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A

SEMINAR REPORT
ON

PLANNING AND SELECTION OF


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS
BY

XYZ
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Prof. ABC

INTRODUCTION

Modern construction projects are


complex in nature and success of a
project depends greatly on proper and
scientific planning . Before starting
every project its planning is done with
great care, as the efficiency of the
whole project largely depends upon its
planning. while planning each and
every detail should be worked out in
anticipation and should be considered
carefully.

ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF USING
MACHINES
These advantages may be listed as below:

Machines are capable of handling tough work


which may be beyond the scope of human labour
to perform. They can be expected to work with
fair degree of effectiveness even under adverse
weather, climatic or topographical conditions.

Where the work includes large quantities of


construction material to be handled over fairly
long distances, machine work may be cheaper
than manual work.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING
MACHINES
Often the overall cost of working of imported
machines has been found to be more than what
the first estimates showed. some machines
consumed spare parts costing as much as
200% or original estimates.
The disposal of the equipment profitably after
completion of a project may prove difficult,
resulting in capital loss to the project. Similarly,
disposal of large quantities of spare parts for
absolute models may pose serious problems.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE


SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION
EQUIPMENTS

SUITABILITY
OF
JOB
CONDITIONS:
The
equipment must meet the requirement of the work ,
climate and working conditions.

SIZE OF THE EQUIPMENT: Size of the equipment


should be such that it must be able to be used with
other matching units.

STANDARDISATION: It is better to have same type


and size of equipment in the project . so mechanics
will be able to maintain and repair better as they
become expert by handling one type of equipment.

AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT IN THE MARKET: The


equipment which is easily available in the market should be
purchased.
AVAILABILITY OF SPARE PARTS : while selecting a
particular type or make of equipment ,it should be ensured
that the spare parts will be available at reasonable price
throught the working life of the equipment .
USE IN FUTURE PROJECTS :When equipment completes
only a part of their useful life in a project ,it should be kept
in view that the equipment can be used in future projects
and may not become obsolete.

THE ECONOMICAL ASPECTS: While selecting


the equipment ,it should be considered that the
cost of unit production should be minimum.
Warranty or
manufacturer.

guarantee

offered

by

the

Use of standard components in the equipment.

EQUIPMENT THAT ARE USED FOR


SOIL STABILIZATION AND
COMPACTION
TAMPING ROLLERS
Tamping rollers are of ships or self-propelled.
Ships roller are quite effective in
of sand and clay.

compacting clays and mixture

They can not be used to compact the granular soil, such as sand
and gravel.

SMOOTH WHEEL ROLLERS


These rollers quite effective in compacting
granular soil, such as sand, gravel and crushed stone.
They are also effective in smoothening surface of soils
that have been compacted by damping rollers.

PNEUMATIC TIRED ROLLER


These are surface rollers which apply kneading
action to effect compaction below the surface.

They may be self-propelled or towed.


These units are frequently used to proof roll sub
grades and earth fill dams.

VIBRATING COMPACTORS
They may be of vibrating sheep's-foot, steel drum, and
pneumatic- tired rollers.
They are activated by separate engines mounted on this
rollers vibrations may vary form thousand to five
thousand per minute.

EQUIPMENTS USED FOR DOZING SCRAPPING AND LOADING


DOZERS
Claring lands of timber and stumps.

opening up pilot roads throught


mountains and rocky terrains.
Moving earth for haul distance up to
approximately 91.44 Mtrs.
Helping load tractors-pulled
scrapers.
spreading earth fill.
Backfilling trenches.
Clearing construction sites from
debris.
Maintaining haul roads.
Clearing the floors of borrows and
quarry pits.

LOADERS
Loaders are used extensively in construction
work to handle and transport bulk material, such
as earth and rocks, to load the trucks, to
excavate the earth as bulldozers etc.

SCRAPPERS
It is earth moving equipment
They are self operating to the extent they can load
haul and discharge material they are not dependent
on other equipment.

USED FOR EXCAVATION EQUIPMENTS


POWER SHOVELS
Power shovels are used primarily to excavate earth and
load it to trucks or onto conveyor-belts they are capable of
excavating al classes of the earth except solid rock without
loosening.
Power
shovels are commonly of
(0.25,0.38,0.76, 1.52.,2.28, 3.04) Cumts.

following

sizes

CRANES
Cranes are used to hoist and move the load from
one location to another. So it is necessary to know
the lifting capacity and working range of crane.

HOES
The term hoe applies an excavating mahcine of
power shovel group.
Hoes are primarily to excavate below the natural
surface of the ground on which the machine rests.

TRENCHING MACHINES
They are used for digging utility trenches for water, gas and oil
pipe lines, telephone cable, drainage ditches and sewers.
They provide relatively fast digging with positive controls of
depth and width of trenches by reducing expensive and finishing
to the minimum.

EQUIPMENT USED FOR HAULING

TRUCKS
They are used in handling earth,

aggregate, rock, ore, coal and other


material.
They have high capacity of hauling
and provide relatively low hauling
cost.

EQUIPMENTS USED FOR DRILLING &


CRUSHING STONE AGGREGATES
COMPRESSED AIR
Compressed air is used extensively on construction

projects for drilling rocks or other hard formation,


loosening earth, operating air motors hand tools, pile
drivers, pumps, mucking equipment, cleaning-etc.

JACK HAMMER
Jack hammer are hand held air operated type drills
which are used primarily for drilling holes.
Jack hammers are used for holes exceeding 3.48 Mtrs
deep and with a holes up to 75mm in diameter.

EQUIPMENT USED FOR


CONCRETE WORKS
CONCRETE MIXERS
Concrete mixers mix the ingredients of concrete to make

a mix of specified consistency.


Concrete mixers have capacity of (0.25,0.38,0.76,1.52,
2.28.3.04 ) Cumts.
Mixer drum speed is usually 18 to 20 rpm.

BELT CONVEYORS
Conveyor is capable of moving large quantities of concrete
quite rapidly.
Conveyors lend themselves to moving concrete over long
distances or up slopes.

CONCRETE PUMPING
The pump is an extremely simple machine by applying pressure to
a column of fresh concrete in a pipe, it can be moved through the
pipe if a lubricating outer layer is provided and if the mixture is
properly proportionate for pumping.

Pumps are available in


verity of sizes capable of
delivering at sustained rates of
10-150cubicyards/hour
effective pumping ranges from
91.44-914.4Mtrs horizontally or
91.4Mtrs vertical, some times
pumps are used to move the
concrete 1524Mtrs horizontally
and 304.8 Mtrs vertically.

CONCLUSION
We studied both the advantages and
disadvantages of using machines. So by proper
planning, selection, procurement, installation,
operation,
maintenance
and
equipment
replacement policy plays an important role in
equipment management for the completion of
the project. With growing use of machinery it
has become necessary for construction
engineers to be thoroughly familiar with the
construction application and up keep of the
wide range of the equipment.

Thank
You