk basket it it can cover fish; junk shot ot mill.
Preferred method is to mill and cut over object.
If can not catch large fish broke it on small jank and apply procedure for small
fish ot
complete mill by concave or flat-bottom mill.

60

FISHING PROCEDURES
DRESSING OFF THE TOP OF FISH
When top of fish is bent, twisted, flattened or
broken it must be dressed off and cleaned
before run fishing tool to caught and recover.
Best procedure is to cut off the top of the fish,
if it is possible, with an outside cutter or may
be with inside cutter.

If cutting can not be apply, mill top of fish


at short section with flat-bottom mill.

If there is enought clearance run skirted


mill which keep top of fish centralized.

If top of large diameter of drill collar is


inside casins and have not enought
clearance to run catching tool (overshot ),
use mill fith cutting material on the
bottom and inside to cut a fishing neck.

Another posibbility is to use combination


of flat bottomed and centered tapered
mills to mill larher hole inside drill colar
and later to catch with spear or taper tap.

61

FISHING PROCEDURES
LEAKAGE
Common problem after lost bit cone, and represent less problem.

Surface leaks can be detected with detailed visual inspection.

Downhole leaks can cause fishing job if not timely detected and is mote common on the drill pipe
connections (and pipe body) then on the drill collars. Main cause is improper tolol joint make-up
combined with abrasive mud. Rate of erosion is a function of fluid velocity, pressure, metal hardness
and fluid abrasiveness. Most leaks caused by fluid erosion develop relatively slowly. Laeks increase in
frequency and severity with increasing well depth due high pressure and greater tension. Pressure
reduction caused by leaking 5% at shallow wells and less in the deeper wells is critical.Time between
first occurrence of a leak and when it develops to the point of equipment failure can range from a few
minutes to several hours.

Leaking ocurs , allso during high pressure operations as squeezing and circulating out the kick and
drill string testing.
To prevent or to detect leaks:
Ensure that all tool joints are ing good condition and tightened to the correct torque.
Provide that pump smoothly operate with good pulsation dampeners at constant pressure.
Check the tool joints that are hard to make-up or break-on during trips. Boxes and pins coated with
mud indicate a developing or an actual leak.
POOH drill string immediately after a leak is suspected or detected. Do not rotate the drill pipe with the
rotary use drillpipe tongs or chain.
Leak can be almost always faund bu pluging bit nozzle with rubber balls or rags and wet POOH. This
is slow and sometimes dangerous and associated with lossing expensive mud. Another method is to
dump 4-5 liters of paint mixed with 5-10 liters of diesel fuel. When pull string (without wiper, paint will
float at top of mud and and can be seen on side of pipe.
Another method of locating small leaks is by pressure testing. RIH assembly with plugged bit and
pressure test pipe every 10-15 atands. When leak is detected, pull joint by joint and pressure test until
found leak.
After detect leak circulate as little as posible to prevent additional lamage.
62

FISHING PROCEDURES
WORKING STUCKED TOOLS
Wall sticking occurs immediately, while in other cases process is more gradual and is indicated by
increasing drag and / or torque. When have stuck try to movr TJ above rotor and to connect kelly and
provide circulation.
Working stucked downhole tools is an procedure, first applied after stuck, of moving working
string up or down or rotating.
Principles are same for open hole and for cased hole. It is preventive action and also and fishing
procedure.
Continuous working string was successful many time in the past. Problems arrises if working too
short or work them incorrect.
Working creates stress reversals on the formation at the stuck pointwhich can be effective in the
releasing stucked tools.
Knowing where, how and why assembly is stuck helps to determine the correct procedure.
Small amount of caving material can stuck assembly if not start working and circulating streing.
If assembly is keyseated, early working may release it before it becomes wall studk.
Immediately working at max force levels apply only if you are shure that have wall stacking by
bumping down and jaring up.
Actions during working stucked downhole assembly:
Working to establish movement or circulation
Working up
Working down
Combination of above mentioned procedures.
BASIC RULE OF WORKING STRING: STUCK DURING POOH WORK DOWN, WHEN RIH
WORK UP.

63

FISHING PROCEDURES
Maximum allowable force depends upon the type
of loading, pipe weight, grade and condition, tool
joint strength, type and amplitude of applied forces
and length of time the assembly is subjected to
the
force. Also important factor are hole size, gauge,
depth, deviation, dogleg,keyseat and caving.
Tension, compression and torque. Upper section
of workung string is weakest component.
Lower section is subjected to compressional
forces.

Drag in open hole dampens applied forces.

Caving causes additional stacking.

Working can create keyseats and cause


caving

Above yield strength pipe start to stretch.

At loads 10-15% above yield strength will not


fail.

Reommendation is to apply tensile loat 1525% below yield strength.

Working pipe downward often is most


effective means to release stuck tools in the
case of keyseats and caving. Pipe string is
more stronger to compression then on the
tension. Max set down weight is weight of
75% bouyanced string length above free
point.

64

FISHING PROCEDURES

If string is stacked in the drill collars it assumes that free point is in the top of DC.
When seting weight down only portion of the total weight actually is applied to the stuck point.
During assembly lowering its coils around inside hole and drag over inclined and crocked hole
sections, and frictionsuports some pipe weight.

Actual amount of weight suported by friction can be eatimated by observing the weight indicator
as assembly is lowered. When there is no friction, weight will be transfered to the stuck point over
relatively short travel distance equivalent to stretch and compression in the pipe. With friction,
assembly weight is transfered over long distance sugesting on combination of bending and
coiling inside wellbore.

Impact loading can be very dangerous.


How long to work?
Work string until one of following occurs:
Stuck pipe released or fish recovered
Assembly was worket to the point where is a high risk of failure. POOH to inspect and service.
Hole condition have deteriorated and additional working increases risk.
The pipe has been worked for an extended period without progress (6-12 hours in cased hole
and 8-16 hours in open holes).
If jar and bumper sub works and are positioned a short distance above the stuck point, working time
can be longer.
Deteriorating hole conditions as sloughing, caving and bridging limit the safe working time. Circulating
while working is imperativ.

65

FISHING PROCEDURES
Working procedures and techniques
Working procedures uncludes one or more of: reciprotating, rotating and circulating.

If drilling tools can perform one or two of reciprotating, rotating or circulating, even to a limited
extent, there are a reasonably good chances that assembly can perform anf other functions.

First priority is to establish circulation, followed by movement.

Working procedures and techniques are similar for open and cased holes.

Assemblies stucked in the open hole are larger and stronger and they are worked at higher forces.

Open hole have more problems requiring additional precautions to prevent additional stack.

In open hole are fewer hole problems and reduced drag and torque and bumping down is more
efficient. Establishing circulation is less critical.

When determining method of working pump pressure and torque are important.

If pulling slight tension on the pipe cause a pressure increase, the pipe pulls tightly into the stuck
point and this is upward limit.

Repeared working the pipe in a slow, easy manner, using pump pressure as an indicator, and
insuring continued circulation often releases the assembly by washing and eroding the caving
bridge or other material causing sticking. Always run pump slowly at first.

Torque or rotation can be carefully applied while pipe is in the free point position. Torque may
increase with additional pull or setdown, but not torque so hard to stop rotation.

Initial working direction is almost in the all cases in the opposite direction of pipe movement
immediately prior the stack.

If bit stuck on bottom start working upward.

Keyseated drill collars work downward.

Packers, retrievable plugs and similar tools work in the their releasing direction. Stuck hookwall
packer upward and most tension packers downward.

66

FISHING PROCEDURES
Working to establish movement and circulation.
First action if assembly is completely stuck and cannot be
circulated. Establishing circulation is more easy if stuck assembly
can be rotated or moved even a small amount.
Procedure presented here generally apply to stuck in the open hole
(not apply to release key-seated or wall stuck pipe).

Plugged bit frequently is associated with stuck drilling assembly


and this problem is different then annular restriction. To detect
plugged bit pump small amount of mud to pressurize the system
and if got sharp increase in mud pressure and very limited flowback bit is plugged.

When pipe and bit is open, large volume of mud is required to


pressurize system.
To unplug bit use string shot to blow nozzles out.
To establish circulation when bit is off bottom

First move assembly so that free point is at the stuck point.

Then pressure up to about 150 to 250 psi (10 17 Bar)- min.


accurate reading of gauge. When establishing circulation use
low pressure to allow mud to seep trough caving material and to
prevent pumping into the formation. High pressures have piston
effect and seals annular.

Start working stuck tools with 3000-5000 lbs (1,5-2 ton), first by
overpull and then setting down same amount. If there is some
pipe travel, continue to pull and set down with same weight next
one hour or more with monitoring pump pressure.

67

FISHING PROCEDURES

Start circulation can be detected by pressure decline. In that case restore pressure to the same
low level.

Continue working and pressure restoring.

Gradually increase pressure while continue to work the pipe until pump runs until continually.

Continue until full circulation is establish.


If this procedure is ineffective:

Leave pressure at low level and apply right hand torque to obtain rotation.

If kelly is connected apply torque by rotary or use rotary tongs. DO NOT USE ROTARY SLIPS.

First try to rotate stuck pipe with weight of neutral point at free point.

If pipe not rotate, apply a low level of right-hand torque 20% of maximum allowable.

Hold the torque and work pipe at 1-2 ton of overpull and set down. Check torque and monitor
circulation.

If torque decreases restore torque to original level and work string again.

If torque does not decreases, apply additional torque and work string again.

Gradually increase the torque to maximum safe operating limit.

If observe any progress in the establishing pipe movement or circulation continue it.

If after one hour no progress, increase pump pressure to 400-500 psi (25-35 Bar) and continue to
work the pipe and torque periodically.

After 10-15 minutes increase working load to 10000 lbs (5 tom).

If this is not effective after one hour, try higher pressure for short period of time DO NOT EXCEED
LEAK-OFF PRESSURE.

If there is no progress continue working string with pressurized string at 500 psi (35 Bar) or just
bellow leak-off pressure. If pressure reduces restore it.

After one hour increase working load at 20000 lbs (9 ton) and continue working and torque .

If procedure is ineffective, increase working load in steps of 10000 lbs ( 9 tons) each 1/2-1 hour.68

FISHING PROCEDURES

IF BIT IS ON BOTTOM MOST WORKING WILL BE UPWARD.


IF ASSEMBLY HAS BEEN PULLED UP INTO A TIGHT HOLE, MOST WORKING WILL BE
DOWNWARD.
IF STRING STARTS TO MOVE DOWNWARD WORK STRING IN DOWNWARD
DIRECTION.
IF STRING STARTS MOVING UPVARD WORK STRING IN THE UPWARD DIRECTION.

WORKING WITH JAR


Working with jar in the string is possible on several ways:
1.
Pull the pipe upward against the stuck assembly to the tripping weight and wait the jar to trip
and deliver a sharp upward blow. Pipe weight reduces slightly after jar trip due to the
elongation of the jar.
2.
Pull pipe to the higher level of overpull after jars trip.
3.
Pull the pipe steady to the maximum weight.
Adjust the rate of pull so the jar trip at the desired tripping weight. Then lower the pipe to reset the jar
and pick up again to repeat the jarring action.
Working with bumper in the string is similar procedure as with jar. After bumping stroke, set additional
weight down to release the fish.

Start jarring or bumping at overpull levels 10000 lbs (9 ton) and work string one hour. If no
result increase overpull (or set down for bumper sub) for 5000-10000 lbs (5-9 ton).

Start working upward at force level 10-20% of the weight of the pipe to free point. Next
increase to be 10-20%.

69

FISHING PROCEDURES

Final working procedure


Apply when other working procedures have been unsuccessful. First ensure that fish is worked at the
maximum force level longer period of time in the direction normally required to release it (for stuck but
upward and for tension packer downward). For final working REVERSE DIRECTION.

Work in the new direction for longer period or combine longer and harder compared with working
in prior direction to overcome effects of previous working.
EXAMPLE: Consider that assembly was stuck in suspected caving while picking up after
connection and after attempting to move it and gain circulation. Absence of circulation eliminates
wall sticking. Assembly was worked down a several hours without releasing. Now, work it up.
Initial working the assembly down have wedged it. To work assembly up, it is necessary fist to
work up certain time to overcome the additional sticking effect that may be caused by previous
working it down (to regain effect of working it upward).

If this is unsuccessful, and have jar and bumper sub in the string, start working in the both
direction at maximum force levels for the extended period. Consider perforating to establish
circulation, but continue working.

If assembly does not have jar and bumper sub, consider backing/off and running a fishing string
with jar and bumper sub to continue working in the more efficient manner.
Working wire lines
Similar as with tubular except working options are limited to reciprocating action. Without wire line jar
and bumper sub wire lines are worked by stretching and slacking off the line. Working action is more
effective with bumper sub and jar. Weight bar increases their efficiency.
Working starts with steady upward pulls followed by slacking off , by low force level that gradually
increase to the maximum safe operating limit. If fish can not be free, release by shearing shear pin in
the rope socket and try other fishing methods.
70

FISHING PROCEDURES

PARTING THE FISH


When down hole assembly cannot be released by
working or spotting releasing fluids, next step is to
part the stuck assembly. Best method of parting is that:

Which permit catching the fish in the easiest


manner,

Allows using the fishing tools which creates


strongest connection, and

Can be performed at the least time with least risk.


Before parting prepare Plan of general fishing
procedure. Plan should include where, why and how to
part the assembly. Also, before parting, consider other
alternatives.
Where to part?
Part stuck down hole assembly as deep as possible to:

Save as much as possible hole if fishing job is


unsuccessful,

To recover maximum length of pipes, and

To leave a minimum amount of fish into the hole.

Whenever it is possible cut the fish in a straight,


in/gauge hole section to avoid bypassing.

Part fish 20-30m above or bellow casing shoe.

Part stuck DP one or two joint above stuck

Cut pipe1-2m above stuck if fish is w/o fishing neck.

71

FISHING PROCEDURES
Backing-off
Common and preferred method of parting stuck assemblies. Leaves three options of catching the fish:

Screwing in very strong catch

Overshot strong catch

Spear moderate strength catch.


Regular back off
Uses string shot, very effective procedure on shouldered tool joint.

The impact of explosion jars the mating TJ shoulders loose so can be rotated to the left and separated.

Not so successful with casing. Use of larger charges can be a higher risk of damaging of coupling.

Parting can be et one to three joint above charge position.

Back-off assembly includes collar locator, free point indicator and string shot on the shielded cable
Free point is determined by changing tension or torsion in the pipe.

Place left-hand torque in the pipe and work it down. Torque must be at the tool joint which backed-off.

Amount of left-hand torque depends upon pipe size, depth and strength of back-off charge.

Locate next TJ above free point with collar locator.

Position the string shot opposite the tool joint and detonate it.

Pool strung shot assembly carefully out of the hole.

Rotate pipe to the left to unscrew the connection and POOH.

Sometimes pipe unscrew and release the fish when string shot is detonate. Lift pipe up 4-5m, then pull
the string shot assembly carefully followed by pulling the pipe.

Do not set the pipe back down with string shot in the hole to avoid cutting cable.

Good practice that use kelly, if possible for torqing and run in cable trough 2 port at fop of swivels
goosneck.

72

FISHING PROCEDURES

73

FISHING PROCEDURES

Outside back-off
Back-off shot can be used on the outside of the tool joint or connection to be released, but this method
is less effective. This method used widely to back-off tubing, drill pipe and casing sizes up to 5 .
Procedure is like an inside back-off except the string shot is positioned on the outside of the tool joint.
Have many disadvantages as:

Charge distribution is not effective due non-concentric configuration,

It is difficult to run into and down the annular space due limited space, string shot can not fall frilly

Risk of collapsing casing

Use restricted to shallow depths and low pressure conditions.

Blind Back-off
Procedure for backing off the pipe without string shot, only by manipulating the pipe from surface.
Used when inside of pipe is plugged and can not use outside cutter due lack of clearance. Assembly
rotates to the left until it unscrew and release. If procedure applied correctly, the pipe can probably be
parted within few joints of desired point. Procedure is as follows:

Find the free point with pipe-stretch data.

Tighten the tool joints to ensure that all connections are tight. Apply max RH torque with gradually
moving free point of the pipe from surface downward. Tightening procedure IS VERY IMPORTANT.
Apply and hold torque by rotary tongs, pull pipe upward 5 ton of initial free point and repeat this 510 times. If torque reduces, joints are tightened. Continue on that way to the surface. All time hold
torque, if necessary restore it. When finish, release right hand torque and work string with
unlatched hook to remove all excess RH torque. Work string from the set down weight to an
overpull of the least 20 ton above the free point weight.

74

FISHING PROCEDURES

Place and work down left hand torque to remove all hang on. Left hand torque will decrease due
string hang on. Add LH torque.
There is risk of backing off high with associated pipe movement or jump. Tie the elevator latch
securely closed.
Work LH torque down by picking up to 5-10 ton of overpull at the point to be back off.
Turn the work string about one turn to the left.
Work the pipe from about 5 ton of overpull up to 15-25 ton for 15 min. or longer if hole is crooked.
Add another turn of LH torque and continue working.
Continue adding torque and working the pipe until about 1 rounds of torque per 300m of the
depth has been added.
Actual number of rounds depends on pipe weight, depth, hole deviation and dogleg.
Keep the free point in tension while working the LH torque down.
Start back off by continued working, gradually decreasing the overpull from about 15 ton of
overpull down to 2 ton or less.
If pipe does not back off, add left hand torque and work pipe until it back off.
If pipe back off to high it can be seen on weight indicator.
Reconnect pipe by screwing in and repeat procedure spending more time on the tightening. It
can take few hours. It may be necessary to bumping string during tightening.

75

FISHING PROCEDURES

CUTTING
Most practical method of parting stuck assembly. Methods of cutting are:

Chemical cutter better than mechanical cutters/ faster run, positive cutting action, les risk. Uses
to cut smaller tubular, cut is clean and fish can be catch with overshot without dressing off top.
RIH on the wireline.

Jet cutter It is inside cutter run on the wireline. It is special shaped charge. Cut is rough and
there is risk of casing damage in the case hole.

Mechanical cutter cut and release a section of tubular and mill or cut out a section of casing.
Frequently uses as inside cutters to cut casing and as outside cutter to cut tubing. Knives, cutting
bars or blades are forced outward from the cutter body while it being rotated *inward for an
outside cutter. Simple to operate. Main problem is that knives or blades can be easy to break and
another problem is size of tool due close tolerance.

Explosives Usually used when separating casing during abandonment operations. explosive
damage one or two joints.

Shear rams When pipe must be dropped under emergency conditions. They are part of BOP
stack, bottom most rams cavity. It is drastic action with severe consequences. Uses only under
blowout conditions where is no other method of shutting-in the well.

76

FISHING PROCEDURES

CATCHING FISH
Catching fish involves selecting the appropriate method and tool. There is four basic method of
catching fish:

Screwing in

Swallowing the fish,

Outside catching

Inside catching

77

FISHING PROCEDURES
Catching fish in the open hole have high risk of problems due to out-of-gauge or crooked hole.
When have choice to select method of catching, main criteria is:

Ease taking hold of the fish,

Strength of connection to the fish and

Tool strength.

Before running fishing string into the hole take accurate measurements of the length of fishing
string and depth of the top of fish.
Ensure going over fish carefully to avoid running tools beside fish.
Keep top of fish clean
Minimize rotation in the 10-15 m interval above the fish.
Last 2-4 m above fish circulate at reduced rate.
Tag fish slowly with about 2-3 ton to confirm does fish moving or not.
While circulate pull string 10-15 m above the fish and start circulating with normal rate.
Again reduce rate of circulating, lower and tag top of fish lightly before catch.
Safety joint must be run immediately above the catch tool for case to release fish is necessary.

Cleaning inside fish


This is high risk procedure. Inside of fish must be clean to conduit operation inside it. Inside the fish
can be plugged with drill cuttings, caving or sloughing material. This often bridge in the top of fish.
Prevent this by limiting clean out procedures immediately above fish.
Cleaning can be performed by coiled tubing or stinger pipe. Disadvantage of stinger pipe is relatively
weak, small diameter and easy breaks.

78

FISHING PROCEDURES
SCREW IN
Most common method of catching the fish that provide very strong connection and engages the fish
relatively easy. Procedure of screwing in is:

At bottom of fishing string connect a tool joint thats mating the one at top of fish.

RIH and stop 7-8m above the top of fish, circulate and condition hole.

Slowly lower the fishing assembly with slow rotation and reduced pump rate and engage the fish.

At surface indication of engaging the fish can be monitor small noticed by small weight loss on the
weight indicator, by increased torque and by increased pump pressure.

Tighten the connection with safe, maximum right hand torque.

Test the catch by pulling 5-15 ton over the weight of fishing string.
Swallowing
Good method of catching and recovering small fish. Fishing tool passing over and completely encloses
the fish. Swallowing tools are junk basket, outside cutters and washover pipe.

OUTSIDE CATCH
Two main outside catching tools are Die collar and Overshot.
Die collar perform outside catch but is seldom used because it is very difficult to determine how much
of torque to apply during catch and pulling must be performed with restricted force.
Overshot is very flexible tool. They can be dressed with slips, spiral or basket. Available in the wide
range of sizes and lengths and one tool can catch few different sizes. Can be fitted with pack-off for
Pressurization. Have different type of shoes. Standard overshot (FS series) are enough strong as tool
joint at screw in connection and can be used bumper sub and jar.
Weakest point on the overshot is fine thread connection at top of body.

79

FISHING PROCEDURES

Dont never bump or jar overshot downward,


except when wont to release from fish.
When are in the doubt about slips size, run
slightly larger size slips.
If install pack off it is possible to circulate
trough bit with engaged overshot.
When RIH overshot stop about 7-8 m above
top of fish, circulate and condition hole as
needed.
Slowly lower overshot, while slowly rotate,
over top of fish.
After catching fish, test the catch by pulling
5-15 ton over weight of the fishing string.
Work the fish to release.
To release overshot from fish ROTATE
RIGHR HAND torque and BUMP DOWN.
In the open hole , if it is crooked it can be
difficult to catch fish with top laying on the
side or in the washed section of hole.
For high degree of misalignment run
overshot below a bent joint, bent sub or
knuckle joint.
In the extreme cases of misalignment run
overshot below a highly bent joint or place
pup joint extension between the overshot
and knuckle joint or bent sub.

80

FISHING PROCEDURES

INSIDE CATCH
Basic tools for inside catch are spear and taper tap. Uses
when clearance of outside the fish is to small for outside
catch tool and if they are enough strong to recover large
diameter fish.

Taper tap is used to catch smaller, lightweight fish.

Smaller spears catch tubing , smaller size drill pipe


and lightweight fish.

Larger spears catch large OD drill pipe and casing.

Spear is strong tool but not as overshot and screw in


catches.

Basically spear uses inverted slips.

To release spear, body of the tool must be moved


down a short distance so that slips retract and
release the fish.

81

FISHING PROCEDURES
WASHING OVER
Is procedure of circulating and drilling (washing over) a stack fish with larger diameter tubing (casing).

It is high risky procedure, often last resort operation. Before washover operations try working the
fish with jarring and bumping.

Risk increases with closer tolerances, greater depths, longer section of open hole and higher
mud weights.

If washover pipes left in the hole around the fish as second fish it is difficult to recover. Only
alternative is to sidetrack.

Inside diameter of washover pipe must have ID enough large to pass freely over fish. And OD
enough small to safely run into the hole.

Length of washover string depends upon hole conditions and relative clearances.

In large size straight holes that are in good conditions with minimum formation problems
maximum can be 150-250 m.

In the smaller holes with formation problems run maximum 100 m of the washover pipe.
Washover procedure:

Connect washover pipes on the bottom of fishing string with appropriate type of washover shoe at
bottom. Between fishing string and top joint of washover pipe insert washover safety joint or drive
sub.

RIH to within 8-16m of the top of the fish, circulate and condition the hole.

Start lowering with reduced pump rate while rotating slowly. Clean hole around top of fish and
washover section covering fish or until top of washover pipes is near top of fish.

Circulate to flush cuttings out of the hole and then pull washover pipe out of hole.

Catch fish with standard fishing tool.

If fish is washed over completely then work fish if necessary. If it is only one section of fish is
washed out, catch fish and try to release by working, jarring and bumping. Is not released, back
off and recover free section of fish and continue washover operation.

Sometimes when washover stuck section of fish it fall to bottom.

Washover operation with spear inside washover pipe connected on bottom of drive sub is high
risky operation.

Washing over with high ROP can overload the mud system with cuttings.

82

FISHING PROCEDURES

PLUGGING BACK AND SIDETRACKING


If wasover operation was unsuccessfully next operation is plugging back and sidetracking. Any hole
from vertical to horizontal can be sidetracked. Complete operation on setting plug, dressing off and
sidetrack last 4-6 days.
Plugging back is operation of setting cement plug at point of kick off. Plug must be hard and immobile
and serves several purposes:

Provides firm, hard, immobile seat for directional tools

Closes the original hole to prevent reentering tools.

Stops problems from lower zones.


Kick off point must be selected carefully.

It must be enough deep to save drilled hole as much as possible,

Must be enough high to bypass fish at safe distance and

To provide that new hole is at safe distance from original to prevent problems with high pressures
or lost circulation.

Avoid very soft and very hard formations as kick off point.

Do not set too short plug. It must be dressed off so that original hole is properly sealed by plug.

Bottom of the plug should be at depth where the center line of original hole and new hole are
separated by a distance equivalent to a several bit diameters.

For high deviated hole or where original hole inclination is unknown, use longer plug.

Design slurry for an early, high compressive strength of 2500-3000 psi in 24 hours as minimum.

Slurry density should be equivalent to mud density of higher.

Use 25-30% good quality, larger size fracture send, test thickening time of slurry, catch sample.

83

FISHING PROCEDURES
Dressing off
Allow the cement plug to harden to required compressive strength. While dressing off the excess
cement above kick off point observe penetreting raste to determine plug hardness.
Approximate plug hardness while dressing off with WOB 500 kg/in.bit dia, 50-60 rpm and 1500 psi
(100 Bar) pump pressure:
Drilling Milling rate
Cement Hardness
3 m/h or 20 min/m eqvivalent 3500 psi very hard
6 m/h or 10 min/m eqvivalent 3000 psi hard
9 m/h or 6 min/m eqvivalent 2500 psi Firm
12 m/h or 5 min/m eqvivalent 1500 psi Soft*
15 m/h or 4,5 min/m
eqvivalent 1000 psi very soft**
18 m/h or 3 min/m eqvivalent 500 psi Not set***
* - Sidetracking questonable
** - Sidetracking very questonable
*** - Drill or circulate out and reset plug.

For dressing off plug use long mill tooth bit, PDC bit or cement mill run on a limber BHA.

DO NOT RUN the assembly into soft (green) cement to avoid sticking.

Clean out excess cement while it is soft to about 50-60 m above planed kick off point before
slurry reaches significant strength.

Dress off cement plug in the stages. Drill short section of cement and if it is soft wait additional
time to cement set.

Plugs usually have soft and hard sections. Stop drilling in the harder section.

If plug not hardened in 24-30 hours. Clean out and set another plug.

84

FISHING PROCEDURES
Sidetracking
Using deviation BHA sidetrack the hole. For blind sidetracking direction is not determined.

In the crocked hole or more highly deviated holes better is to deviate toward the low side of hole.

With very soft plug hole can be deviated by drilling with very low rates depending upon the bit,
plug hardness and formation. Procedure includes orienting the deviation tools, reducing
circulation rate and holding up on bit to reduce ROP to about 0,5-1,2 m/hour. Drill 3-5 m at this
ROP and then increase it slowly until hole is sidetracked and bit is drilling new hole.

In the hard formation it can be very difficult to sidetrack hole. Alternative method is to run a
deviating assembly with maximum kick off angle sub and reduced hole size. Sidetrack by drilling
Pilot hole with small bit at distance 3-9 m of new hole longer distance for harder formation.
Then open hole to nominal size. Distance of pilot hole is restricted to prevent a dogleg and
keyseat forming.

Cased hole can be sidetracked on the several ways. Most common procedure is to mill out
section of casing, set the plug in the casing, dress off and sidetrack hole trough section where
casing was milled. Another method is to use whipstock set on the plug, and then to mill window
trough the casing and then to sidetrack.
MILLING CASING AND TUBULARS
Common procedure associated with fishing and casing repair.

Casing is milled with inside casing cutter or section mills. Milling is performed under high and
fluctuating torque.

Milling long section of tubular fish (drill pipe, drill collar, tubing) in the cased and open hole is last
resort in the fishing operations.

Most of milled cuttings are circulated out of hole, but some of them remains in the hole packing
around the fish and wedge assembly, re milling cuttings and reducing milling efficiency. Use junk
sub, place wear ring or guide bushing on the section mill. Increase mud viscosity to 50-80 sec or
higher, use shaker screens 150-180 # and set 2-3 ditch magnet in the flow line.

85

OPEN HOLE FISHING


Equipment failures in the open hole can be ranged in the following groups:

Small objects such bit, bit cones, hand tools and tong dies.

Drilling and other down hole assemblies.

Packer, plugs and test tools.

Small diameter tubular.

Assemblies bent or broken above the rotary.

Miscellaneous.
Summarized common failures and sticking situations are:

Indicators

Type of failure
Caving Sloughing

Wall stuck

Keyseat

Fractures

Twist off

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Reciprocating

Minor - none

None

Down or Non

Free or none

Free

Rotation

Minor - none

None

None to free

None to free

Free

Circulation

Minor - none

Full

Full

Full

Full

Moving before sticking


Pipe action after sticking

Sloughing and caving normally are indicated by lack of circulation and usually can not be rotated or reciprocated
sometimes downward to a limited extent. Most frequent occurs at bit, stabilizers or top of drill collars.
Wall sticking is indicated when assembly cannot be reciprocated or rotated but circulation is generally full. Occurs when
assembly is rest, sometimes for less of 5 minutes. Most commonly is in the drill collars.
Keyseat usually when moving upward, at top of drill collars. Indicates by inability to move assembly upward. Completely
stuck or free to move downward or rotate, circulation usually normal. Keyseated assembly may become wall stuck.
Fractures commonly cause sticking during drilling when bit slips into the fracture and sticks. Circulation is not affected.
Miscellaneous includes metal objects (tongs dies, preventer bolts) fall into the hole and stuck assembly usually top
of drill collars. Not affected circulation.

86

TUBULARS FAILURED AT THE SURFACE


Surface failures
That are failures that occur in or above BOP stack. Usually it creates severe situations that must be
handled carefully to prevent further damage, los or injury. All this failures can be prevented. Some of
this problems are:

Bent pipe

Broken tool joints

Broken pipe or kelly


Bent pipe, without breaking and drop, may occur with or without slips in the rotary table and with pipe
held by elevator or held by friction in the rotary table. Also it is possible that pipe breaks or parted at
surface and do not drop into the hole and cannot be caught or picked up conventionally. Causes of
pipe failure at surface can be as:

Setting slips improperly.

Setting descending elevator on improperly set slips or on slip segment.

Slips set on fast descending pipe or top of slips are caught on the tool joint.

Incorrect use of double elevators, such as failure to secure both elevator bails correctly.

Hitting a joint setting in the rotary with a heavy object with drill collar, pulling more than one
joints into the V door, a stand of drill pipe or dropped traveling block.

Tubular dropped at the surface that do not fall into the hole.

Slip and tong die cutting.

Tool joint failure and breaking a tool joint against a locked rotary.

Tool joint set too high above the rotary.

Excessive or improper pulling with pipe tongs.

Inadvertently closing blind rams on pipe

Twist of bottom swivel sub.

Brake failure and human errors.


87

OPEN HOLE FISHING

When surface failure occurs a primary concern will be, depending upon nature of problem, to control
and secure the well.

Keep hole full and monitor hole and pit levels.

Inside preventer in the open position hold ready to use on the rig floor.

If pipe is bent do not use rotary tongs.

Prepare pack-off overshot or drill pipe spear for establishing circulation if it is necessary.
The casing side can be controlled with preventers if necessary.

If there is risk of kicking it is better to pull assembly and close pipe rams or do something very
risky drop the pipe and close well.

Picking up assembly reverses the stresses at the bend (fatiguing material).

Any bend of over 5-100 is strongly suspect, especially if it occurs with a relatively heavy assembly
over a distance of a few feet or less.

Carefully handle with bent pipe.

Method of catching assembly to prevent it from breaking and falling depends on the location of
bend relatively to rotary, whether the slips are in the rotary, BOP installation, clearance between
the bottom of the rotary and top of bell nipple.

The method or device used to catch the assembly must be installed at a point far enough below
the bend to ensure that this is opposite an undamaged section of pipe.

It is important to limit the falling distance and to catch the tubular as fast as possible.

88

TUBULARS FAILURE AT SURFACE


CASE 1: Tubular parted above rotary.
Well data: 2400m MVD, casing shoe 9 5/8 at 450m bit
size 8 .
During trip to change bit when RIH 300m off bottom slips
were set incorrectly one slip segment set on kelly
bushing recess and top of that segment caught under
the
descending elevator. Elevator tilted toward the
unsupported side and bent the drill pipe severely at
about 250 angle almost 0,45m below the bottom of the
tool joint. Pipe only bent not break. Driller decide to
pick up and set the slips. When pick up, pipe was broke
at the bend and dropped the drilling string. Fishing job
partially have success and due deteriorating conditions
in
the hole it was decided to set casing as deep as
possible. Another option was to sidetrack hole.

Case 2: Tubular bent in or bellow the rotary table

First step is to install a slip and spider or slip


type elevator on the top of preventer.

The method of repairing the failure depends on


specific circumstances.

89

TUBULARS FAILURE AT SURFACE


CASE 3: Tubular parted above rotor
The pipe broken off leaving short stub above slips. Catch is possible with slip type elevators, short grab overshot or
pipe spear.
Procedure- Pick up slowly while slips slide in the rotary (hold slips down). Continue until next tool joint is in position to
replace damaged joint.

Type of catch with pipe stub extending above the rotary.


Slip type elevator Catch pipe stub extending 12-18 (0,30-0,45 m) above the slips. After catching
pick up slowly allowing the pipe to slide upward trough the rotary slips or other catch tool. Hold the
rotary slips firmly in the rotary until the damaged joint is in position to be replaced Do not close
BOP rams until the tool joint is above the rotary and slips. Closing BOP can move pipe laterally
causing it to break and drop.
Overshot provide strong catch. Regular overshot without skirt and fitted with spiral grapple catch
stub of 8-12 (0,2 - 0.3 m). Non skirted short catch overshot fitted with basket grapple will catch 68 (0,15 0,20 m) stub. Procedure of catching and replacing damaged joint as above. Overshot
may crush the end of a tubular depending on condition of stub depending of pipe weight. Consider
use of spear.
Pipe spear catch short stub which is not possible to catch with slip type elevator or an overshot. In
the most case pipe spear is strong enough to lift the pipe string. Catch the tubular stub with pipe
spear and replace damaged joint using similar procedure as above. Condition limiting use of spear
are:
a) tubular stab damaged so that prevent spear to enter in the pipe ( then use taper tap or die
collar),
b) pipe spear too weak to lift the pipe string. Consider installing slip type elevator on the BOP or90
welding lift nipple.

TUBULARS FAILURE AT SURFACE


CASE 4: Square kelly broken off bellow top tool joint. Top of fish below rotary.
During preparing for connection, in the upper
position, square kelly was broken off below
top tool joint and falls so top of fish was bellow
rotary.

Top of bell nipple was cut and thick steel plate


welded 0,20m bellow top of fish with four plates on
the top as reinforces.

Drill collar elevator (passing trough rotary opening)


was positioned bellow thick steel plate and sting
was slowly picked up over rotary, insert bowls
inserted and elevator rest on the rotary.

Appropriate sub was welded on the top of broken kelly,


another kelly connected.

String was slowly picked up until upper most drill pipe


joint was over rotary to set slips.
Welding if applied use deep V welds with double or
Triple passes and strapped securely with narrow vertical strips.
Lift nipple (or cross over) to be same diameter as stub with cut
Off bottom connection

91

CASING REPAIR

CASING FAILURE
Objective of casing repair is to perform repair work so that the inside diameter is not restricted and
casing is strong as original was. When planning casing repair consider long producing life and avoid
restriction of inside diameter. If problems with casing occurs during running casing it is better to finish
job and, later to repair. Casing failures occurs due improper casing program caused by error,
unforeseeable future operating conditions or later change in the scope.

Not allowed in the casing program an extra string of casing on high risk wells.

Operational problems - Wrong positioned casing of different grades and weight (large number of
combined casing). Preferably to use 3 or less combinations.

Provide for casing wear at lower section of surface and intermediate casing usually exposed to
longer drilling times. Use heavier grades in crooked hole section.

Opposite flowing formation run casing with higher collapse resistance (salt section).

Always consider an extra string casing if encounter lost circulation zone or caving formations,
excess drug and torque and pressure transition zones.

Visual inspection after every move and before running.

Properly condition hole before running casing.

Restrict running speed to avoid fracturing formations and mud losses.

With casing on the bottom check gas cut mud.

With pay zones containing gas under overpressure more than 7% consider measures preventing
gas channeling trough slurry at beginning of cement tightening.

92

CASING REPAIR

PREVENTIVE MEASURES WHEN RUNNING CASING

Ensure that all rig equipment and tools for running casing are correctly sizes and in the good
conditions.

String up an extra lines to handling long, heavy strings of casing if needed.

Repair and replace cables and ropes with frayed or broken strands, tighten all clamps.

Check elevator latch functionality. Check locking pins, bolts and nuts securing elevator bails.

Check when last time casing running equipment is NDT inspected.

Connect crossover sub on the inside preventer that fits casing.

Pipe rams change with casing rams and pressure test BOPs.

Measure for correct make up torque.

Use drill collar clamp as safety device.

Check pick up lines and elevators. Catch the casing in the V door with latch up and hinge
toward the rig floor.

Install casing shoe and float collar correctly on the rack.

Keep hole covered until casing is actually run.

Never lower casing into the rotary while holding it with a lifting or pick up line.

Avoid cross threading during stabbing and make up.

93

CASING REPAIR
Types of casing failure and repair
Casing strings can be classified into:

Conductor or drive pipe

Surface casing string

Intermediate casing string

Production or completion casing.


Liners are more common in the production type of casing but may be included with intermediate
casing. All casing strings are subjected to all types of failures. Some failures tends to occur more
frequently in the one or two types of casing and less in other types.
Leaks
Occurs more in the surface and intermediate casing strings due pipe wear and often occurs with most
other failures. Leaks occurs due improper make up torque during running, drill pipe wear during
drilling, wear due to running stabilizers in the cased hole, mechanical wear while fishing and milling,
corrosion during the producing life of the well, packer jarring in the casing, dropping foreign object.
Split or Burst
Another group of problem which occurs from many causes.

Bumping plug too hard during cementing

Applying excess internal pressure and high tensile loading or during testing liner top or casing.
Test pressure should be limited to 90% of the burst rating for new casing and to 80% for used
casing.

Casing may split when hanging long, heavy liners.

Split casing due high density perforating especially in the higher strength steel.

94

CASING REPAIR
COLLAPSED CASING
Casing may collapse for various reasons:
Reduced strength due wear.
.

While squeezing or treating below packer set in


the casing when cement channeling outside
casing and pressure may be transmitted trough
channel and collapse casing.

PARTED CASING
Commonly caused by design, operations or
mechanical failure. Parting occurs usually at
connections during running (rapidly lowering and
abruptly stopped) long casing strings.
Other causes are excess wear, pulling under excess
tensile force while working stuck casing, bumping
plug too hard.

95

CASING REPAIR
To avoid casing collapse during squeezing set packer higher and pressurize casing-tubing
annulus.

When worn or poorly designed production casing is evacuated (emptying) the hydrostatic
head inside the casing. To remedy, produce the well under a packer with full head of fluid in
the annular space above the packer.

Shifting or flowing formations (massive salt sections) exhibit a plasticity or tendency to flow.

Earthquake zones and permafrost section require special collapse design factors and
operational procedures.
CASING REPAIR
Factors effecting casing repair are casing type and size, depth of failure, casing cemented or uncemented, is it possible to use an extra string, influence of formation and transition zones, age of well,
drilling or production phase well productivity and severity of failure. Questions defining casing repairs
are:
1.
How does the failure affect current and future operations? If failure may not have effect on
operations and there is no other hazardous conditions do not repair casing. As example:
small leak in the lower part of the intermediate casing where pore pressure at this point are
very close to that in the open hole below casing is not big problem. Later when run production
casing this problem will not exist more.
2.
Is inside diameter restricted? It is serious problem because it prevent the running full gauge
tools and other operations. Exception is big size casing or when operations are conducted
trough a lower liner (7 liner in the 9 5/8 casing). Damaged casing may be covered with
another casing string or a stub liner at later phase. Casing partially collapsed above a
conventional completion with the tubing and packer may not need repair.

96

CASING REPAIR

3.

Can the failure be repaired by normal future operations? As example drill pipe can wear a hole
in deep surface or intermediate casing. If it does not create problems when drilling hole can
be covered later with production casing or liner extended over hole.
4.
Can the failure be patched or packed off? In some cases casing can be repaired with simple
patch or by packing off the leak.
5.
Can the casing be plugged off and repaired later? Applied on the production casing if failed in
the lower section. By setting plug lower section can be isolated. Later if hole is deepened
failure of casing can be repaired.
6.
Can an extra string of casing be run? If it is possible failure can be repaired by running
another string of casing, liner or a stub liner.
7.
Is the failure inside another string of casing? Failure must be repaired. If casing is not
cemented, then cement it using primary methods. If it is cemented then ream it to full gauge
and squeeze if necessary.
Each casing failure must be evaluated before repair. Make simplest repair that will accomplish the
desired results. Always consider as alternative plugging back and sidetracking or plugging and
abandoning well.

97

CASING REPAIR
CASING REPAIR FLOW CHART

98

CASING REPAIR
SUMMARY OF THE MORE COMMON METHODS OF REPEARING CASING FAILURES
1.
Do not repair casing. If evaluation of the failure influence on the future operations show that
does not adversely affected these, then do not repair it.
2.
Loose casing shoe joint. Can be repaired by cementing the joint to prevent moving. Then
run full gauge mill and ream if necessary to ensure full gauge hole.
3.
Squeeze and clean out. Simplest method of repairing a casing failure such as a leak.
Squeeze section and run full gauge tool trough it. Disadvantage is that leaves potentially
weak section.
4.
Pack off the failure. It is method of isolating failure by two packer (can be and permanent
packer). Later, packer can be pulled if needed to run full gauge tool. It restrict operations
below the failure and reduces the working inside diameter of hole.
5.
Patch the failure. Uses thin wall steel cylinder corrugated longitudinally. Patch is run in the
cased hole on the setting tool and position over failure. Sleeve is expanded by pulling a
mandrel trough it to form a sheet of metal inside the casing. Patch reduce inside diameter of
the casing little.
6.
Repair parted casing in place. Establish circulation trough failed section and perform
primary cementing job under retrievable packer or cement retainer. As alternative it can be
perforated below failed section and to perform primary cementing job. Another option is to
squeeze the section, clean out, run full gauge mill and reams ends of casing. Another option
is to run alignment tool, realign the parted sections, then squeeze and drill out alignment tool.
7.
Pull, repair, return and reconnect parted casing. Best method of casing repair if applicable.
Back off or cut off casing below the failed section, pull it, replace damaged joint, RIH, screw
back into lower section ort make casing bowl connection.

99

CASING REPAIR
7.

8.

9.

10.

Run another string of casing or a


stub or tie-back liner. If casing is
enough large run another, smaller
casing string or liner.
Failure in the casing not cemented.
If possible pull casing, replace it and
run and reconnect it. Otherwise try to
cement the casing with a primary
cementing job.
Failure in cemented casing. Most
difficult casing repair situation. Usually
it is repaired by reaming the failed
section to full gauge and squeezing is
it is not too long section.
Salvaging casing. If well have to be
abandoned due casing failure it can
be decided to save some of casing.
Estimate value of saved casing and
cost of this operations.

ALIGNMENT OF CASING, ROTARY, MAST


AND CROWNBLOCK
Ensure that rig (rotary, mast and crown block
are properly centered and surface hole
vertically drilled to avoid problems during
deeper drilling.

100

CASING REPAIR
.

101