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Chapter 4

Consumer Motivation
Consumer Behavior,
Ninth Edition
Schiffman & Kanuk

Chapter Outline

Model of the Motivation Process


Goals
Motives
Needs
Motivational Research

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Needs and Motivation


Needs are the essence of the marketing
concept. Marketers do not create
needs but can make consumers aware
of needs.
Motivation is the driving force within
individuals that impels them to action.

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Figure 4.1 Model of the


Motivation Process

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Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are
considered primary needs or motives

Acquired Needs
Learned in response to our culture or
environment. Are generally psychological
and considered secondary needs

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Is a body spray
an innate or
acquired
need?

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Goals
The sought-after results of motivated
behavior
Generic goals are general categories of
goals that consumers see as a way to
fulfill their needs
Product-specific goals are specifically
branded products or services that
consumers select as their goals
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Figure 4-2a
Goals Structure for Weight Control

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Figure 4-2b
Goals Structure for Weight Control

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Figure 4-2c
Goals Structure for Weight Control

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The Selection of Goals


The goals selected by an individual
depend on their:
Personal experiences
Physical capacity
Prevailing cultural norms and values
Goals accessibility in the physical and
social environment

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Discussion Question
What are three generic goals you have set for
yourself in the past year?
What are three product-specific goals you
have set in the past year?
In what situations are these two related?
How were these goals selected? Was it
personal experiences, physical capacity, or
prevailing cultural norms and values?

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Motivations and Goals


Positive
Motivation
A driving force
toward some object
or condition
Approach Goal
A positive goal
toward which
behavior is directed

Negative
Motivation
A driving force away
from some object or
condition
Avoidance Goal
A negative goal from
which behavior is
directed away

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Rational versus Emotional


Motives
Rationality implies that consumers
select goals based on totally objective
criteria such as size, weight, price, or
miles per gallon
Emotional motives imply the selection
of goals according to personal or
subjective criteria

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Discussion Question
What products might be purchased
using rational and emotional motives?
What marketing strategies are effective
when there are combined motives?

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The Dynamic Nature of


Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied
New needs emerge as old needs are
satisfied
People who achieve their goals set new
and higher goals for themselves

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Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot
attain a specific goal he/she anticipates
will satisfy a need
The substitute goal will dispel tension
Substitute goals may actually replace
the primary goal over time

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Frustration
Failure to achieve a goal may result in
frustration.
Some adapt; others adopt defense
mechanisms to protect their ego.

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Defense Mechanism
Methods by which people mentally
redefine frustrating situations to
protect their self-images and their selfesteem

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What type of
defense
mechanism is
this
spokesperson
using in this
ad?

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Table 4.2
Defense Mechanisms

Aggression
Rationalization
Regression
Withdrawal

Projection
Autism
Identification
Repression

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Arousal of Motives

Physiological arousal
Emotional arousal
Cognitive arousal
Environmental arousal

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Philosophies Concerned with


Arousal of Motives
Behaviorist School
Behavior is response to stimulus
Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
Consumer does not act, but reacts

Cognitive School
Behavior is directed at goal achievement
Needs and past experiences are reasoned,
categorized, and transformed into attitudes and
beliefs

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Figure 4.10

weblink

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Discussion Question
What are three types of products
related to more then one level of
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.
For each type of product consider
two brands. How do marketers attempt
to differentiate their product from the
competition?

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This ad reflects
a need for
accomplishment
with a
toothpaste.

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A Trio of Needs
Power
individuals desire to control environment

Affiliation
need for friendship, acceptance, and
belonging

Achievement
need for personal accomplishment
closely related to egoistic and selfactualization needs

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