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BASICS OF WELDING AND

WELDING SYMBOLS
CONTENT:
Introduction
Definition: Welding
Welding Terminology
Basics of Welding Symbol
Welding processes and letter designation

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Introduction

Weld symbols on drawings was originally published in 1982 based on


BS 499 (British Standards Institution 1980)
ISO 2553 (International Organization For Standardization 1979)
ANSI/AWS A2.4 (American Welding Society-1979) standards

the current standards are ISO 2553 1992, BSEN 22553 1995, and
ANSI/AWS A2.4 1998

Purpose of welding in drawing


- Shorthand for designers,
- Assures understanding,
- Universal language
- Provides information on Length, penetration, height, grove
type, number of welds, size of weld, filler material, weld
shape,
surface finishing,

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Welding Definitions
Welding is a process of joining two similar work pieces by melting
them together, usually with an additional filler rod of some sort to
take up space. Materials must be similar .
Welding is a joining process that uses heat, pressure, and/or
chemicals to fuse two materials together permanently
The American Welding Society (AWS) definition for a welding
process is "a materials joining process which produces
coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable
temperatures with or without the application of pressure or by the
application of pressure alone and with or without the use of filler
material".

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Welding Terminology
Welded joint types - Structural joints which are
established by positions of the connected
material relative to one another
Weld Types -Weld types define the configuration
of the weld and its underlying design approach.
Most common are
Fillet welds
Groove welds
Welded penetration (for Groove welds)
Weld symbols
Size of weld
Length of weld
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Welded Joint Types


There are 5 basic types of welded
joints:
Butt
Lap

Butt

Lap

Corner

Corner
Tee
Edge

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Tee

Edge

Weld Types

Weld types are categorized by the weld shape or the type of


groove that is filled with welding material.

Most common types of welds are:


Groove
Fillet
Plug
Slot

Other types of welds are:


Flange
Flare
Seam

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Weld Symbols
Its a small drawing that can be usually interpreted as a
simplified cross section of the weld as below,

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Fillet Welds
Fillet welds are theoretically triangular in cross-section
Fillet welds join two surfaces at approximately right angles
to each other in lap, tee, and corner joints

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Groove Welds

Groove welds are specified when a fillet weld is not appropriate for
the job

The configuration of the pieces may not permit fillet welding

A strength greater than that provided by a fillet weld is required

Groove welds are made in the space or groove between the two
pieces being welded

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Weld penetration
Groove welds fall into two categories
Full penetration
Partial penetration

Fillet

Plug
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the entire member cross-section is welded


just part of the member cross-section is welded

Full penetration
single bevel
groove weld

Partial penetration
single bevel
groove weld

Full penetration
double vee
groove weld

Partial penetration
single J groove
weld

Tack Weld (Top right)


A temporary weld used to hold
parts in place while more
extensive, final welds are made

Continuous Weld
A weld which extends continuously
from one end of a joint to the other

Stitch Weld (Bottom right)


A series of welds of a specified
length that are spaced a specified
distance from each other
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Location of Elements of a Welding Symbol

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Reference Line - Always Horizontal

Reference Line (Required element)

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Arrow Line - Arrow points to the line or lines on drawing


which clearly identify the proposed joint or weld area.

Reference Line (Required element)

Arrow (or
Leader)

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Tail - The tail of the welding symbol is used to indicate the


welding or cutting processes, as well as the welding
specification, procedures, or the supplementary information
to be used in making the weld.
Reference Line (Required element)

Arrow

Tail

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Welding Specification

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Arrow
side

Allaround
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Other
side

Melt through

Both
sides

Backing or
spacer

Basic Weld Symbols

Weld symbols are used to communicate the specific details and


requirements of each weld to the welder

Weld symbols are included on fabrication and erection drawings

Field Weld Symbol

Horizontal Weld Line

Tail
Note
(Indicating this is
a typical weld)

Leader Line
Length and Spacing of
weld (In Inches)
Size of weld
(In Inches)
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Basic Weld Symbol


(Fillet weld symbol shown)

Size of
Weld

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Size of
Weld

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Length of Welds

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Size of
Bevels

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8 Basic weld symbols

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Welding Process

Gas Welding

Arc Welding

Brazing

Soldering

Resistance Welding

Solid State Welding

Other Welding

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WELDING PROCESSES

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Gas Welding
Uses Flame from burning gas to create welding heat.

Arc welding
Uses an electric arc to create welding heat.

Soldering:
Bonding by melting a soft metal to the surface of pieces to be joined. Low
temperature. Good for joining dis-similar materials. Most common solders
are lead-tin alloys.

Brazing:
Similar to soldering, but uses a higher temperature to fuse the filler metal to
the work pieces. Stronger bond. (Includes "Silver Soldering") Work heated to
pre-melt temperatures

Resistance Welding
a group of welding processes which produces coalescence of metals with the
heat obtained from resistance of the work to electric current in a circuit of
which the work is a part, and by the application of pressure.
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Solid State Welding


a group of welding processes which produces coalescence at
temperatures essentially below the melting point of the base materials
being joined without the addition of a brazing filler metal. Pressure may
or may not be used.

Other Welding Processes


This group of processes includes those, which are not best defined under
the other groupings. It consists of the following processes: electron beam
welding, laser beam welding, thermit welding, and other miscellaneous
welding processes in addition to electro slag welding which was
mentioned previously.

Cutting
Work is heated to melting point and beyond, and "cut" by oxidizing
metal. (Literally burning it away).

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WELDING PROCESSES AND LETTER DESIGNATION


Oxyfuel Gas Welding
Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW )
Oxyhydrogen Welding (OHW )
Pressure Gas Welding (PGW)

Arc welding
Carbon Arc (CAW )
Flux Cored Arc (FCAW )
Gas Metal Arc (GMAW )
Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW )
Plasma Arc Shielded Metal Arc (PAW )
Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW )
Stud Arc (SW )
Stud Arc Submerged Arc (SAW )

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WELDING PROCESSES AND LETTER DESIGNATION


Soldering
Dip Soldering (DS)
Furnace Soldering (FS)
Induction Soldering (IS)
Infrared Soldering (IRS)
Iron Soldering (INS)
Resistance Soldering (RS)
Torch Soldering (TS)
Wave Soldering (WS)

Brazing
Diffusion Brazing (DFB)
Dip Brazing (DB)
Furnace Brazing (FB)
Induction Brazing (IB)
Infrared Brazing (IRB)
Resistance Brazing (RB)
Torch Brazing (TB)
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WELDING PROCESSES AND LETTER DESIGNATION


Resistance Welding
Flash Welding (FW)
High Frequency Resistance (HFRW)
Percussion Welding (PEW)
Projection Welding (RPW)
Resistance-Seam Welding (RSEW)
Resistance-Spot Welding (RSW)
Upset Welding (UW)

Solid State Welding


Cold Welding (CW)
Diffusion Welding (DFW)
Explosion Welding (EXW)
Forge Welding (FOW)
Friction Welding (FRW)
Hot Pressure Welding (HPW)
Roll Welding (ROW)
Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
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THANK YOU

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