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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO
CONTROL SYSTEM

In this chapter, we will discuss about

Introduction to Control Systems


History of Control Systems
Response Characteristics
Open Loop Systems Vs Closed Loop Systems
Examples of Control Systems
Design Process
Evolution of Control Systems

INTRODUCTION TO
CONTROL SYSTEMS

Engineering gives big concern to understand and


control materials and natural forces for the
benefits of mankind
Control Engineering Graduates is expected to be
able to understand and control a small part of
environment ( systems ) to produce products that
is economically beneficial for society
Understanding and Controlling is complementary,
since systems must be modeled and understood

Todays challenges are modeling and controlling


complex and modern systems such as traffic
regulating, chemistry processes, robotics
systems, missile guidance, and space shuttle
On the contrary, this discipline has many
opportunities to control various interesting
automated industrial systems
Three major components in control process are
machine, economy, and industry

A simple example
A manual control system for regulating the level of fluid in
a tank by adjusting the output valve. The operator views
the level of fluid through a port in the side of the tank.
Fluid input

Valve

Fluid output

Task Difficulty: Human Versus


Automatic Machine
Tasks difficult for a
machine

Tasks difficult for a


human

Inspect seedlings in
nursery

Inspect a system in a
hot, toxic environment

Drive a vehicle
Repetitively assemble
through rugged terrain a clock
Identify the most
Land an airliner at
expensive jewels on a night, in a bad weather
tray of jewels

HISTORY OF
CONTROL SYSTEMS

1769 James Watts steam engine and governor


developed. The Watt steam engine is often
used to mark the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution in Great Britain. During the
Industrial Revolution, great strides were made
in the development of mechanization, a
technology preceding automation
1800 Eli Whitneys concept of interchangeable
parts manufacturing demonstrated in the
production of muskets. Whitneys
development is often considered as the
beginning of mass production

1868 J. C. Maxwell formulates a mathematical


model for a governor control of a steam
engine
1913 Henry Fords mechanized assembly machine
introduced for automobile production
1927 H. W. Bode analyzes feedback amplifiers
1932 H. Nyquist develops a method for analyzing
the stability of systems

1952 Numerical control (NC) developed at


Massachusetts Institute of Technology for
control of machine-tool axes
1954 George Devol develops programmed article
transfer, considered to be the first industrial
robot design
1960 First Unimate robot introduced, based on
Devols designs. Unimate installed in 1961 for
tending die-casting machines

1970 State variable models and optimal control


developed
1980 Robust control system design widely studied
1990 Export-oriented manufacturing companies
emphasize automation
1994 Feedback control widely used in automobiles.
Reliable, robust systems demanded in
manufacturing

James Watts steam engine

Early elevator Modern duolift elevator

A programmable robot assembly station

RESPONSE
CHARACTERISTICS

Some basic definitions


System : A Combination of several components
working together in order to achieve certain goal,
or purpose
Process (natural) : a sequence of continuous
operation or a development with a sequential
changes that characterized by slow step changes
in relatively fixed way and produces an end or
result

Some basic definitions (contd)


Process (artificial) : Operations conducted
continuously , which consist of several controlled
mechanism or movement that is systematically
pointed to a specific result
Operation : A controlled process (chemical
process , biological process , economical
process, etc.)

Some basic definitions (contd)


Plant : can be a part of a device that functions
altogether with other parts, to perform a specific
operation. (Every physical objects must be
controlled : nuclear reactor, heating furnace,
spacecraft, etc. )
Disturbance : signals that tend to randomly affect
the output value (result) of a system (there are
internal disturbance and external disturbance)

Some basic definitions (contd)


Feedback control : an operation that when
disturbances occur will reduce the difference
between output and several inputs of the system,
and later perform actions with that previous
difference as a reference

Block diagram of a control system

Input stimulus
Desired response

Control
system

Output
Actual response

OPEN-LOOP SYSTEMS
VS CLOSED-LOOP
SYSTEMS

An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating


device to control the process directly without using
feedback
Desired
output
response

Actuating
device

Process

Actual
Output

A closed-loop control system uses a measurement


of the output and feedback of this signal to
compare it with the desired input (reference or
command)
Desired
output
response

Comparison

Controller
Measurement

Process

Actual
Output

A negative feedback system block diagram


depicting a basic closed-loop control system. The
control device is often called a controller
Input
desired +
output
-

Error Control

device

Measured output

Actuator

Process

Sensor

Feedback

Actual
output

Open-loop system with disturbance

Input
Input
or
transducer
Reference

Disturbance 1
Disturbance 2
+
+
Output or
+
Process +
Controller
Controlled
or Plant
Summing
Summing variable
junction

junction

Closed-loop system with disturbance

Input
Input
+
or
transducer
Reference
-

Error or
Actuating
signal

Disturbance 1
+

Controller

+
Summing
junction

Disturbance 2
+
Output or
Process +
Controlled
or Plant
Summing variable

Output
transducer
Or Sensor

junction

Multi Input Multi Output System

Desired
output
response

Controller

Process

Measurement

EXAMPLES OF
CONTROL SYSTEMS

Automobile steering control system

Position control system

Temperature control system

DESIGN PROCESS

Establish control goals


Identify the variables to control
Write the specifications for the variables
Establish the system configuration and
identify the actuator
Obtain a model of the process, the
actuator, and the sensor
Describe the controller and select key
parameters to be adjusted
Optimize the parameters and analyze
the performance
If the performance does not meet the
specifications, then iterate the
configuration and the actuator

If the performance meets the


specifications, then finalize
the design

EVOLUTION OF
CONTROL SYSTEMS